فهرست مطالب

نگره - پیاپی 51 (پاییز 1398)
  • پیاپی 51 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • نیلوفر مایلی برجلویی، جواد علیمحمدی اردکانی* صفحات 5-21

    در این پژوهش با رویکرد بینامتنیت به تحلیل نگاره ها و اشعار دیوان انوری نسخه خطی 996ه. ق (مطالعه موردی کتاب جیبی اکبرشاه) پرداخته شد. با لحاظ کردن پیکره مطالعاتی فرهنگ و هنر ایران و هند گورکانی و هم چنین دو نظام نشانه ای متفاوت متن کلامی و متن تصویر، بینامتنیت بینافرهنگی و بینانشانه ای تبیین شد و متناسب با پیکره مطالعاتی پژوهش حاضر بینامتنیت تعریف شد. برای مطالعه نمونه آماری که شامل سیزده نگاره این نسخه خطی انوری و اشعار مرتبط با نگاره ها است در مرحله نخست به تحلیل شرایط زیرمتنی و پیرامتنی حکومت گورکانیان هند به ویژه دوران اکبرشاه پرداخته شد پس از تبیین متن کلامی، متن تصویری بررسی شد و مولفه های مهم و موثر میان متن کلامی و متن تصویری آشکار شد.این پژوهش با رویکرد بینامتنی با هدف بررسی مولفه های مهم متن کلامی و متن تصویری و بازشناسی نگاره های این نسخه خطی صورت گرفته است. گردآوری داده ها با استفاده از کتب و مقالات و داده های اینترنتی بوده است.در نتیجه با تحلیل بینامتنی تاثیر نگارگری ایرانی در ساختار زیبایی شناسی نگاره ها و تاثیر نقاشی شمال اروپا در دورنماسازی و رنگ گذاری و همچنین تاثیر نقاشی هندی در نگاره های این نسخه خطی مزبور قابل بازشناسی بود. رابطه میان متن کلامی با متن تصویری براساس اشتقاق و برگرفتگی بود که بافتار اجتماعی در متن تصویر تاثیر بسیاری داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: اکبرشاه، انوری، بینامتنیت، دیوان جیبی، هنرگورکانیان، نگارگری
  • فاطمه شریف الحسینی*، طاهر رضازاده صفحات 23-36
    یکی از مهم ترین مضامین به کاررفته در تزیینات آثار فلزی سده های میانه دوره اسلامی نقوش نجومی است که خود دو دسته صور منطقه البروج و نقش اختران هفتگانه را در بر می گیرد. همچنین نقش اختران در فلزکاری اسلامی همواره به دو صورت ترسیم شده است، گاه در ترکیب با صورفلکی منطقه البروج و گاه به صورت مجزا. در پژوهش حاضر صورت های مجزای اختران مدنظر است که دارای ماهیتی خیالی اند. مشاهدات اولیه نشان می دهد کاربرد این نقوش در آثار مکاتب فلزکاری مهم این دوره، که به ترتیب شکوفایی عبارت اند از مکتب فلزکاری شمال شرق ایران، مکتب فلزکاری جزیره و مکتب فلزکاری شمال غرب ایران، حائز تفاوت های عمده ای است. بر این اساس، هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی و تطبیق صورت مجزای اختران هفتگانه در آثار این سه مکتب مهم فلزکاری ایرانی در سده های شش و هفت هجری است. می خواهیم بدانیم چه تفاوت های سبکی و شمایل نگارانه ای میان صورت اختران این سه مکتب فلزکاری وجود دارد و این تفاوت ها ناشی از چیست. در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی نمونه های شاخص این مکاتب بررسی و ضمن مشخص ساختن ویژگی های هر یک از اختران هفتگانه به تطبیق و مقایسه آنها پرداخته شده است. اطلاعات و داده های مورد نیاز این پژوهش نیز به صورت کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده است. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه وتحلیل یافته ها و شواهد مبین آن است که رابطه مشخصی میان تصویرپردازی نقش اختران هفتگانه در آثار فلزی سده های شش و هفت هجری و خاستگاه های جغرافیایی آنها وجود دارد و باورها و دیدگاه های نجومی رایج در این مناطق در ویژگی های سبکی و شمایل نگارانه تصاویر اختران بروز یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: نقوش نجومی، نقش هفت اختر، فلزکاری خراسان، فلزکاری جزیره، فلزکاری شمالغرب ایران
  • علی وندشعاری*، اکرم بخشی، عبدالله میرزایی صفحات 36-51

    اقوام کرد ساکن خراسان یکی از مهمترین طوایف قالی باف در بین ایلات و عشایر ایران اند. مطالعه طرح و نقشمایه های به کاررفته در هنر قالی بافی این اقوام نشان می دهد که نقوش این قالی ها با آداب، رسوم و فرهنگ رایج در هر منطقه و نیز بر اساس ریشه فرهنگی و قومی خود دارای شاخصه های هنری و هویتی با ارزش می باشند. پژوهش حاضر با مطالعه طرح و نقش قالی های کردی خراسان و کردستان و تطبیق آنها، در پی پاسخ به این سوالات است که الف) ساختار طرح و نقش های قالی های کردی خراسان و عشایر کردستان چگونه است و ب) شباهت ها و تفاوت های طرح و نقش قالی های کردی خراسان با قالی های منطقه ی کردستان کدام هستند. از این رو هدف این پژوهش، شناسایی و بررسی ساختار فرمی طرح و نقوش قالی های کردی خراسان و قالی های عشایری کردستان و یافتن وجوه تشابه و تفاوت در آنهاست. روش انجام پژوهش توصیفی و با رویکرد تطبیقی بوده و تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات به شیوه کیفی جزیی نگر صورت پذیرفته است. جمع آوری اطلاعات در هر دو منطقه به صورت میدانی و کتابخانه ای بوده است. جامعه تحقیق، شامل 61 تخته قالی از منطقه خراسان و 17 نمونه از منطقه کردستان است که از این میان تعداد 15 نمونه اصیل از خراسان و 10 نمونه اصیل از کردستان به شیوه هدفمند انتخاب و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاکی از وجوه اشتراک و افتراق هایی در بین قالی های هر دو منطقه است و طرح هایی مانند «کله روسی» و «جلیل» نمونه هایی از مشابهت ها در دو منطقه است. بیشترین تشابه در ساختار ترنج، لچک و حاشیه و نقشمایه های آنها در طرح های ترنجی و لچک ترنج است. برخی افتراق ها نیز در چگونگی بکارگیری انواع نقشمایه های (هندسی، گیاهی و جانوری) در قالی ها به علت تغییر در موقعیت اقلیمی و جغرافیایی قابل مشاهده است.

