فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zahra Tulaby Dezfuly, Amir Aramoon, Mojtaba Alishahi, Mostafa Halimi, Roya Rahnama* Pages 1-8
    Background

    Lead (Pb) is an important metal used in industries, mining and agriculture. It is equally important to the aquatic ecosystems and has negative impact on the health of aquatic organisms.

    Methods

    The LC50 of lead toxicity at varying salinities was first determined for 96 hours. Then juvenile fish were transferred to tanks individually and were exposed to 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 mg/l of Pb at varying salt concentration of 0, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 g/l. The blood samples were taken after the 4th day and the hematological parameters were evaluated. 

    Results

    Red Blood Cells (RBC) and White Blood Cells (WBC) were decreased in almost all lead treated groups. The Hb levels decreased consistent with increasing lead concentrations (P<0.05). The mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin and the concentration were not affected by the lead concentrations compared to those for the control group. The WBC and RBC counts showed an inverse correlation with the lead concentrations in the Pb-exposed fish. A direct correlation was also observed in the lead concentration and the heterophile rate (P<0.05). 

    Conclusion

    The results showed that salinity did not affect the hematological parameters, but the LC50 values decreased with increasing salinity.

    Keywords: Hematological parameters, Common carp, Heavy metal, Erythrocytes, Leukocytes
  • Eustace Bonghan Berinyuy*, Mann Abdullahi, Adamu Yusuf Kabiru, Emmanuel Olofu Ogbadoyi Pages 9-18
    Background

    Anti-plasmodial activities of the methanol stem bark extracts of Nauclea latifolia, and Terminalia glaucescens were investigated in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    Methods

    A total of 24 Plasmodium berghei infected (P. berghei infected) mice were divided into 8 groups of 3 each. Groups A-F were given 100, 300 or 500 mg/kg of either extracts. Groups G and H received 2 mL normal saline (negative control) and 5 mg/kg of chloroquine (positive control), respectively. The drugs and extracts were administered orally once daily for five days. 

    Results

    Alkaloids and flavonoids were the most and abundant metabolites in the extracts, respectively. The extract of Nauclea latifolia (N. latifolia) and Terminalia glaucescens (T. glauscecens) had Median Lethal Dose LD50 of >5000 mg/kg and 3808 mg/kg, respectively. In vivo anti-plasmodial studies revealed that the highest suppression (66.79% and 65.37%) and mean survival days (27.67±1.45 and 30.33±0.33) were recorded for the groups treated with 500 mg/kg N. latifolia or T. glaucescens, respectively. The infected but untreated groups survived only for 9.33±0.88 days while chloroquine treated groups lived for 31.33±0.88 days. The body weight and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of rats treated with 500 mg/kg. N. latifolia or T. glaucescens significantly increased (P<0.05) compared to those in the infected but untreated groups. There was a significant loss (P<0.05) in body weight and PCV of the mice treated with 100 mg/kg of T. glaucescens compared to those in other treated groups.

    Conclusion

    The extracts exhibited anti-plasmodial activities in mice, therefore, they may be considered potential candidates for new anti-malarial agents.

    Keywords: Acute toxicity, Anti-plasmodial, Nauclea latifolia, Phytochemicals, Terminalia glaucescens
  • Masoomeh Yosefi Fard*, Gholamhassan Vaezi, Ali Akbar Maleki Rad, Fardin Faraji, Vida Hojati Pages 19-24
    Background

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease due to the demyelination of axons in the central nervous system. Melatonin, as a hormone with potential anti-inflammatory effects, can reduce the MS symptoms by altering the levels of inflammatory mediators.

    Methods

    In this study, 50 MS patients referred to the MS Society in Markazi Province were randomly selected. Each patient completed and signed a consent form and was referred to the MS Center at Vali-Asr Hospital in Arak, Iran. All patients who were routinely receiving interferon, were divided into two groups of 25 each. Group 1 (control) received placebo, and Group 2 (treatment) received one dose of melatonin (3mg) per day for 24 weeks. Patients’ recorded anthropometric data included height, weight, and age. Fasting blood samples were collected and the serum levels of INF-1β and VitB12 determined. The blood samples were immediately centrifuged to separate sera, which were kept in a freezer at -80° C. The serum levels of INF-1β and Vitamin B12 were determined, using ELISA kits.

