فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 25 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • الهام دلفان، حامد نقوی*، رحیم ملک نیا، احمد رضا نورالدینی صفحات 1-12

    داشتن اطلاعات دقیق و بهنگام از وضعیت کاربری اراضی و پوشش زمین، یک نکته کلیدی برای حفاظت و مدیریت پایدار منابع طبیعی است. به رغم اینکه ماهواره سنتینل 2 اخیرا به فضا پرتاب شده تاکنون پژوهش های کافی در زمینه به کارگیری تصاویر این ماهواره صورت نگرفته است. به همین دلیل در تحقیق حاضر سعی شد قابلیت تصاویر این ماهواره در تهیه نقشه کاربری اراضی و پوشش زمین منطقه بسطلام، استان لرستان با استفاده از روش های طبقه بندی پیکسل پایه و شی پایه بررسی و با تصاویر ماهواره لندست 8 مقایسه شود. به منظور انجام این پژوهش در طبقات رودخانه، کشاورزی، جنگل، باغ، مسکونی، بایر و مرتع به ترتیب 90، 280، 680، 59، 180، 85 و 70 نمون/ آموزشی توسط بازدید میدانی، استفاده از نقشه های موجود، ایجاد تصاویر رنگی کاذب و نرم افزار گوگل ارث جمع آوری شد. تصاویر پس از انجام پیش پردازش های لازم، با استفاده از الگوریتم های حداکثر احتمال، حداقل فاصله و فاصله ماهالانوبیس روش پیکسل پایه و الگوریتم نزدیک ترین همسایه روش شی پایه طبقه بندی شد. میزان صحت کلی و ضریب کاپا برای طبقه بندی تصاویر ماهواره سنتینل 2 با استفاده از روش های حداکثر احتمال، فاصله ماهالانوبیس و حداقل فاصله به ترتیب 2/85% و 77/0، 77/88% و 81/0، 1/71% و 56/0 و برای تصاویر ماهواره لندست 8 به ترتیب 10/84 % و 76/0، 83/82 % و 73/0، 50/63 % و 48/0 محاسبه شد. همچنین نتایج طبقه بندی شی پایه به روش نزدیک ترین همسایه نشان داد که تصاویر سنتینل 2 با صحت کل 70/89% و ضریب کاپا 83/0 عملکرد بهتری نسبت به تصاویر لندست 8 با صحت کل 90/88% و ضریب کاپا 80/0، داشته است. در نهایت با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده مشخص شد که استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره سنتینل 2 و روش طبقه بندی شی پایه باعث بهبود نتایج طبقه بندی پوشش زمین و کاربری اراضی شده، اما میزان صحت نتایج استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره لندست 8 و روش پیکسل پایه نیز قابل قبول است.

    کلیدواژگان: سنتینل 2، لندست 8، نزدیک ترین همسایه، حداکثر احتمال، حداقل فاصله، فاصله ماهالانوبیس
  • نادر چاپارزاده*، نیره عبادی، کمال الدین دیلمقانی، لیلا زرندی میاندوآب صفحات 13-26

    در این تحقیق تغییرات متابولیتی و یونی که با افزایش سن برگ در گیاه اسفندک اتفاق می افتد بررسی شدند. برای مطالعه این تغییرات، 5 نمونه برگی از راس به سمت پایه شماره گذاری شدند که مرحله جوانی تا بلوغ برگی را نشان می دهند، مورد سنجش قرار گرفتند. به هنگام بلوغ علاوه بر تفاوت های ظاهری، برخی نشانگرهای فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی نیز تغییر می یابند. این بررسی ها بر پایه طرح آماری کاملا تصادفی و تجزیه آماری داده ها به وسیله نرم افزار SPSS16  صورت پذیرفت. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش سن برگ سبب کاهش غلظت رنگدانه های فتوسنتزی می شود. همچنین میزان پروتئین، قندهای محلول و پرولین روند کاهشی منظم و معنی داری در بین موقعیت های برگ از راس ساقه را نشان داد. یون های منیزیم، سدیم، پتاسیم و فسفر در برگ های اولیه از راس ساقه و یون کلسیم در اندام های مسن بیشترین مقدار را نشان دادند. به نظر می رسد اسفندک با ایجاد تعادل در بیوسنتز و تجزیه رنگدانه ها بخوبی توانسته است سیستم فتوسنتزی خود را در محیط دشوار رشدش حفظ کند. بالا بودن محتوای متابولیت ها و یون های مهم در برگ های جوان نشان دهنده بسیج عوامل در حفاظت از برگ های حساس این گیاه می باشد. بنابراین اسفندک تمام مشخصه های لازم جهت کشت و پرورش در نواحی بیابانی بدون کاهش عملکرد را دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: اسفندک، سن برگ، نشانگرهای فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی، رنگدانه های فتوسنتزی، پرولین
  • یاسر سبزواری، امیر حمزه حقی آبی*، علی حیدر نصر الهی صفحات 27-38

    منابع آب زیرزمینی بزرگ ترین ذخیره قابل دسترس آب شیرین زمین هستند که مدیریت و کنترل کیفی آن ها موضوعی اساسی است. هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی کیفی آب زیرزمینی از نظر مصارف کشاورزی و تاثیر آن بر نفوذپذیری در دشت بروجرد- دورود است. بدین منظور روند تغییرات پارامترهای هدایت الکتریکی، نسبت جذبی سدیم، کلسیم، منیزیم، سدیم و بی کربنات منابع دشت در بازه زمانی 13721395 با آزمون من-کندال بررسی و برای تهیه نقشه های کیفی بر اساس شاخص های تراوایی، درصد سدیم و ویلکاکس از 41 منبع آب زیرزمینی در سال 1395 استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که روند تغییرات همه پارامترها کاهشی بوده و روند تغییرات بی کربنات در سطح اطمینان 95درصد معنی دار بوده است. در طبقه بندی کشاورزی بر اساس شاخص تراوایی 84/85درصد از دشت دارای کیفیت عالی برای آبیاری، از نظر درصد سدیم قسمت مرکزی دشت کیفیت پایین تر از سایر نواحی داشته و بر اساس طبقه بندی ویلکاکس حدود 94/85 درصد وسعت دشت دارای کیفیت مناسب است. بررسی تاثیر تغییرات EC و SAR بر نفوذپذیری خاک نشان داد که تغییرات این دو پارامتر در سراسر دشت منفی نیست و منطقه دارای وضعیت نفوذپذیری خوب و متوسط است که 8/26درصد در رده خوب قرار داشته و منطقه ای در طبقه نفوذپذیری بد قرار ندارد.