    کلیدواژگان: قالی کردی، طرح و نقش، خراسان، کردستان، مطالعه تطبیقی
  • مجید دهشتی، مهدی خوش نژاد، محمد منان رئیسی* صفحات 53-63

    گره یکی از انواع تزئینات هندسی معماری اسلامی ایران است که خلق آن از ترکیب تعدادی شکل بنیادی تحت عنوان «آلت» یا «نقش مایه» صورت می گیرد. شیوه های ترسیم نقش مایه های گره به دلیل استفاده از ابزارهای متعدد ترسیمی و ترسیم الگوهای متمایز برای هر آلت، باعث پیچیدگی و زمان بر بودن ترسیم گره شده که در این باره هدف اصلی پژوهش، اصلاح و پیشنهاد روش جدیدی در ترسیم آلات و نقش مایه های گره، به جهت افزایش سرعت ترسیم و کاهش ضریب خطای روش های سنتی و مرسوم است. در راستای تداوم و تسهیل کاربست این میراث ماندگار در معماری معاصر ایران، این سوال مطرح می شود که چگونه می توان روش ترسیم جدیدی را با ابزار ترسیم محدودتر ابداع کرد.برای تبیین یافته های این پژوهش، از روشی ترکیبی استفاده شده است، به نحوی که گردآوری دادها به روش مطالعات اسنادی کتابخانه ای و روش یافته اندوزی و تحلیل محتوا، جستجو در روابط و تناسبات ریاضی و یافتن الگوی مناسب برای ترسیم آلات گره ده است، لیکن تحلیل داده ها که منتج به ارائه روش ستاره طلایی شده است، با استفاده از روش استدلال منطقی انجام گرفته است. نگارندگان، طی این مقاله و در پاسخ به این سوال با تمرکز بر یکی از انواع گره (گره ده تند وکند)، روشی را به نام ستاره طلایی ابداع کرده که الگوی بدیعی را برای ترسیم آلات_ با یک نسبت ثابت در حصول نقش مایه ها_ ارایه داده و علاوه بر امکان ترمیم و مرمت آلات و نقش مایه ها، قابلیت طراحی زمینه های جدید و خلاقانه ای را در کنار زمینه های موجود فراهم می نماید. از جمله نتایج قابل تامل این تحقیق که ارتباطی مستقیم و ذاتی در زیربنای روش جدید دارد، می توان به ارتباط این هنر ایرانی با تناسبات طلایی یا همان نسبت طلایی، یعنی  عدد «فی» اشاره نمود. در این مقاله، ضمن مقایسه روش های سنتی با روش پیشنهادی، مشخص می شود که روش ستاره طلایی یکی از مهم ترین ابزارهای ترسیم گره به نام پرگار را -که ضریب خطا در ترسیم را افزایش می دهد- حذف کرده و با ترسیم الگویی (شابلون) ثابت، امکان ترسیم و پیاده سازی آلات و نقش مایه ها را با بیانی ساده تر فراهم می سازد.

    کلیدواژگان: هنرهای سنتی، نقوش هندسی، گره چینی، گره ده تند و کند، نقش مایه، معماری
  • مهرنوش شفیعی سرارودی*، محدثه مالکی مقدم صفحات 65-81
    ساخت اشیای سفالین از دوران پیش از تاریخ تا به امروز همواره مورد توجه انسان ها بوده است. از طرفی نگرش ایرانیان از دیرباز نسبت به آب موجودیتی مقدس بوده است. آب در فرهنگ ایران از جمله چهار عنصر اصلی تشکیل دهنده این جهان است؛ بدیهی است که برای این مایع مقدس ساخت ظروفی که در شان آن باشد ضروری بوده است. تحلیل ریخت شناسانه مشربه های دوره میانی اسلامی کاشان با هدف شناخت عمیق و معرفی دقیق ویژگی های ساختاری و ریخت شناسانه شکل های متنوع این دسته از ظروف شکل گرفته است. سوال مطرح شده در این پژوهش این است که مشربه های سفالی دوره میانی اسلامی کاشان از منظر ریخت شناسی چگونه اند؟ روش این پژوهش به صورت توصیفی_تحلیلی و ریخت شناسانه با هدف کاربردی و یافته اندوزی به روش میدانی و اسنادی انجام شده است. نمونه های مورد بررسی به صورت غیر تصادفی و شامل 40 مورد برگرفته از مشربه های سفالی دوره میانی اسلامی کاشان است که در موزه ها و کتب معتبر ارائه شده اند و به دلیل تنوع در شکل مشربه ها انتخاب شده اند. ریخت شناسی ظروف این منطقه با توجه به شکل ظاهری یعنی شکل دهانه، گردن، دسته، لوله، مخزن و پایه مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نوع و تنوع هرکدام از اجزای تشکیل دهنده آثار در جداولی توصیف و تحلیل شدند. این ظروف ابتدا براساس نوع دسته دار بودن یا بدون دسته بودن ظروف و سپس با توجه به شکل لوله ظروف تقسیم بندی شدند و سپس به بررسی اجزاء این ظروف پرداخته شد. نتایج تحقیق علاوه بر اطلاعات کامل شکل این ظروف نشانگر تنوع بسیار در شکل این آثار است که حاکی از خلاقیت هنرمند صنعتگر بوده و می تواند الهام بخش هنرمند امروز باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: ریخت شناسی، سفال، کاشان، مشربه، دوره میانی اسلامی
  • فرزانه نجفی* صفحات 83-99
    هنرمندان هنر محیطی برای خلق آثارشان ظاهر، ساختار و مواد موجود در طبیعت و محیط پیرامونشان را تغییر می دهند. در این صورت، ارائه این نوع از آثار در مفهوم واقعی هنر محیطی برای نمایش در فضای بسته گالری غیرممکن است. بنابراین، رسانه عکاسی در کنار ویدئوهای ضبط شده از روند شکل گیری آثار هنر محیطی همواره در کنار هنرمندان بوده است و گواهی بر اثبات وجود آثار اجراشده توسط آنان است. هدف این پژوهش بررسی نقش عکاسی به عنوان رسانه ای مهم در ثبت هنر محیطی در بین دانشجویان هنر است. سوال های اصلی پژوهش پیش رو عبارتند از: 1- آیا عکاسی، به عنوان یک رسانه، می تواند عملکرد مناسبی برای معرفی آثار هنر محیطی به مخاطب داشته باشد؟ 2- کدام زاویه عکاسی می تواند بیشترین تاثیر را در درک و دریافت مفهوم پیام اثر هنر محیطی و نشانه های موجود در اثر، در بیننده ایجاد کند؟ 3- آیا در دریافت مبانی، مفاهیم و نشانه های تصویری در آثار هنر محیطی از طریق عکاسی در بین دانشجویان دختر و پسر رابطه معناداری وجود دارد؟ روش تحقیق در این پژوهش به صورت توصیفی-تحلیلی و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات از نوع پیمایشی است. محقق، برای پاسخ به سوال های تحقیق به جمع آوری اطلاعات از دانشجویان دختر و پسر چهار دانشگاه از دانشگاه های دولتی در رشته گرافیک در تهران اقدام نموده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد که در پروژه های هنر محیطی تنها دیدن یک فریم عکس ثبت شده از پروژه هنرمند، برای درک و دریافت مخاطب، کافی نیست. بنابراین، نمایش عکس هایی با هر دو زاویه باز و بسته و حتی نمایش عکس هایی با زاویای بیشتر و در موقعیت های جوی متفاوت و نیز ساعات مختلفی از شبانه روز، به مخاطبان این اجازه را می دهد تا برای شناسایی و درک کاملتر نشانه ها و مفاهیم موجود در عکس های نمایش داده شده، کمتر دچار سردرگمی شوند. همچنین، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که در درک، دریافت مفهوم و شناخت نشانه های تصویری و پیام های موجود در عکس های نمایش داده شده در آثار هنر محیطی بین دانشجویان دختر و پسر رشته گرافیک، تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد، بدین معنی که دانشجویان دختر قادر به درک و تشخیص ویژگی های اثر و دریافت پیام هنرمند با دیدن هر یک از دو فریم عکس ارائه شده بصورت جداگانه بوده اند. در صورتی که، دانشجویان پسر بر خلاف دانشجویان دختر، بر اساس ساختار ذهنی و شناختی خود برای شناخت مفاهیم ارائه شده در عکس های هنر محیطی نیازمند دیدن عکس های نمایش داده شده از هر دو زاویه باز و بسته بصورت همزمان بوده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: هنر محیطی، زوایه باز، زاویه بسته، عکاسی، دانشجویان هنر، هنر معاصر ایران
  • غلامرضا حسنی* صفحات 101-111
    کاربرگ های ارزیابی مجلات علمی مهم ترین ابزار ارزیابی کیفیت مقالات علمی اند. به نظر می رسد، علاوه بر ویژگی های خاص پژوهش های این حوزه و مشکلاتی همچون میزان تسلط پژوهشگران، به ویژه در روش شناسی و رویکردهای نظری شاخص ها و ملاک های ارزیابی مقالات مندرج در کاربرگ های داوری مجلات علمی پژوهشی هنر، نقش بسزایی در تاثیر گزارش های علمی حوزه هنر در تولید علم کشور خواهد داشت. هدف از این مطالعه، که به روش تحلیل محتوا انجام شد، توصیف عینی و کیفی شاخص های کاربرگ های ارزیابی مجلات علمی پژوهشی هنر است. لذا، این پرسش به وجود می آید که: آیا شاخص های موجود در کاربرگ های داوری مقالات علمی پژوهشی هنر از کیفیت لازم و کافی برخوردارند؟ بر مبنای شیوه تمام شماری، نمونه های آماری شامل 9 کاربرگ ارزیابی مجلات تخصصی هنر با رتبه علمی پژوهشی بود. گردآوری اطلاعات به دو صورت کتابخانه ای و مراجعه به پایگاه های استنادی مجلات علمی انجام شد. به منظور استخراج وضعیت موجود شاخص ها از سیاههوارسی محقق ساخته و نرم افزار اکسل به عنوان ابزار پژوهش استفاده شد. داده های گردآوری شده به کمک روش آمار توصیفی برحسب درصد توزیع فراوانی و رسم جدول و نمودار تجزیه وتحلیل شد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهند، از مجموع 53 شاخص موجود، شاخص «استفاده از منابع معتبر کافی و جدید (داخلی و خارجی)» با 78/77% بیشترین و 26 شاخص دیگر، با 11/11% کمترین درصد فراوانی را دارا می باشند. از مجموع 18 مولفه ساختاری و مفهومی مقالات علمی 8 مولفه در این کاربرگ ها لحاظ شده و «اخلاق» و «آیین نگارش» به عنوان دو مولفه متفاوت از مولفه های هجده گانه در این کاربرگ ها قابل مشاهده است. نتایج به دست آمده، حاکی از پراکندگی و توزیع نامتوازن مولفه ها و شاخص های ارزیابی در این کاربرگ ها بوده و بازنگری در آن ها را ضروری نشان می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: کاربرگ های ارزیابی، مجلات علمی پژوهشی هنر، تحلیل محتوا، داوری مقالات
  • هدا کاسپور*، عبدالرضا چارئی صفحات 113-123
    در دهه های اخیر، تحریرات رایانه ای جایگزین جدی خوشنویسی سنتی شده اند. شکل حروف و نقطه ها در این تحریرات تابع اصول و قواعد ازپیش تعیین شده توسط طراحان و برنامه نویسان رایانه ای بر اساس اصول خوشنویسی سنتی است. هدف اصلی در این تحقیق شناسایی دقیق شکل نقطه در خط نستعلیق به شیوه سنتی و ارتباط آن با اجرای رایانه ای نقطه بر اساس اصول و قواعد سنتی است و به این پرسش پاسخ داده می شود که شکل نقطه در تحریرات رایانه ای با شکل آن در خوشنویسی سنتی تا چه اندازه قابل انطباق است؟ پژوهش حاضر به روش توصیفی و تحلیلی نگارش شده و روش گردآوری اطلاعات در آن کتابخانه ای است. با توجه به بررسی کیفی اجرای نقطه در سه نمونه از تحریرات رایانه ای بر اساس شیوه خوشنویسان تاثیرگذار در تولید این ابزارها، یافته های پژوهش شامل نکات و وجوه تمایز نقطه در شکل مفردات و ترکیبات خط نستعلیق در شیوه خوشنویسان بوده و از طرفی، با تجزیه و تحلیل نقطه در آثار سنتی مشخص شد که خوشنویس بر اساس سواد و بیاض در ترکیب حروف و کلمات و اصل توازن و به منظور رعایت فواصل منظم بین حروف، اقدام به تغییر شکل نقطه داده است. با توجه به یافته های تحقیق، این نتیجه حاصل می شود که با مقایسه تطبیقی شکل نقطه در خوشنویسی سنتی و اجرای رایانه ای نقطه که مولفه هایی نظیر زوایای نقطه در شیوه خوشنویس، نوع نقطه گذاری و مرکز قلم در شیوه ها را نشان می دهد، کیفیت نقطه در رایانه آنگونه که باید ارتقا نیافته است و نیاز به رعایت ساختار نقطه با توجه به مولفه های ذکر شده در اجرای رایانه ای وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: خوشنویسی، خط نستعلیق، نقطه، تحریرات رایانه ای