    Results

    The data showed that there were significant differences in the serum levels of INF-1β and Vitamin B12 between the control and treatment groups. The levels were significantly increased in the treatment group compared to those in the controls, suggesting that melatonin might have induced the changes.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results, the application of melatonin might be a valuable strategy in the treatment of patients with MS.

    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Melatonin, INF-1β, VitB12
  • Adewuyi Hassan Abdulsalam*, Muhammad L. Hadiza, Onukogu Stella Chiamaka, Ibrahim Jonathan, Suleiman Alfa, Alawode Rahmatallah Adenike, Umar Sherif Itopa Pages 25-32
    Background

    Leptadenia hastata (L. Hastata) is a plant used for various diseases in Nigeria. This study evaluated the protective effects of L. hastate on the haematological and biochemical alterations in adrenaline-induced hypertensive rats.

    Methods

    Twenty-five rats were divided equally into five groups (A-E). Groups A-D were given 0.5 mg/kg adrenaline, groups A and B were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg the extract of L. Hastata, respectively, while groups C and D were treated with 5 mg/kg amlodipine (standard control) and normal saline (untreated control), respectively. Group E were given distilled water (normal controls). The adrenaline was injected intraperitoneally while the extract was given orally once daily for seven days.

    Results

    Treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg of the extract significantly reduced the elevated serum albumin, ALP, ALT, AST, chloride, sodium and creatinine, cholesterol and LDL concentrations compared with the untreated hypertensive rats. The bicarbonate level, WBC and RBC counts, mean cell hemoglobin and packed cell value were higher in rats treated with the extract compared with the untreated hypertensive rats. The mean cell value, HDL, triglyceride, urea, potassium, total and direct bilirubin concentrations in experimental groups were not significantly different from those in the controls (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Our results suggest that treatment of the hypertensive rats with the extract of L. Hastata protects against renal, hepatic and cardiac damages, thus it could be considered as a natural anti-hypertensive agent. Further studies are required to identify the bioactive constituents and the mechanism(s) of action.

    Keywords: Adrenalin, Biochemical, Haematological, Lipid profile, Leptadenia hastata
  • Javeria Wakeel, Nazia Ehsan, Rana Waseem Akhtar, Syed Aftab Hussain Shah* Pages 33-42
    Background

    Cadmium is known as a unique heavy metal compared to others, due to its long half-life, low discharge from the body, toxicity at low concentrations and accumulation in tissues.

    Methods

    The effects of chronic and acute Cadmium (Cd) exposure were investigated on the morphology and histopathology of 24 field rats (Millardia meltada). The rats were divided into two groups of 12 each, then sub-divided into: one control and two treatment sub-groups with Cd in the feed or water. The treatment subgroups received either 15mg/kg (low) or 30mg/kg (high) Cd concentration in the feed. 

    Results

    Hemorrhagic spots and fibrosis were observed in the liver of Cd treated rats compared to the controls. Also, necrosis, dilation, and calcinosis occurred in the renal tubules of the treatment groups compared to the controls. The levels of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were reduced, while mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin concentrations were increased.

    Conclusion

    This study reports the morphological, pathological and hematological abnormalities in the blood, liver and kidneys of rats due to Cd toxicity, which may be considered as the biomarkers of cadmium toxicity in other experimental mammals.

    Keywords: Cadmium, Biomarker, Hematology, Histopathology, Millardia meltada, Rats
  • Adenike R. Alawode*, Muhammed Dauda, Adeyemi Gbolagade Adegbola, Olabode Richard Babatunde Pages 43-50
    Background

    Cordyla pinnata (C. pinnata) is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic and safety potentials of the methanol extract of C. pinnata in rats. 

