فهرست مطالب

برنامه ریزی منطقه ای - پیاپی 36 (زمستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 36 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • آرش صادقیان*، ناصر برک بور صفحات 1-16

     امروزه مناطق آزاد اقتصادی یکی از ابزارهای نظام نئولیبرالیسم برای تحقق راهبرد برون گرا در پارادایم جهانی شدن، بر بستر اقتصاد سیاسی فضا و از اصلی ترین کانون های تمرکز حضور سرمایه گذاران محسوب می شود. حضور سرمایه در این مناطق منجر به توسعه کالبدی سریع تر این مناطق و نواحی شهری آنها نسبت به دیگر حوزه ها گردیده است؛ که این امر ضرورت توجه به برنامه ریزی و مدیریت کاربری زمین در توسعه مناطق آزاد را افزایش داده است. بر این اساس هدف تحقیق حاضر، ارزیابی ساز و کارهای مدیریت زمین در مناطق آزاد با توجه به سه نمونه چین، امارات متحده عربی و ایران می باشد. روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی و مبتنی بر مطالعات اسنادی و همچنین پیمایش است. جهت تفسیر از تحلیل محتوا و تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP)، استفاده شده است. نتایج تحلیل مقایسه ای در ایران و کشورهای امارات متحده عربی و چین نشان می دهد که اطمینان از کالبد زیستی، تحلیل تقاضای سرمایه گذاری و تامین زیرساخت ها بر اساس طرح های بالادست از مهم ترین اصول موثر بر مدیریت کاربری زمین می باشد. ویژگی اصلی نظام مدیریت کاربری زمین در مناطق آزاد، مدیریت پایدار و یکپارچه منابع زمین است. در این راستا، ابعاد محیطی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی باید به دقت مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: مناطق آزاد، مدیریت کاربری زمین، مناطق آزاد ایران، مدیریت یکپارچه
  • لیدا علیزاده*، حمید شایان صفحات 17-30

      امروزه یکی از موضوعات مهم در برنامه ریزی منطقه ای، مسئله توسعه متعادل و متناسب خدمات اساسی متناسب با پراکنش جمعیت آن منطقه می باشد. چرا که عدم توزیع خدمات مذبور منجر به ایجاد بحران های جمعیتی، اجتماعی و مشکلات پیچیده فضایی در راستای توزیع عادلانه و توسعه متوازن مناطق خواهد شد. هدف از این پژوهش، سنجش سطح خدمات زیر ساختی شهری- روستایی و رابطه آن با پراکنش جمعیتی در استان خراسان رضوی می باشد. این پژوهش دارای ماهیتی توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده که جهت گردآوری داده ها از مطالعات اسنادی و میدانی و برای تحلیل داده های خام و پهنه بندی شهرستان های استان خراسان رضوی از مدل های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره و نرم افزار GIS استفاده شد. در این رابطه، یافته های حاصل از مدل ویکور و مدل سلسله مراتب فازی در سطح شهرستان های استان بیانگر عدم توزیع متعادل خدمات می باشد. شهرستان مشهد در بالاترین سطح از برخورداری و شهرستان های سبزوار و نیشابور در حد متوسط و شهرستان های خلیل آباد و جوین در سطح نامطلوب قرارگرفته اند. با توجه به اینکه شهر مشهد اولین شهر زیارتی ایران بوده به عنوان بزرگ ترین کانون جذب جمعیتی در این استان می باشد در وهله اول به نظر می رسد این خدمات در سطح استانی در مقایسه با سایر مراکز جمعیتی متعادل نباشد و لذا این تحقیق دنبال این می باشد که چه راهکارهایی با توجه به شرایط محلی و منطقه ای که عملی و قابل اجرا باشد می توان ارائه داد که این مراکز جمعیتی به سمت نقطه تعادلی  کشیده شود. در ادامه، جهت بررسی ارتباط بین شاخص های جمعیتی با وضعیت برخورداری شهرستان ها به لحاظ خدمات شهری از آزمون پیرسون استفاده شد. نتایج این آزمون نشان داد؛ بین تراکم جمعیت و نرخ رشد جمعیت با تمرکز خدمات، به ترتیب با ضریب (0.721) و (0.076) رابطه مستقیمی وجود دارد، از سوی دیگر، فاصله از مرکز استان با سطح برخورداری از خدمات اساسی با ضریب (0.113) رابطه چندان معنی داری ندارد.

    کلیدواژگان: پراکنش جمعیت، توزیع خدمات، عدالت فضایی، نابرابری منطقه ای، استان خراسان رضوی
  • علی اصغر بانوئی، زهرا ضیایی، پریسا مهاجری* صفحات 31-48