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  • Niloofar Mayeli Borjlooe, Javad Alimohammadi Ardakani * Pages 5-21

    The Mughal reign is considered a period of cultural and artistic flourishing in Islamic India, reflecting the influences of Iranian art and culture as well. Mughal painting may be considered as a distinctive form of Islamic painting which flourished during the 10th and 11th centuries AH. By the time of Akbar Shah’s reign from 1542- 1605 AH, under the influences of Iranian artisans and the combination of their style and that of the renowned Hindu artisans, it evidently transformed and developed into the distinctive style of the Indian Mughal painting. On the other hand, European works, which were brought to the court of Akbar Shah during the above-mentioned period by Christian ambassadors, transformed the tradition of Mughal painting as well, thus multilingual royal bibles and Flemish woodcarvings as well as the European techniques of scenery representations deeply affected the Mughal painting in India. Numerous manuscripts including biographies, historical texts, Divans of Iranian poets as well as Persian translations of Hindu literature were transcribed and illustrated in the prolific workshop of Akbar Shah. One of the notable examples of these manuscripts is Divan of Anvari, the renowned Seljuk-era poet, also known as one of the three prophets of Persian poetry. Manuscripts like Akbar’s Divan of Anvari were intended to be carried and held. This copy, upon leaving the imperial scriptorium, painting workshop, and bindery, must have been received by the firm but sensitive hand of the emperor, who would have shared it with his son prince Salim and other members of the imperial household. As part of the great Mughal library, it was enjoyed for hundreds of years. The copy of the Divan in the Fogg Art Museum, skillfully executed in Lahore, the northwestern capital of Mughal Empire, by a scribe whose name is unfortunately erased, comprises 345 folios. It measures only 51/2 by 27/8 inches and the text area is surrounded by thin gold and black lines. Each page contains fifteen lines of poetry. The execution of the manuscript, as fine as its calligraphy, is strangely incoherent: the material for all the textual areas is a very fine marbleized paper as well as colored, gold-flecked paper, which seems to have been pasted over the original pages which had become brittle. The Artists of the manuscript chose to illustrate mainly the second part of the Divan; only rarely do the qasidas (odes) offer images that lend themselves to pictures. In almost every case, it has been the beginning of a qasida or the contents of qita that inspired painting, but it was certainly easier for the painters to illustrate the short stories and jokes contained in the second part of the Divan, even though the artists often reset a rustic scene in a courtly milieu. In order to study the subject, intertextuality approach was adopted in analysis of miniatures and poems of Anvari's Divan (with the case study of the 996 AH pocket manuscript of Akbar Shah). By considering Iran's and Mughal India’s cultural and art studies as well as two different systems of verbal and visual texts, intercultural intertextuality and intersemiotic translation have been explained for studying the statistical sample which consists of 13 miniatures of this Anvari’s manuscript and their related lyrics.In the early stage, analysis of subtexts and paratexts in relation to Mughal government, especially the time of Akbar Shah was the main focus. After explanation of verbal texts, visual texts were studied, and important and effective components of both verbal and visual texts were revealed. The aim of this study, with an intertextual approach, was to examine important components of verbal and visual texts and to reevalute the miniatures of this manuscript. The Data has been collected through journal articles, books and online sources. As a result, by intertextual analysis, the influence of Persian miniatures on the structure of aesthetics of miniatures, the influence of northern Europe painting on building up backgrounds and coloring, and also the influence of Indian painting on the miniatures of this manuscript were recognizable. The relationship between verbal and visual texts was based on division and adaptation and the social context had a great impact on visual text.