    کلیدواژگان: آب زیرزمینی، کریجینگ، کیفیت آب، من-کندال، نفوذپذیری
  • مهدی بروغنی*، سیما پورهاشمی، مهدی زارعی صفحات 39-52

    ایران و به ویژه شرق ایران، در معرض چالش های زیست محیطی شدید مانند طوفان گردوغبار قرار دارد. تغییرات کاربری اراضی و خاک های حساس به فرسایش، از مهم ترین عوامل موثر بر ایجاد مناطق برداشت گردوغبار هستند. هدف از تحقیق حاضر، شناسایی و تعیین خصوصیات مناطق برداشت گردوغبار در شرق ایران است. برای شناسایی نقاط برداشت گردوغبار از تصاویر ماهواره ای MODIS برای بازه زمانی 2004 تا 2017 و از شاخص های آشکارسازی گردوغبار که شامل BTD3132، BTD2931، NDDI و D می باشد، استفاده شد. 147 نقطه برداشت گردوغبار در منطقه مورد مطالعه شناسایی شد. در این پژوهش، خصوصیات کاربری اراضی، خاک شناسی، شیب، پوشش گیاهی (NDVI) و زمین شناسی نقاط برداشت گردوغبار مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاکی از آن است که کاربری های اراضی بایر و مراتع با تعداد 54 و 45 نقطه بیشترین نقاط برداشت گردوغبار را دارند که به ترتیب حدود 37 و 31درصد کل نقاط برداشت منطقه مورد مطالعه را به خود اختصاص داده اند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد در بین خاک های مختلف بیشترین نقطه برداشت گردوغبار در مناطق با بافت خاک رسی-لومی با 61 نقطه برداشت (حدود 5/41درصد کل نقاط برداشت) مشاهده شد. همچنین بیشتر نقاط برداشت گردوغبار در مناطق با شیب کم و بدون پوشش گیاهی قابل مشاهده است. از منظر زمین شناسی، بیشترین و کمترین نقاط برداشت گردوغبار در منطقه به ترتیب در واحدهای زمین شناسی سازندهای رسوبی شیمیایی و سنگ های نفوذی بازیک قرار دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: نقاط برداشت گردوغبار، کاربری اراضی، لیتولوژی، خاک شناسی، شرق ایران
  • حسن ترابی پوده*، حجت الله یونسی، علی حقی زاده، آزاده ارشیا صفحات 53-66

    منابع آب زیرزمینی بزرگ ترین ذخیره قابل دسترس آب شیرین زمین هستند که مدیریت و کنترل کیفی آن ها بسیار حائز اهمیت است. هدف از این تحقیق، بررسی تغییرات پارامترهای کیفی منابع آب زیرزمینی در آبخوان های لنجانات-نجف آباد و بررسی کیفیت آب از لحاظ مصارف شرب و کشاورزی و نیز محاسبه شاخص IRWQIGC است. بدین منظور پارامترهای EC، TDS،SAR، PH، TH و NO3 و عناصر سنگین شامل روی، مس، سرب، کادمیوم و ارسنیک از نمونه های آزمایشگاهی در بازه زمانی 13741395 بررسی شدند. تغییرات پارامترها در مقایسه با حجم آبخوان نشان داد که علاوه بر کاهش حجم آبخوان، افزایش ورود آلودگی نیز به آبخوان وجود داشته است. در لنجانات، طبقه بندی آب از لحاظ کشاورزی عمدتا C2-S1،C3-S1  و C3-S2 و در نجف آباد C2-S1، C3-S1  و C4-S2 است. طبقه بندی آب از لحاظ شرب در لنجانات عمدتا خوب و قابل قبول و در نجف آباد عمدتا در طبقه قابل قبول و متوسط و در مواردی نامناسب است. میزان عناصر سنگین در حد مجاز است. پهنه بندی نیترات و IRWQIGC با استفاده روش کریجینگ انجام شد. مقدار متوسط نیترات در نجف آباد 13/63 میلی گرم در لیتر محاسبه شد. شاخص IRWQIGC در نجف آباد 8/19 و در لنجانات 9/35 محاسبه شد که نشان دهنده کیفیت نسبتا بد آب منطقه و مخصوصا نجف آباد است.

    کلیدواژگان: آب زیرزمینی، کریجینگ، لنجانات-نجف آباد، IRWQIGC
  • مرضیه رضایی*، حسین ارزانی، حسین آذرینوند، کیان نجفی تبره شبانکاره، حمید مسلمی صفحات 67-82