    Methods

    The methanol extract of C. pinnata was administered to the rats orally once daily at a dose of 0, 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg, body weight for 21 days. The toxicity was assessed using mortality rate, clinical signs, body and organ weights, hematological and serum chemistry indices.

    Results

    The extract at 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg significantly decreased (p<0.05) the serum alanine aminotransferase and sodium, but increased the urea concentration compared with those in the controls. There were no significant treatment-related alterations in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, bilirubin, total proteins, chloride and creatinine. Also, the serum hematological parameters including Hemoglobin (HB), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentrations (MCHC) and Red Blood Cell (RBC) did not change significantly (p<0.05). However, there were significant increases (p<0.05) in White Blood Cell (WBC) and platelet counts, in weight gain and relative liver, kidney, lung and heart body weight ratio in the rats treated with 600 mg/kg of the extract compared with those in the controls. 

    Conclusion

    The C. pinnata extract was safe and non-toxic to the rats’ liver and blood components at doses up to 600 mg/kg for a period of 21 days. However, alterations found in the markers of kidneys integrity call for exercising caution when using this extract orally as a long-term remedy.

    Keywords: Cordyla pinnata, hematology, biochemical, acute, sub-acute toxicity
  • Israel O. Okoro* Pages 51-58
    Background

    Plants contain diverse phytochemicals with different solubility levels, depending on their molecular charges and polarity. This study was conducted to examine the effects of three extraction solvents in their pure and aqueous forms: absolute petroleum ether, acetone and ethanol on the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activities of Manihot esculenta leaves extracts.

    Methods

    The preliminary phytochemical investigations were performed, using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant properties were estimated by: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picryl-Hydrazyl (DPPH), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Ferric Thiocyanate (FTC).

    Results

    The phytochemical analyses revealed the occurrence of an array of compounds: alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannin phenols, saponins and anthraquinones, the concentration of which varied with the solvent type. A considerable presence of all phytochemicals was found in the aqueous ethanol. The extracts from pure solvents were much less effective against DPPH synthetic radical than those 50% diluted. The petroleum ether extract provided the least antiradical activity, while the aqueous ethanol was the richest. The scavenging effect of the extracts on H2O2 varied in this order: 50% ethanol > absolute ethanol > ascorbic acid > 50% acetone > absolute acetone > 50% petroleum ether > absolute petroleum ether. Similarly, the results of the FRAP and FTC methods agreed largely with those of the DPPH and H2O2. Thus, the results of antioxidant activity positively correlated with the phytochemical results, with the aqueous ethanol showing the maximum activity overall.

    Conclusion

    The results indicated that the extraction solvents considerably affected the phytochemical contents and the antioxidant activities of the tested extracts. These extracts can potentially serve as the alternative sources of natural antioxidant preparations.

    Keywords: Phytochemistry, Antioxidant activity, DPPH, H2O2, FRAP, FTC
  • Mohammad Moshiri, Arya Hedjazi, Seyed Mohsen Rezazadeh Shojaie, Leila Etemad* Pages 59-62
    Background

    Incorrect belief about opioid efficacy is a major cause of acute pediatric poisonings in Iran. We report a rare case of topical opium application that caused death in a 4-year-old child. 

    Case

    A 4-year old girl was examined with burns over her abdominal area and lower extremities. Her parents had applied opium on burned area to relieve her pain. She was in delirium state and apnea without any evidence of infection. Immediately, she was administered a single dose of Naloxone (2mg). 

    Results

    While blood oxygen saturation was improving, she aspirated her vomitus into the lungs and became hypotensive and pulseless. Her condition deteriorated and the treatment team’s efforts to resuscitate her failed. On her autopsy, there were no other abnormal findings, but codeine and morphine were detected in the autopsied tissue sample. 

    Conclusion

    The plausible contributing factors may include: change in morphine pharmacokinetics in the burned skin; the low toxic dose of opium in children due to thin abdominal skin, and high blood perfusion in the burned areas.

    Keywords: Dermal, opium, children, death, Iran, forensic toxicology