    Keywords: Akbar Shah, Anvari, Intertextuality, Pocket Manuscript, Mughal Art, Miniature
  • Fatemeh Sharif Alhosseini *, Taher Rezazadeh Pages 23-36
    One of the most important subjects used to decorate the metalwork of the Middle Ages of the Islamic period was astrological images including the constellations, zodiac signs and seven planets. Also, the images of seven planets including the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, in Islamic metalwork have always been depicted in two ways, sometimes in combination with the zodiac signs and sometimes in isolation. In the present study, the second type is considered, which is imaginary. The purpose of this research is to consider and compare the isolated images of seven planets in the works of the three major metalworking schools during twelfth and thirteenth centuries, which are, respectively, Khorasan in the north-east of Iran, the Jazira, north of Mesopotamia, and the north-west of Iran. Because of the differences observed in the iconography of seven planets’ images in the products of these three schools, the following questions raised, including what are the stylistic and iconographic differences between the seven planets’ images of these three metalworking schools and what is the reason for these differences? In this research, we examined three important examples of the metalwork of these schools using descriptive-analytical method and then we compared them. On the island's metalwork, which used the seven planets’ images for the first time, each of the seven planets have been depicted in human form, sitting cross-legged and bearing their own traditional features, such as Mars that has a head and a sword, Saturn that carries an ax, and Venus that plays a lute. In the Khorasani metalwork, we see some slight changes in the overall illustration of these images and a major change in the iconography of Shams (Sun). Here, like the metalwork of the island, all of them, except for the sun, have a human body and sitting cross-legged. However, the multi-handedness of the seven planets’ images on one hand and existence of more than usual signs on the other hand, has revealed the difference between the iconography of planets’ images of the Jazira and Khorasan. In addition, another significant difference between these designs is in the image of the sun as well as the number of planets. The image of the sun in the metalwork of Khorasan, unlike the metalwork of the Jazira, is not human; instead it is a radiating circle containing three human faces. And in the metalwork of the Khorasan, the fake planet Jozhor is also shown next to the other planets. In the end, we should point out how these designs were drawn in the northwest of Iran where almost all the planets’ forms are similar to the designs of Jazira, showing influences from its seven planets’ form with no iconographic difference between them. The only distraction that can be seen in the seven planets’ images of this area appeared in the image of the sun. Here also, like the metalwork of Khorasan, the sun has not been depicted with a human body and appears with merely a radiating circle. However, the image of the sun in this area just surrounds one human face rather than three. The required data is collected through library research method. The results of the analysis of the findings and evidences suggest that there is a significant relationship between the iconography of the seven planets’ images in the metalwork of twelfth and thirteenth centuries and their geographic origins. Furthermore in the attributes assigned to each of these planets, effects of astronomical or astrological beliefs and perspectives of different geographic origins, which have led to the iconographic differences in their imagery, are evident. In general, it should be noted that the beginning of the illustration of seven planets in Islamic metalwork, based on the earliest sample, is attributed to the metalwork school of Jazira. It seems these images have been transferred from Jazira in the northeast of Mesopotamia to the northeast of Iran, and then from there, they returned to the northwest of Iran and have been depicted on the metalwork produced at the beginning of the Ilkhanid period.
    Keywords: Astrological Images, Seven Planets, Metalwork of Khorasan, Metalwork of Jazira, Metalwork of Northwest of Iran
  • Ali Vandshoari *, Akram Bakhshi, Abdollah Mirzaei Pages 36-51

    Kurdi tribes of Khorasan are one of the main carpet weaving tribes among the nomads in Iran. The study of the patterns and motifs used in their carpets reveals that these motifs integrate with the costumes and cultures of each area and are rooted in their ethnic identity. The present research studies the patterns and motifs of Kurdi carpets in Khorasan as well as those in Kurdistan, and aims to answer the following research questions: 1- what is the structure of designs and patterns of Kurdi carpets of Khorasan and carpets of Kurdistan’s nomads? 2- what similarities and differences exist between designs and patterns of Kurdi carpets of Khorasan and those of Kurdistan? Therefore, this study aims to identify the formal structure of the designs and patterns of Kurdi carpets of Khorasan and those of Kurdistan’s nomads in order to find the similarities and differences between them. The research method of the study is descriptive-comparative and the data are analyzed qualitatively. The data is collected in both areas through field and library studies. The data pool consisted of 61 carpets from Khorasan area and 17 carpets from Kurdistan area, among which 15 original samples and 10 original ones were purposively selected to study from Khorasan and Kurdistan areas respectively.  The results show that the general style of the motifs and patterns in the carpets of this region and the features like form, corner, medallion and field and border motifs are nomadic, rural, abstract and geometric. The medallion corner, Medallion and Multiple Panel design have been woven the most and the Praying design the least. Among Kurdistan carpets, the most woven carpets depict medallion and corner medallion designs. Some traces of Kurdistan and at times Caucasian carpet forms can be found in Khorasan Kurdi carpets. Corner forms in carpets of each region are made by using right triangles in small sizes in nomadic Kurdistan carpets. With regard to field illustration in the carpets of each region, due to the specific life style in each area, flora and fauna as well as object-based abstract motifs are seen respectively. Moreover, the borders in the carpets of both regions are made with asymmetrical corners based on rural and nomadic styles. Khorasan Kurdi carpets enjoy a higher density in borders in comparison to the carpets of the Kurdistan area. In addition, the division of the borders in Khorasan Kurdi carpets is in forms of three, five, and seven parts, while in Kurdistan carpets, only the three-part form is observed. With regard to the comparisons, it can be mentioned that similarities and differences exist between the carpets of both regions. Many factors such as the geography of the regions, the life style, the costumes and rituals, the beliefs, the myths and legends and the imposed immigrations caused so many changes in the design and motifs of the carpets in these areas. The results indicate that “Kalle Rousi” and “Jalil” patterns are among similar patterns in both regions. The formal structure of the medallions of the carpets in these two regions also shows that these patterns have been influenced by their original residence areas. The results in terms of differences indicate that the application of big medallion forms and small corners in Kurdistan nomadic carpets is more dominant than the ones in Khorasan Kurdi carpets. Moreover, the use of the abstract form of Fish in Kurdistan nomadic carpets is totally different from the Kalle Ghouch and abstract Zouli motifs in Khorasan Kurdi carpets. The application of narrow border strips and apple flower forms (apple blossoms) as well as Farhad Mirza motif, as the main characteristics of border illustration, are more obvious in Kurdistan nomadic carpets than in Khorasan Kurdi ones. Based on the pattern structure and type of lines which are used, it seems that the mountainous cold environment of Kurdistan area has caused the use of lines with more dense angles in the carpets of this area, compared to the ones from Khorasan region.