    یکی از قابلیت های اکوسیستم های طبیعی خشک و نیمه خشک این است که این مناطق مکان مناسبی برای چرا هستند. به طوری که این گونه ها تنها در شرایط اکولوژیکی و اقلیمی خشک و نیمه خشک سازگاری یافته و از ارزش طبیعی بسیاری برخوردارند. کل و بز (بز وحشی) و قوچ و میش (گوسفند وحشی) به عنوان شاخص ترین پستاندار مناطق حفاظت شده کوهستانی ایران، در بسیاری از زیستگاه های مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک پراکنش دارد. از طرفی در منطقه حفاظت شده گنو این گونه ها، از منابع غذایی اصلی برای گونه به شدت در خطر انقراض پلنگ به شمار می آیند. مدل های تعیین شایستگی زیستگاه برای حیات وحش، امروزه به عنوان ابزاری در اختیار حفاظت وحوش قرار گرفته و نتایج آن کاربرد زیادی در برنامه ریزی های گوناگون مدیریتی در راستای احیای جمعیت های رو به نابودی دارد. مطالعه حاضر برای تعیین شایستگی منطقه حفاظت شده گنو، برای چرای حیات وحش انجام شد. در این باره، از تلفیق سه زیر مدل حساسیت خاک به فرسایش، تولید علوفه و ظرفیت چرا و منابع آب، شایستگی اراضی طبق روش عامل محدودکننده، برای حیات وحش و دام اهلی چراکننده در منطقه تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که منطقه حفاظت شده برای دام اهلی شایستگی نداشته ولی 46/12415 هکتار (84/27درصد) از سطح منطقه، شایستگی کم و 16/72درصد (54/32182 هکتار)، غیرشایسته برای چرای حیات وحش است. در این خصوص، چرای مفرط، کاهش تعداد منابع آب، تولید علوفه و حد مجاز بهره برداری از رویشگاه، از عوامل محدودکننده شایستگی اراضی منطقه برای چرای حیات وحش هستند. با توجه به ضعیف ارزیابی شدن شایستگی گنو برای حیات وحش، خروج دام اهلی از منطقه، تامین علوفه برای وحوش و افزایش مکان های آبشخوار برای آن ها از ضروریات مدیریت حفاظت تنوع زیستی بیابانی است.

    کلیدواژگان: منابع آب، فرسایش، تولید قابل استفاده، زیرمدل، حد بهره برداری مجاز
  • سید محمد مهدی موسویان، عباس علی ولی*، سیدحجت موسوی صفحات 83-96

    بهره برداری از معادن به عنوان یکی از رفتارهای متداول انسان در محیط زیست، پیامدهای اکولوژیکی متعددی برای اکوسیستم به ویژه زیست بوم بیابان دارد که منجر به تغییرات گسترده ای در این مناطق می شود. لذا هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی حساسیت اکولوژیک عرصه های معادن در حال بهره برداری با استفاده از مدل ارزیابی تخریب محیط زیست در شهرستان طبس است. در این راستا، لایه های ارتفاع، جهت دامنه و شیب از سنجنده ASTER و لایه NDVI برای تعیین میزان حساسیت پوشش گیاهی از تصاویر MODIS استخراج گردید. برای تهیه لایه های هم دما و هم بارش از داده های اقلیمی ایستگاه های طبس و نواحی همجوار استفاده شد. لایه های عمق خاک و مقاومت سنگ بستر برمبنای نقشه های خاک شناسی و زمین شناسی با مقیاس 1:50000 تهیه گردید. فراهم سازی لایه های کیفیت (EC) و عمق آب زیرزمینی براساس داده های ایستگاه های آب منطقه ای و چاه های پیزومتری صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که به ترتیب 83/270547، 82/3751342، 61/1773999 و 04/45883 هکتار (63/4، 21/64، 36/30 و 78/0 درصد) در طبقه حساسیت اکولوژیکی مقاوم، نیمه حساس، حساس و آسیب پذیر قرار دارد. همچنین محدوده بهره برداری معادن شامل 62درصد از مساحت منطقه می باشد که بیشترین سطح آن (66/658047 هکتار) در کلاس های حساس و نیمه حساس با کد آسیب پذیری 2 و 3 واقع شده و نیازمند توجه ویژه مدیریتی است.

    کلیدواژگان: استخراج معادن، درصد پوشش گیاهی، عوامل توپوگرافی، مناطق خشک و بیابانی، طبس
  • سوسن سلاجقه، حمید رضا جعفری*، شراره پورابراهیم صفحات 97-111

    در این پژوهش و در راستای توسعه پایدار صنعت در استان کرمان، آسیب پذیری اکولوژیکی این استان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بنابراین در ابتدا لایه های اطلاعاتی موجود (شیب، ارتفاع، عمق خاک، جنس سنگ، دوری و نزدیکی به گسل، سیل خیزی و پوشش زمین) بر اساس نظر کارشناسی از لحاظ میزان حساسیت به آسیب پذیری کدگذاری شده و در گام بعدی همه لایه های مربوط، در محیط ArcGIS بر اساس زمینه کد تعلق گرفته به آن ها، تبدیل به نقشه هایی با فرمت رستر با یک شبکه یکنواخت با وضوح 100 متر شدند. سپس با استفاده از تکنیک تحلیل سلسله مراتبی لایه ها وزن دار شده و در نهایت با یکدیگر تلفیق شدند. نتایج نشان داد که حدود 7/14درصد استان کرمان آسیب پذیر با شدت زیاد و خیلی زیاد می باشد که دلیل عمده این امر وجود ارتفاعات، گسل ها و عمق خاک نامناسب منطقه است. همچنین در بررسی شهرستان ها مشخص شد که در بین شهرستان های استان کرمان، شهرستان جیرفت نسبت به مساحت دربرگیرنده، بیشترین آسیب پذیری را دارد که علت این امر وجود چندین گسل، ارتفاعات و شیب زیاد منطقه است. بنابراین باید در برنامه ریزی های آتی به این امر توجه ویژه شود.

    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری اکولوژیکی، فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، GIS، صنعت، کرمان، توسعه پایدار
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  • Elham Delfan, Hamed Naghavi*, Rahim Maleknia, Ahmadreza Nouredini Pages 1-12
    Introduction

    Having accurate and up-to-date information on the status of land use and land cover change is a key point to protecting natural resources, sustainable agriculture management and urban development. Preparing the land cover and land use maps with traditional methods is usually time and cost consuming. Nowadays satellite imagery provides the possibility to prepare these maps in less time and with greater accuracy. In order to prepare land use and land cover maps using satellite imagery, different classification methods are used. In a general division, these methods can be divided into two groups of pixel-based and object-based classification methods. Despite the fact that the Sentinel 2 satellite has recently been launched and its images have been freely available to users, there has not been enough research on the use of this satellite imagery in land use and land cover mapping. Therefore, in present research, we tried to investigate the capability of Sentinel 2 satellite imagery in land use and land cover mapping of Bastam basin in Lorestan province, using pixel-based and object-based classification methods and compare it with Landsat 8 satellite imagery.

    Material and methods

      In order to conduct this research, training samples were collected by field survey, using existing maps, creation of false color images and Google Earth software in six classes including garden, bare land, forest, agriculture, residential and river. The 90, 280, 680, 59, 180, 85 and 70 training samples were collected in the river, agriculture, forest, garden, residential, bare land and pasture classes, respectively. The 70% of collected samples were used as training samples and 30% of the rest were used as test samples. After performing the necessary preprocessing, images classified using the Maximum likelihood, Minimum distance, Mahalanobis distance algorithms of pixel-based method and the Nearest neighbor algorithm of object-based method. The object-based classification method consists of two main stages of segmentation and classification. In this research, Multi Resolution Segmentation algorithm was used for segmentation. Classification was done by the Nearest Neighbor method in eCognition software. Accuracy assessment of classification results was performed using test samples and overall accuracy, Kappa coefficient, user accuracy and producer accuracy indices.

    Results

    The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for Sentinel 2 satellite images were classified using Maximum likelihood, Mahalanobis distance and Minimum distance were calculated (85.2% and 0.77), (88.77% and 81.8) and (71.1% and 0.56) respectively. For Landsat 8 satellite images were classified using Maximum likelihood, Mahalanobis distance and Minimum distance the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient were observed (84.10% and 76%), (82.83% and 0.73) and (63.50% and 48.3%) respectively, which indicates a relatively higher potential Sentinel 2 image compared to Landsat 8 images in the pixel classification of land use and land cover. In addition, the results of the object-based classification by the Nearest neighbor method showed that the Sentinel 2 images with overall accuracy 89.70% and kappa coefficient 0.83 had better performance than Landsat 8 images with overall accuracy 88% and Kappa coefficient 0.81.
    Discussion and

    conclusion

    According to the results, it can be concluded that of Sentinel 2 satellite images have a better relative performance than Landsat 8 satellite imagery in the preparation of land use and land cover maps, this seems to be due to the higher spatial resolution of the Sentinel 2 satellite (10-meter pixel in near infrared and visible bands) compared to Landsat 8 (30-meter pixel in near infrared and visible bands). The highest level of user and producer accuracy were observed in the forest land cover, it seems that the reason for this is the vast forest area in the study area and as a result of increasing the number of training samples in this land cover. Comparison of the performance of the pixel-based and object-based classification methods showed that the use of the object-based classification method improves the results of land use and land cover classification. Finally, it is important to note that, despite the better performance of Sentinel 2 satellite imagery and object- based classification method than Landsat 8 satellite images and pixel-based classification method, but the results of Landsat 8 satellite imagery, and pixel-based method was acceptable as well.

    Keywords: Sentinel 2, Landsat 8, Nearest Neighbor, Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance, Mahalanobis Distance
  • Nader Chaparzadeh*, Nayere Ebadi, Kamaleddin Dilmaghani, Leila Zarandi Miandoab Pages 13-26
    Introduction

    Zygophyllum fabago L. is a C3 type plant and tolerant to drought with a widespread distribution in arid and semi-arid regions. For two reasons, the study of the physiological behavior of the Z. fabago in its natural environment is important. First, various species of Zygophyllum are often not used for animal feeding or fuel preparation, while all parts of the plant (leaf, stem, root and fruit) have a high drug value. Commercial cultivation of Z. fabago in areas that are not suitable for traditional agricultural systems, like Iran deserts, can be considered. Second, priority of recovery, improvement and protection of soil in desert environments, which will lead to the sustainability and distribution of the vital population of such ecosystems. Selection and introduction of appropriate species for retrieval have great important. Z. fabago shrubs are considered as the most important species in the sustainability and regeneration of desert ecosystems. Understanding the tolerance mechanism of Z. fabago requires study of the flexibility of its metabolism in natural habitats. Age-dependent biochemical variations in leaves may be effective in survival of plant under inappropriate conditions. The responses of plants to environmental factors come from their structural and physiological characteristics of leaves at different stages of development. In this study, metabolic and ionic changes during increasing of leaf ages in the Z. fabago plant were studied.

    Materials and methods

    To study of metabolic and ionic changes, five leaf samples, showing the young stage to the maturity, were numbered from apex to base. During maturation, a series of apparent differences and physiological and biochemical changes were occurred in leaves. The pigments, total soluble proteins content and proline concentration were measured according to Lichtenthaler, McMillen and McClendon and Bates methods, respectively. The phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to determine total carbohydrates. Plant ashes were used to measure the elements. Complexometric titration was used to evaluate the total calcium and magnesium content of  tissues. Sodium and potassium of tissues were analyzed with flame photometery method. Colorimetric determination of phosphorus fulfilled by phosphomolybdate method. The research was done on a completely randomized design with three replications. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software and comparison of the mean with Duncan test.