    Keywords: Kurdi Carpet, Design, Pattern, Khorasan, Kurdistan, Comparative Study
  • Majid Deheshti, Mahdi Khosh Nejad, Mohammad Mannan Raeesi * Pages 53-63

    Islamic art mostly avoids figurative images to avoid creating objects of worship. This aniconism in Islamic culture caused artists to explore non-figural art, and created a general aesthetic shift toward mathematically-based decoration. Islamic patterns are created to lead the viewer to an understanding of the underlying reality, rather than being mere decorations, as writers interested only in pattern sometimes imply. In Islamic culture, the patterns are believed to be the bridge to the spiritual realm, the instrument to purify the mind and the soul. These patterns in Islamic art are often built on combinations of repeated squares and circles, which may be overlapped and interlaced, as can arabesques (with which they are often combined), to form intricate and complex patterns, including a wide variety of tessellations. These may constitute the entire decoration, may form a framework for floral or calligraphic embellishments, or may retreat into the background around other motifs. The complexity and variety of patterns used evolved from simple stars and lozenges in the ninth century, through a variety of 6 to 13 point patterns by the 13th century, and finally to include also 14 and 16 point stars in the sixteenth century. So, many Islamic designs are built on squares and circles, typically repeated, overlapped and interlaced to form intricate and complex patterns. In all of these patterns, circle has a very important role because the circle symbolizes unity and diversity in nature, and many Islamic patterns are drawn starting with a circle. Based on the shapes drawn from the circle, the earliest geometrical forms in Islamic art were occasional isolated geometric shapes such as 8-pointed stars and lozenges containing squares. These date from 836 in the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, and since then have spread all across the Islamic world. The next development, marking the middle stage of Islamic geometric pattern usage, was of 6 and 8 point stars, which appear in 879 at the Ibn Tulun Mosque, Cairo, and then became widespread. A wider variety of patterns were used from the 11th century. Abstract 6 and 8 point shapes appear in the Tower of Kharaqan at Qazvin, Persia in 1067, and the Al-Juyushi Mosque, Egypt in 1085, again becoming widespread from there, though 6 point patterns are rare in Turkey. In 1086, 7 and 10 point girih (knot) patterns (with heptagons, 5 and 6 pointed stars, triangles and irregular hexagons) appear in the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan. 10 point girih which became widespread in the Islamic world is the subject of this paper. Girihs are elaborate, interlacing patterns, formed of five standardized shapes. The style is used in Persian Islamic architecture and also in decorative woodwork. Girih designs are traditionally made in different media including cut brickwork, stucco, and mosaic faience tilework. In architecture, girih forms decorative interlaced strap work surfaces from the 15th century to the 20th century. Most designs are based on a partially hidden geometric grid which provides a regular array of points; this is made into a pattern using 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-fold rotational symmetries which can fill the plane. The visible pattern superimposed on the grid is also geometric, with 6, 8, 10 and 12 pointed stars and a variety of convex polygons, joined by straps which typically seem to weave over and under each other. A recurring motif is the 8-pointed star, often seen in Islamic tilework; it is made of two squares, one rotated 45 degrees with respect to the other. The fourth basic shape is the polygon, including pentagons and octagons. All of these can be combined and reworked to form complicated patterns with a variety of symmetries including reflections and rotations. Such patterns can be seen as mathematical tessellations, which can extend indefinitely and thus suggest infinity. As it is cited above, in this article, the method of 10 point girih drawing is essayed and in order to maintain and ease the use of this lasting legacy in contemporary Iranian Islamic architecture, the question arises as to how to minimize the tools and stages of 10 point girih drawing, invent a method for drawing schematics in addition to speeding up the practice of drawing and applying the motifs. Authors, in response to this question, focusing on one type of girih (acute and obtuse 10 point girih), have developed a method called the Golden Star, which presented an original pattern for drawing shapes with a constant ratio in the resulting elements based on golden proportions and golden ratio. In this research, a combinative method has been used. The data collection is based on library research method and published documents, and a kind of logical methodology based on mathematical relationships and mathematical proportions is used for presenting a suitable model for drawing the 10 point girih. Therefore, in this paper a new method for 10 point girih drawing is presented.