    Result

    The results showed that as the age of leaves increased, a reduction was observed in concentration of photosynthetic pigments. The values of chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll show a regular and significant decrease with increasing age. This decrease is occurred also about carotenoids, which leads to a relative stability of the ratio of carotenoids to chlorophyll. The data changes in this ratio are not significant in leaves with different positions on the stem. Also, the amount of total soluble protein, soluble sugars and proline showed a regular and significant reduction in leaf positions from apex to base of the stem. The magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus concentrations were the highest in the young leaves.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    In this research, we observed different trends in changing of some biochemical and physiological characteristics Zygophyllum fabago plant during leaf aging. Developmental stage strongly influences the morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of the leaves. Generally, younger leaves are relatively rich in potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus, while older organs are calcium abundant; because when the leaves become old they lose mobile elements. Elements that are particularly involved in growth are evacuated at the stage of aging and before falling out of the leaf. The concentrations of photosynthetic pigments in the young leaves were highest, which lead to high light harvesting and hence, growth of plants. Newly emerged young leaves that are sensitive to environment conditions become immune by elevated gross primary production. As has been observed, aging tends to reduce the amount of soluble proteins sugars. While the effect of increasing leaf age reflects the same increased metabolites mobilization trend. Therefore, the results indicate that metabolites accumulation in the young leaves of Zygophyllum fabago during development of leaves is a necessary mechanism to plant survives according to leaf function sensitivity to environmental conditions.

    Keywords: Zygophyllum fabago L., Leaf Age, Metabolic, ionic Markers, Photosynthetic pigments, Proline
  • Yaser Sabzevari, Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi*, Ali Heidar Nasrollahi Pages 27-38
    Introduction

    Considering the increasing population and the growing need for food and drinking water, it is essential to explore and understand the factors of crop production, especially water resources. Today, the removal of undiluted water from underground water sources has produced qualitative issues, in addition to a few shortcomings. These issues are more significant in arid and semi-arid regions, which are more dependent on these resources. In these areas, due to lack of water resources, access to appropriate quality resources is important. The quality of groundwater undergoes spatial and temporal scales and cannot be assumed to be constant over time and place. Therefore, for the purpose of using groundwater resources and targeting for future uses, it is important to consider changes in the quality characteristics of resources over time and place. Therefore, studying the temporal and spatial variations of water quality is essential for properly and efficiently managing the use of these resources. In order to determine the process of time variation, different methods are used. One of the most common non-parametric methods is analysis of the trend in time series using the Mann-Kendall test. It is necessary to know the spatial changes of resources, to collect parameters in different locations, which requires a high cost and time. In such a situation, geospatial interpolation methods can be very efficient. Land use methods can reduce costs and increase the accuracy of estimation, due to the ability of reducing the number of samplings, application of the combination and providing more accurate estimation of variables location. The purpose of this research is investigation of groundwater quality in terms of agricultural use and its effect on permeability in Borujerd-Doroud Plain.

    Materials and methods

    Boroujerd-Doroud Plain with an area of ​​2545.8 km2 is located in northeast of Lorestan province and northernmost part the large Karon Basin. the trend of changes in the parameters of electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, sodium and bicarbonate of plain resources during the period of time (1994-2016) was investigated by the Mann-Kendall test and for qualitative maps prepation based on the Permeability Index, Sodium Percentage, and Wilcox, the data of 41 groundwater resources in 2016 were used. The accuracy evaluation of any interpolation or selection of the appropriate parameter is necessary. In the present study, the RMSE index was used to determine the appropriate method. Among different methods, each one with less RMSE is selected as the appropriate method. Different methods of interpolation were compared for the zoning of the quality parameters. Regarding the results of this comparison, the conventional Kriging interpolation method was chosen as the most appropriate interpolation method due to lower RMSE. The permeability index is a parameter that is used to evaluate the quality of irrigation water. Sodium levels of water are important parameters for using water in irrigated agricultural land. Increasing of sodium in water decreases soil permeability. Wilcox classification is one of the most important classifications for determining the quality of agricultural water based on two parameters of electrical conductivity and sodium absorption ratio as alkalinity risk.

    Result

    The results showed that the trend of changes in all parameters was reduced, which showed that the trend of changes in bicarbonate content was significant at 95% confidence level. In terms of permeability index, 85.84% of the plain has excellent irrigation water quality. Based on this classification, the water quality in northwest of the plain is poor, in southeast is moderate and in other plain areas is excellent for irrigation purposes. Based on the qualitative map of the percent of sodium, the irrigation water quality in northwest and southeast of the plain is excellent, and in the central area of the plain is allowable. The irrigation water quality in other areas of plain is good. The irrigation water quality based on Wilcox's method was classified in two C2S1 and C3S1 classes, which included 90.91% of the studied sources of C2S1 and 9.09% of the C3S1 grade.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The quality map based on this classification showed that 85.94% of the plain area has a good water quality. The Investigation of EC and SAR changes effects on soil permeability showed that the variations of these two parameters are not negative across the plain, and the region has a good and moderate permeability status, which is 26.8%.

    Keywords: Groundwater, Kriging, Mann-Kendal, Permeability, Water Quality
  • Mahdi Boroughani*, Sima Pourhashemi, Mahdi Zarei Pages 39-52
    Introduction

    Dust storms are natural hazards that effects on weather conditions, human health and ecosystem. Atmospheric processes are directly affected by the absorption and diffusion of radiation by dust, and dust in the cloud acts as a nucleus of congestion. The main dust regions in the world are arid topographies that have soil that is vulnerable to erosion and poor vegetation, easily eroded by wind. Due to its presence in the dry and semiarid belt of the world, Iran is exposed to multiple local and transboundary dust and dust systems. Iran and especially eastern Iran are exposed to severe environmental challenges such as storm dust. Land use change and soil erosion-sensitive soils are one of the most important factors affecting the creation of dust source areas.

    Material and Methods

    The purpose of this study is to identify and determine the characteristics of dust source areas in eastern Iran. The study area is in the eastern part of Iran with an area of about 3711854.1704 km2. The altitude in the study area is 107 to 3527 meters above sea level. This area includes 7 provinces including North and South Khorasan, Khorasan Razavi, Semnan, Kerman, Yazd, Sistan and Baluchestan. In this research, MODIS data was used to identify the dust source area. To identify dust source area from MODIS satellite imagery for the period of 2004 to 2017 and using dust detection indicators including BTD3132, BTD2931, NDDI and D, were used. After determining the areas for dust source and preparing the distribution map of these points in the study area, the surface properties of dust source areas were investigated. In this study, landslide, geology, slope and normalized vegetation index (NDVI), which are effective in creating dust source area, were studied. Finally, to determine the characteristics of dust source areas, the mapping of the distribution map of dust source areas with land use maps, slope, NDVI and lithology in ArcGIS software environment was performed. After covering the layers, land use characteristics, slope, NDVI and lithology of dust source areas were extracted.

    Results

    Using the four parameters and the method of false color combination and applying it to the MODIS image, the dust mass was detected on the images and then, by their visual interpretation, the starting point of the dust was determined. 147 dust points were identified in the study area. The results show that the highest dust points in land use, rangeland and agricultural land with 54, 45 and 18 points, which is about 36.73%, 30.61% and 24.24% The total points of the study area are located. The distribution results show the dust points on different slopes. As you can see, most of the dust points are two slopes of 0-2 and 2-5 with 104 and 27 points, with 90% of the source points in these two slopes. The results indicate that clay-loamy soils with the 61 point of dust, accounting for about 41.5% of the total points, have the highest point. This soil contains 38.084 percent of the total area of the region. The Vegetation Indicator Map (NDVI) in the region indicates that most of the area has no vegetation or vegetation, and only a very small part of the area (less than 1%) has a vegetation that indicates the land Far East of Iran. The results also indicate that all dust points are located on the 0 to -0.394673 class, and the rest of the classes have no point of view. The results showed that the highest and lowest dust points were in the geological units of chemical-sedimentary formations and intrusive rocks with a number of 43 and 0 source of dust.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    The results show that most of the dust source areas in land use and rangeland uses 54 and 45 points, which is about 37% and 31% of the total source points of the study area. The results also showed that among different soils, the highest point of dust with clay-loamy soil texture with 61 points was observed (about 41.5% of total source points). Also, most dust source area are visible in areas with low slope and no vegetation cover. From the perspective of geology, the highest and lowest dust points in the region are located in the geological units of the sedimentary chemical formations and intrusive rocks of the player.

    Keywords: Dust source, Land Use, Lithology, Soil, East of Iran
  • Hasan Torabipoudeh*, Hojatallah Yonesi, Ali Haghizadeh, Azadeh Arshia Pages 53-66
    Introduction

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply for agricultural purposes, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. the Water Quality Index (WQI) is used to provide early and quick results of the assessment of water quality status, IRWQI has been developed with the aim of using appropriate method with natural conditions and water resources issues in Iran. In this research, the trend analysis of parameters and quality assessment of groundwater resources of Lenjanat-Najafabad aquifer using IRWQIGC are reviewed.

    Materials and methods

    In this research, the time variation of water quality parameters was investigated using data from four different sources including Regional Water Company of Isfahan, Water and Wastewater Company of Isfahan Province, Isfahan Urban Water and Wastewater Company, and Isfahan University. Based on these, qualitative analysis of presentation Became The data for the time period (1995-2016) include EC, TDS, SAR, PH, TH and also NO3 and heavy metals including zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and arsenic. The water quality in Lenjanat-Najafabad was evaluated for agriculture and drink using the Wilcox and Schuler classification. ArcGIS software can be used for mapping the mapping of different interpolation methods. In the present study, the RMSE index was used to determine the appropriate method. In this region, the Kriging method is more appropriate.

    Results

    The average spatial temporal of quality parameters in Lenjanat range was compared in four-time intervals and the results indicate a decrease in the quality of groundwater resources in recent years. The trend of changes in parameters compared to the aquifer volume showed that in addition to reducing the size of the aquifer, there has been an increase in the incidence of contamination in the aquifer in recent years. In Lenjanat, agricultural water classification is mainly in the C2-S1, C3-S1 and C3-S2 regions, and in Najafabad in C2-S1, C3-S1 and C4-S2. The classification of drinking water according to the Shouler diagram in Lenjanat is mostly good and acceptable, and in Najafabad it was mostly found in acceptable and moderate class, and in some cases inappropriate. The amount of heavy metals is within the limits. The zonation of nitrate and IRWQIGC index were performed using Kriging method. The average nitrate value in Najafabad was 63/13 mg / L. The IRWQIGC index was calculated in Najafabad at 19/8 and in Langunat, 35/9, indicating poor water quality in the area.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The results showed that in addition to decreasing the size of the aquifer, there has been an increase in the incidence of contamination in the aquifer in recent years. it can be concluded that by decreasing the size of the aquifer from the other side and increasing the input of pollutants to groundwater resources, on the other hand, the increase of water pollution in the aquifer is evident. In other studies, researchers also examined the process of changing the quality parameters for the assessment of the quality of groundwater resources, as well as the Schuler and Wilcox diagram for water quality classification. the amount of nitrate in the range of Najafabad is the highest and the average spatial range of samples measured in this range exceeds the limit. Regarding the quality of water resources in the Lenjanat-Najafabad aquifer based on Iran Water Quality Index (IRWQI), the IRWQIGC index was used in this study for groundwater resources. Other researchers also used the WQI index for review. The quality of water resources is appropriate, but in the present study, considering that the research area in Iran is located, this indicator, but suitable for the conditions of IRWQI country, was used. Indicator zonation in the study area was performed using Kriging method and the results indicate that the index is low and as a result of inappropriate water quality of the region, especially in Najafabad, the index is less and water quality is inappropriate. Nitrate zoning map in this study area also shows an amount beyond the limit of nitrate in the areas mentioned. Other researchers have also introduced the Kriging method as a suitable method for mapping the map. If one of the main causes of high nitrate levels is agricultural activity in the area, it can be said that pollutants related to the use of chemical pesticides should be considered in future measurements. The trend analysis in Isfahan Regional Water Data showed that the water quality in the resources in the aquifer area has become worse with time. However, how big the share of each pollutant is, with the amount of information available, is difficult to quantify, but the approach of not polluting water resources should certainly be considered as a national approach.