    Keywords: Traditional Arts, Geometric Patterns, Girih, Obtuse, Acute 10 Point Girih, Motif, Architecture
  • Mehrnoosh Shafie Sararodi *, Mahaddese Maalekimoghaddam Pages 65-81
    Since prehistoric times to the present day making pottery objects has always been a matter of interest to humans, and art derived from the human existential element, the soil, has been a good place for the formation of human artistic creations throughout the history. Iran's pottery has evolved in various times due to the influence of religious, economic, agricultural and social beliefs. Each pottery is responsive to the inner needs of human, including love and beauty. Applied aspects of pottery art are the manifestations of the scientific response of man to how to meet the material needs of humans. On the other hand, water as a holy element has long been a source of life. Therefore, the pottery made for this holy liquid is considered attentional and it has particular importance among other clay objects in all historical periods. The spectacular examples of these pitchers can be seen in the middle era of Islam. The type of works of this period can lead to its consideration as one of the most prominent artistic periods in Iran. Iran's pottery in the Islamic era has been beautifully shaped, composed and equilibrated, glazed with contrived decorations. The variety of shapes of containers, and the harmony between decoration and shape of the containers are special qualities. In the city of Kashan, many examples of these types of containers have been found from this historical period. Hence, the morphological analysis of the middle Islamic period was performed with the goals of leading to a deep understanding and a precise introduction of the structural and morphological features of the various shapes of these dishes, as well as answering to the question of how the works of this course form the morphological perspective. This research, which follows an applied purpose, is conducted using field and library research methods. Data is collected through descriptive-analytical and morphological methods. The samples are non-randomly selected due to the variety of shapes of pottery pitchers, and consist of 40 items from the middle Islamic-period Kashan which are presented in credible books and museums. The morphology of the vessels of this area was analyzed according to the shape of the brim, neck, handle, tube, reservoir and base. The type and variety of each of the components of the shapes were described and analyzed in a table. These containers were first categorized according to the type of handles, and then according to the shape of the containers tubes, then the other elements of these containers were examined. In a partial analysis of the tables, the morphological analysis of the pitchers was paid attention to. Based on this analysis, each of the components of these containers contained various shapes. In case of shape of the crater, the form of an animal, such as cock and mouse, and regarding the human shape, a female portrait were observed. In other cases we saw a circular geometric shape as well as a bowl shape. Regarding the neck morphology, there are cylindrical shapes and in some cases, there is a protuberance and indent which is loop-shaped in junction of the edge to the tank. The categories of the handles of these containers are consisted of arched, angled and looped forms. The tubes in these vessels have a 45-degree angle. Among the available types, pitchers tubes are diagonal, vertical and horizontal. In examining the shape of the reservoir, these pitchers can be spherical, cylindrical, conical and cubically shaped; in other categories of these pitchers, the shapes of onion and pear are also observed. In the case bases of pitchers, there are two general categories of ring and cone. The results of the research, in addition to providing complete information on the shape of these containers, indicate a great diversity in the shape of these pitchers. Though, in a general look, the variation of the pitchers shapes results from the diversity of their structure which is consisted of a tube, an edge, a handle, a base, and a reservoir, it reflects the creativity of their respected artisans, and also indicates the importance of this category of dishes for artisan as well as the general consumer. The study showed that many of old containers, which may have been simply named with simple applications, include a wide range of shapes which study in the future could lead to a huge breakthrough for contemporary artists and researchers in the field of design, construction, and study of dishes.
    Keywords: Morphology, Pottery, Kashan, Pitchers, Middle Islamic Period
  • Farzaneh Najafi * Pages 83-99
    Environmental art is the leading comprehensive impression of the numerous global manifestations of new type of art, and the philosophical, geographical, and cultural settings from which it arose. The environmental artist tries to escape from the dark, noisy and small environments of the galleries. They are interested in seeking refuge and protection in the earth and nature and to be able to make a link and a dialogue with it. So, photography has a crucial function in the dissemination of environmental art. It is owing to an assortment of interrelated parameters, which are all originating from the detachment of land works. Thus, for introducing environmental art to the people, photography should be used. Furthermore, visual records in magazines, books, and a few films can lead to its publicity. This research seriously explores the role of photography as a significant medium to record environmental art. Since environmental artists make changes in structure and the materials existing in their surroundings to create their works; it’s impossible to move these works into enclosed gallery spaces. Thus, photography medium accompanied by videos recorded from the process of forming environmental artworks has always been beside artists as a proof for the work implemented. The objectives of the present research are to answer these significant questions that: 1. Could photography as a medium have a good performance to introduce environmental artworks to the audience? 2. Which photography angel can have the highest influence on viewer to receive and realize the messages and signs embedded in environmental artwork? 3. Is there any significant difference in perception, concept realization and knowing pictorial symbols embedded in environmental art photos between female and male students? This research is based on Gestalt theory (1988) in photography. The method of this research was quantitative and a random sampling method was used to select the technical and vocational art universities, so that all students in the universities have the same possibility of being selected. Randomly two universities have been selected from the four public art universities in Iran, Tehran with a sample of 120 graphic art students in the third or fourth year. The instrumentation comprises a set of multiple choice test questions for the respondents and the open-ended questionnaire due to the varied nature of the artworks and to avoid prompting students to the possible answers and responses. The open-ended questionnaire consists of six questions and one photo for group A and group B. The photos given to each of the group A and B members were different in terms of the angles (close-up & long shot). While the questionnaires offered to group C included both photo types (close-up & long shot) of the selected projects which were the same as the ones given to group A and B. There were total of ten photos that displayed the prominent works of six famous Iranian land artists. Moreover, the analyses were accomplished through various statistical techniques, for instance the one- way analysis of covariance (one-way ANOVA), Tukey test and Skewness & kurtosis. The data were treated statistically using SPSS software (Version 20). The results revealed that the mixed presentation method produced significantly better results for Total Overall scores and sub-factors of message understanding, identifying and interpreting symbols. The results also showed that there were significant differences by gender and modes of presentation for the sub-factors of understanding of messages, identifying and interpreting symbols. It means, the result of research indicated that there is a significant difference in perception, concept realization and knowing pictorial symbols embedded in environmental art photos between female and male students. Female students were able to perceive and identify features of artworks and receive artist’s messages, observing every single photo separately, while unlike them, based on their mental and cognitive structure, male students needed to look at both of the photographs in both close-up and long-shot modes simultaneously to identify the concepts within photographs of environmental artworks. The research findings also show that looking at only a single recorded photography frame is not sufficient to perceive and recognize an environmental artwork. Therefore, showing photos in both close-up and long-shot modes and even photos from more angles and in different weather conditions as well as different times of the day, is most influential in preventing the viewers from getting misled in identifying and perceiving signs and concepts which are embedded in photos shown to them.