    Keywords: Groundwater, IRWQIGC, Kriging, Lenjanat-Najafabad
  • Marzieh Rezaei*, Hossaein Arzani, Hossaein Azarinvand, Kian Najafi Tire Shabankareh, Hamid Moslemi Pages 67-82
    Introduction

    Rangelands constitute almost 52 percent of the country area computed as 164 million ha. The extent of rangelands has been estimated 84 million ha in Iran and they have been classified as good, moderate to poor and poor to very poor ones ranged as almost 10, 42 and 48 percent, respectively. One of the fundamental problems concerning land uses of rangelands is that Rangeland are not be used on the basis of their potentials and suitability and the improper land use let to excessive degradation of range. One of the potentials of arid and semiarid natural ecosystems is that these regions are prepaid area for grazing animal species. These species adopted with dry climate and conditions and they have high value. Wild goat and wild lamb such as the importance index of mammals in mountain region in a lot of dry habitat. Therefore, there isn’t enough studying about contract relationship and their habitat in Hormozgan. On the other side, these animals are one of the main food resources for carnivores such as tiger.  Tiger, goat and lamb are important potential in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Many factors affect the rangeland suitability such as vegetation and abiotic factors such as land slope, hillside length, soil properties, erosion sensibility, water distributions and etc. water is a major determinant of livestock distributions and grazing. Livestock grazes from a water point to another depending on the availability of forage and water. Habitat suitability of wildlife and determining suitability for livestock investigate relationship between species and ecological factors. These modals today are such as instrument for using in protection biology and their result has high utility in different management planning for protection and rehabilitation wildlife population in protected area. It is necessary for permanent and sustainable using from these resources is evaluate ecologic potential and determining arid and semi-arid land suitability. Geno national park because of habitat degradation and hasn’t enough protection of wildlife degraded to protected area in 1351. This region is ecoton and it is interring pole of 3 grow areas (Khalig – Omani, Iran – Tourani & Zagros) from 5 grow areas in Iran. Geno has more than 60% of plant species in Hormozgan, it has 517 plant species. Because of climate changing and human degradation wild life density decreased. In IUCN report some animals are in vulnerable list (IUCN, 2009). This fact show that we need to decide for arid and semi-arid areas that they have wildlife habitat for protection and improve herbivores and mammal’s species population especially in protected area. It causes to prevent degradation and decreasing ecological potential area.

    Material and methods

    Geno protected area with 44598 ha with 27 15 49 – 27 29 28 north and 56 18 15 – 56 57 5 in 30 km to west north of Bandarabass. Geno has mountain with 2345 m that surrounded by plain and open hills. North of Geno is Tang Bagh river, Agah harbor Chimangan, Geno gerd tiver, Soltan Shah land and Sadgaz in east, Bandarlengeh to Kal river. Geno is far 30 km from center of Bandarabas from 1351 under manage of environment protection organization. This study was down according FAO evaluation principals for determining livestock and wildlife grazing suitability in Geno protected area. For determining wildlife grazing suitability modal, at first based map and second sub modals prepared and then we overlaid maps. Finally, region with high suitability (S1), moderate suitability (S2), weak suitability (S3) and not proper (N) determined. Although all articles effect on arid and semi-arid ecosystems suitability, but investigation of all factors is not possible. So, 3 factors are main article from final wildlife suitability modals according FAO principals (Arzani, 2006) a) Soil Sensitivity to erosion final modal of erosion HASASIAT soil was prepared according field studding and observation investigation with EPM. b) Forage production and determining grazing capacity: in production suitability modal, total production and production that animal can graze in every type were calculated. We measured Total production by cut and weight method (Milner and Hogs, 1968). We determined wildlife daily requirement forage for different wildlife species and then wildlife grazing capacity determined.c) Water resources. Place of water resources by GPS registered in ArcGIS and distance of water resources map with buffer prepared. After overlaid quality and quantity and distance of water resources we identify water resources wildlife map.

    Discussion and conclusion

    In our study we use two parameters one ecological (slope, aspect, dem, soil, plant production, water resources, wildlife distributions) and one sub structural (distance to city and service facility and accommodations and roads). FAO modal for determining suitability. Results show that in Geno protected area we haven’t S1 and S2 area and we have 27.84 % S3 or 12415.46 ha and 32182.54 ha or 72.16 % area non suitable area. So according to finding we must manage and protect more. Although exporting modals livestock were interred wildlife suitability modals.  Allowable use harvesting level, forage production, livestock more grazing and decreasing water resources are limited factors for wildlife grazing suitability. If we don’t protect and we haven’t good and principal program our suitability trend from S3 to N.

    Keywords: water resources, erosion, production, modals, palatability
  • Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Moosavian, Abbas Ali Vali*, Sayed Hojjat Mousavi Pages 83-96
    Introduction

    Mining is one of the most effective human activities to change the situation in the region, particularly in arid area. The human demand for minerals and energy resources under the ground has made mining and exploration operations inevitable. Mining is one of the common human behaviors with numerous outcomes for the ecosystem along with serious environmental and ecological consequences in natural ecosystems such as desert areas, leading to positive and negative changes in these areas.

    Materials and methods

    In this study, it has been sought to assess the ecological vulnerability of mining areas of Tabas using environmental degradation model. The current applied research methodology is based on spatial data analysis and spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS software environment. In this regard, altitude, direction and slope maps were extracted from ASTER, while NDVI map was extracted from MODIS to determine vegetation vulnerability. In the next step, necessary corrections, drawings and analyses were performed. Isothermal maps were used to produce climatic maps for the temperature factor and the border and coastal zone stations were considered for the precipitation factor. Soil maps were obtained from soil map files, while geological maps were taken from geological map files at a scale of 1:100000 and groundwater maps were used from baseline data of regional water stations. To quantify environmental degradation phenomena, severity and degree of ecosystem vulnerability, an environmental degradation model is developed. This model is one of the methods of modeling system analysis, introduced for the conditions of Iran.

    Result

    The results of the analysis and summarization of the data from the study area elevation map show that the highest level is related to Class 1 and less than 1000 m (66%) and the second level is Class 2 with 28.77% of the study area is located. As more than 94% of the area is covered by one or two vulnerabilities. Therefore, the ecological factor of elevation in the region is not very sensitive. While regarding the factor of slope, 45.69% of the area was in the vulnerability codes of 2 and 3. Moreover, considering the geographic direction, over 47% of the area had high ecologic vulnerability and was placed in code of 3, while 86.55% of the area with a depth of less than 10 cm was in code5 regarding the factor of soil. In addition, 71.71% of the area was in vulnerability codes of 3, 4 and 5 regarding geological factors and 100% of the area was put in vulnerability code of 1 with average annual temperature of over 15 degrees Celsius for the factor of temperature. Regarding precipitation, 99.47% of the area had the vulnerability code of 8, while vegetation and low NDVI indicator of the area led to a vulnerability code of 4. Most of the area is located in the first class of EC (387-771 microseconds) with a vulnerability code 1. This code covers about half of the area. Finally, 99% and 98% of the area were assigned vulnerability codes of1, 2 and 3 considering the depth and quality of underground water, respectively. The scope of ecologic vulnerability in the overall area under study, 62.21% of the area was in vulnerability code of 2, and 30.36% in vulnerability code of 3. Accordingly, 11.6% of the area under study which covered 679579.9 acres was exploited for mining, out of which 658047.6 acres were located in vulnerable and semi-vulnerable ecologic areas with vulnerability codes of 2 and 3.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    In the present study, soil and geological factors have the most ecological limitations. In this area, due to the high sensitivity of the soil, the possibility of erosion is high and special attention should be paid to soil erosion during the environmental management process. Particularly in areas with low vegetation or barren land, there is a wide range of restrictions. In addition, the vulnerability of these areas increases with decreasing vegetation density. The percentage of vegetation in the eastern and southwestern districts of Tabas is higher and with a sensitive vulnerability class. The southern areas of the city are more resistant than the north, but are scattered and scattered. So, ecological restrictions are expected to increase in the western and central parts of Tabas County due to the low density of vegetation. So there will be more destruction and erosion. Obviously, urgent decisions to protect sensitive areas to prevent damage to land during extraction and operation are essential. Therefore, the mining areas in Tabas County need special management attention. The mine exploitation area comprises 62% of the study area, most of which is located in sensitive and semi-sensitive classes with vulnerability codes 2 and 3. Also, soil and geological factors with the highest ecological limitation are more diverse than other factors in the region. Therefore, due to the high sensitivity of the soil and the possibility of erosion, especially in areas with low vegetation cover or desolate areas (eastern and southwestern areas) as if are most vulnerable, special attention should be paid to erosion during the mining process.

    Keywords: Mining, Vegetation percentage, Topographic factors, Arid, desert areas, Tabas
  • Sosan Slajegheh, Hamid Reza Jafari*, Sharareh Pourebrahim Pages 97-111
    Introduction

    Vulnerability of people and places is a complex phenomenon has been created as a result of human and environment interaction during the ages. The concept of vulnerability addresses the probability of being destructed or damaged of a society, structure, service or a geographical area due to a specific danger. Nowadays there is frequent demand for settling industrial infrastructures in disadvantaged area, where employment is necessary, considering vulnerability of such areas and limitations of available resources for development purposes, therefore; comprehensive and integrated planning in is essential in order to conservation of resources and defining vulnerability of ecosystem. There are different methods for assessment of ecological vulnerability. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the common tools for this purpose. AHP is based on the premise that solutions for complex problems could be achieved if the complex structure effectively turned to simple and understandable structures. Since AHP has many desirable properties, it has been widely used in numerous quantitative researches including nature, society, economy and environmental vulnerability studies.

    Materials and Methods

    In this research, following statistics, data, information, maps and software in temporal and spatial scales are used:DEM map of the study area obtained from Iran Survey Organization, as well as maps of soil depth, rock type, faults, flooding and land cover of the study area obtained from Management and Planning Organization with 1:100000 scale.Also AHP, Expert Choice and GIS (version 10.3) have used in this study. The purpose of the current research is assessment of ecological vulnerability of Kerman Province toward industrial sustainable development. As the first step, available information layers (slope, elevation, soil depth, rock type, and distance from faults, flooding risk and land cover) are coded according to sensitivity to vulnerability and then all the layers are transformed to raster maps with uniform 100 meter resolution gird using ArcGIS based on their assigned codes. Using hierarchical analysis technique, the layers are weighted and integrated.

    Results

    According to the final map which obtained from integration of seven previous maps, 19, 28.3, 27.9, 12.5 and 2.2 % of the study area are classified in terms of vulnerability respectively as very low, low, moderate, high and very high. This confirms that generally the study area has good or relatively good ecological resistance. The results demonstrated that Jiroft city has the highest vulnerability, while Rudbar-e Jonub, Kahnooj, Shahr-e Babak and Kuhbanan have the lowest vulnerability.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The results revealed that Kerman Province has mostly good or relatively good ecological resistance. Placement of industries depends on a variety of parameters such as terrestrial, climatic and social-economic issues. According to every single of these parameters, it is possible to determine environmental vulnerability in different regions. In this study, physical parameters were solely considered as the main locating frame in Kerman Province, and assessment of environmental vulnerability is carried out on that, using different software, as discussed in the research method. The results of this research can be used easily by managers and planners in both industrial and environmental sectors of the province, and this will enable them to address minimum environmental indicators for development purposes. It is hoped that this will improve environmental indicators and also will bring sustainable industrial development in the region.

    Keywords: Ecological Vulnerability, Analytical Hierarchy Process, GIS, Industry, Kerman, Sustainable Development