    Keywords: Environmental Artwork, Photography, Close-up, Long-Shot, Art Students, Iranian Contemporary Art
  • Gholamreza Hassani * Pages 101-111
    The worksheets used for evaluation of scientific journals are the most important evaluative tools for evaluating the quality of scientific articles. It seems that in addition to the specific features of research in this field and problems such as the extent of researchers' proficiency, especially in methodology and theoretical approaches; the indicators and evaluation criteria of the articles included in the worksheets of scientific-research journals of art will play an important role in influencing scientific reports in the field of art production in the country. The worksheets in scientific-research journals in the field of art, like other scientific journals, contain information that is used to review and evaluate scientific articles in the field prior to publication. Importantly, the components and indicators used in each of the evaluation worksheets of art-scientific journals are of varying quantity and quality. Therefore, the question arises: Are the indicators in the worksheets of the scientific-research works of art sufficient? Importance and necessity of this study is due to three reasons: 1) failure to conduct research similar to the present topic; 2) incomplete conformity of existing evaluation indices with the structure and scientific content of articles regarding the country’s science. In fact, the indicators of the quality assessment of scientific articles are the most important tools by which scientific journals present the value and credibility of researchers’ scientific reports.The purpose of this study, which was done through content analysis, is to describe the objective and qualitative features of the worksheets used for the evaluation of scientific research journals in art. On the basis of the census method, statistical samples consisted of nine worksheets for evaluating specialized art journals’ scientific research degree. Data collection was carried out using library research method and referring to scientific journals' citation databases. In order to extract the existing status of the evaluative criteria, a researcher-made checklist was created and Excel software was used as a research tool. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics method in terms of frequency distribution and drawing tables and charts. The research findings show that from the total of 53 existing indicators, the index of "using sufficient and new valid sources (internal and external)" is the largest with 77.78% and the other 26 indicators, with 11.11%, have the lowest percentages. Of the 18 structural and conceptual components of scientific articles, 8 components are included in these worksheets. "Ethics" and "Writing principle" are two different components from among 18 components which can be seen in these worksheets. This suggests that the scientific journals in the arts-related fields, take into consideration the indicator of review articles rather than the indicators related to new knowledge production, which is the result of original research. Also, according to the data analysis, after the components of "title" and "discussion and conclusion", the components of "resources" and "abstract" with the same frequency (77.77%) and "introduction" and "findings" with a similar frequency (55.55%), respectively, have the second and third frequency among the evaluation components.The results indicate the unbalanced dispersion and distribution of components and evaluation indicators in the selected worksheets, as a consequence of which their revision is essential. The content analysis of these worksheets showed that there are significant imbalances and shortcomings in the dispersion and distribution of the components and indicators in the evaluation worksheets utilized for this group of scientific journals which in turn necessitates their revision. Regular and periodic evaluation of the review and assessment tools used for assessing scientific papers, identifying the shortcomings of the evaluation worksheets in the scientific art journals with the help of experts, and revising the existing indicators in the evaluation worksheets, based on the structural and conceptual components of writing scientific articles are among the most important activities suggested for such a revision. In addition to improving the quality of review, the revision will increase the researchers' satisfaction and confidence of the quality of evaluation and maximize the role and contribution of the arts-related research to the science production of the country. Obviously, this review, in addition to promoting the quality of arbitration, will increase the satisfaction and assurance of art scholars of the method and quality of arbitration, and the role and contribution of arts research to the production of national science.
    Keywords: Evaluation Worksheets, Art Scientific Research Journals, Content Analysis, Peer Review
  • Hoda Kaspour *, Abdolreza Charei Pages 113-123
    In recent decades, calligraphy types have replaced the traditional calligraphy seriously. The form of the letters and dots in these types are subject to predetermined principles and rules set by computer designers and programmers based on traditional calligraphy principles. Since the invention of the Nastaliq script in Iran, this script has undergone many changes in its cohesion, most notably due to the advent of computer technology in the contemporary period as well as the advent of the printing industry in Iran. Computational changes to the Nastaliq script have been updated through programming tools and hence, investigating changes to the Nastaliq script through such types requires reflection on the visual basics of the various aspects of traditional calligraphy in this paper in the form of a typing-in-script study. Nastaliq and its appearance on the computer have been discussed in these topics. The main purpose of this study is to precisely identify the shape of the dot in the traditional way in comparison with the dot’s shape in computer implementation. In this study, we have attempted to answer the question of how compatible is the dot’s shape in computer implementation with its shape in traditional calligraphy? The research is conducted using a descriptive method and content analysis. Data was collected through library research. The paper adapts a comparative approach and draws on qualitative analysis. The statistical population consists of a set of computer variables that include fonts and software. The studied samples include Kelk software, Mir-Emad software and Mirza font, each of which has been created by three calligraphy professors, Abbas Akhavein, Amir Ahmad Phalsaphy and Mirza Gholam-Reza Isfahani respectively. In this regard, main  sources that are directly related to the topic of the research include documents related to theoretical research texts, related books, theories and documentary references in the field of calligraphy, and due to the newness of the subject in terms of punctuation, the researchers had to spend a considerable amount of time on the field data, and a huge amount of information that has been obtained through comparing images as well as comparing computer-based types with various aspects of the Nastaliq script in terms of shape and position. Regarding the qualitative study of typing performances in three computer-based types based on the calligraphers' method of producing these tools, the findings of the study included types and their distinctive aspects in form of singularities and combinations of the Nastaliq script in calligraphy. Furthermore, analysis of letters in traditional works revealed that the calligrapher has transformed the types based on the clarity of the letters and words as well as the principle of equilibrium and in order to maintain regular intervals between the letters. Comparing the dot’s shape in the handwritten scripts with its shape in types shows the components such as the angles of the point in the calligraphic style, the type of punctuation and the center of the stylus in the styles, and we can see that the dot’s angle in the calligraphy style corresponded to the computer representation of the letters in all three samples. But the findings in terms of variation of the size and thickness of the dots in different compositions show the inconsistency of the dot’s shape in calligraphic style with computerized instances. Accordingly, it is concluded that the kind of punctuation which was adopted by calligraphers who influenced the production of computer types, in addition to adherence to the angle of the pen’s nib in each of the methods are different in terms of legibility and impersonality. Also, the size of the dot in letters like "Noon", when joined together with other letters, is smaller than the dot in the letter’s separated state due to the spatial transformation of Noon’s circle and its decrease in size in its joined form. There are also two important principles when writing multi-letter combinations that contain a multiplicity of types, which involve the overlap of types in the word and the overlap of the letter with its next or previous letter, both of which have been found to be involved in the design of the letters of computer-based types by designers.
    Keywords: Calligraphy, Nastaliq Script, Dot, Computer-based Types