     بکارگیری هر نوع روش سهم مکانی در محاسبه جداول داده-ستانده منطقه ای، منجر به تعدیل ناخواسته ارقام رسمی GDP و بردار ارزش افزوده بخش های استان در حساب های منطقه ای می گردد. این نارسائی حتی در مورد روش تعمیم یافته FLQ (EFLQ) که نسبت به سایر روش های پیشین، حساسیت بیشتری به ابعاد فضایی بخش های منطقه دارد، نیز ظاهر می شود. برای غلبه بر این نارسائی، در این مقاله جدول داده-ستانده منطقه ای استان گیلان با استفاده از روش ترکیبی جدید EFLQ-RAS محاسبه شده و سه پرسش زیر مورد تحلیل و واکاوی قرار می گیرند: یک- آیا بکارگیری روش جدید می تواند مسئله تعدیل ناخواسته آمارهای رسمی را برطرف نماید؟ دو- آیا بکارگیری روش جدید خطاهای آماری کمتری نسبت به روش های FLQ و EFLQ دارد؟ سه- آیا متغیرهایی مانند تمرکزگرایی، تخصص گرایی، واردات واسطه ای و ارزش افزوده بخش ها از منظر آماری اثر معناداری بر  دارند؟ یافته های کلی عبارتند از: تعدیل ناخواسته GDP و ارزش افزوده بخش ها در روش EFLQ اجتناب ناپذیر است در حالی که روش ترکیبی جدید EFLQ-RAS، این نقصیه را برطرف می کند. دو- روش پیشنهادی EFLQ-RAS نسبت به روش های FLQ و EFLQ برتری دارد. سه- تخصص گرایی استان تاثیر منفی و معنادار و واردات واسطه ای تاثیر مثبت و معنادار بر  دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: جدول داده-ستانده منطقه ای، روش های سهم مکانی، روش ترکیبی جدید EFLQ-RAS، تمرکزگرایی، تخصص گرایی
  • نادر زالی*، سید علی سجادی اصل، سامان ابی زاده صفحات 49-66

    استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد به دلیل برخورداری از منابع با ارزش و حیاتی و همچنین موقعیت خاص جغرافیایی می تواند به عنوان یکی از قطب های مهم صنعتی کشورتبدیل گردد ولی نتوانسته به درستی مسیر توسعه را طی کند و به عنوان یک استان محروم شناخته می شود. لذا هدف اصلی در پژوهش حاضر شناسایی نقاط قوت و ضعف و بیان پتانسیل ها و تهدیات استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد و ارائه برنامه استراتژیک جهت توسعه آن می باشد. این پژوهش از نظر هدف جزء پژوهش های کاربردی و به لحاظ روش از نوع تبینی می باشد و بر اساس ماهیت داده ها از نوع پژوهش های کیفی است. جامعه آماری آن شامل مدیران ارشد استان می باشد که از این میان 23 نفر به صورت نمونه انتخاب شدند. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات، از دو روش اسنادی و میدانی و برای تحلیل داده ها از مدل SWOT و تلفیق آن با AHP استفاده شد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد، برخورداری از منابع نفت و گاز و منابع معدنی فراوان، موقعیت جغرافیایی و ارتباطی مناسب بین منطقه ای به عنوان مهم ترین نقاط قوت و نبود کارخانجات صنعتی و معدنی، ضعف شدید زیرساخت های لازم در مراکز شهری،عدم توجه به سکونت گاه های روستایی به عنوان مهم ترین نقاط ضعف استان شناخته شده است. امکان توسعه فعالیت های باغداری، زنبورداری، قابلیت بالای پرورش دام و پروش آبزیان به عنوان مهم ترین فرصت های و بیرون ماندن استان از فضای شبکه اقتصادی کشور، عدم شکل گیری ارتباط قوی بین سکونتگاه ها، نبود بستر امنیتی مناسب برای سرمایه گذاران به عنوان مهم ترین تهدیدات استان شناخته شده است. که بر اساس این نقاط قوت و ضعف و فرصت ها و تهدیدات، جهت توسعه استان راهبردهای پیشنهاد گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی استراتژیک، مدل های تحلیلی، راهبردهای توسعه منطقه ای، استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد، تحلیل AHP-SWOT
  • وکیل حیدری ساربان*، شراره ثابت صفحات 67-82

    احساس عدالت اجتماعی از مهم ترین ارکان بهبود احساس امنیت اجتماعی از طریق تقویت مولفه ‎های دسترسی به منابع، حکمروایی خوب، رفاه اقتصادی، عدالت اقتصادی، رشد شخصیت فردی، نبود تبعیض های اجتماعی و دسترسی به خدمات اجتماعی، میزان رضایتمندی و میزان مشارکت اجتماعی و غیره است. هدف این مقاله مطالعه و تحلیل اثرات عدالت اجتماعی بر بهبود احساس امنیت اجتماعی روستاییان شهرستان اردبیل می باشد. این تحقیق از نوع کاربردی و به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی است که با استفاده از روش پیمایش انجام شده است. جامعه آماری شامل کل روستاییان بالای 15 سال ساکن در مناطق روستایی شهرستان اردبیل می باشد (85053=n)، که از این میان تعداد 383 نفر با استفاده از فرمول کوکران به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب شدند. در نهایت، نتایج حاصل از یافته های توصیفی تحقیق نشان داد که از بین میانگین متغیرهای احساس عدالت اجتماعی، میانگین متغیر میزان رفاه اقتصادی (88/8) در رده اول و میانگین متغیر انسجام اجتماعی (08/2) در رده آخر قرار داردو از بین میانگین مولفه احساس امنیت اجتماعی، مولفه امنیت جمعی (85/12) در رده اول و میانگین امنیت فرهنگی (22/2) در رده آخر قرار دارد. و نیز، نتیجه حاصل از آزمون همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد به جز مولفه های انسجام اجتماعی و آزادی های سیاسی بین تمامی مولفه های تحقیق با بهبود احساس امنیت اجتماعی رابطه مثبت و معنی داری وجود دارد. هم چنین، بر اساس نتایج حاصل از ضریب بتا، سهم و نقش متغیر «دسترسی به منابع» به مقدار (48/0)، در تبیین متغیر وابسته «احساس امنیت اجتماعی» بیش تر از سایر متغیرها است و متغیرهای میزان رفاه اقتصادی به مقدار (40/0)، و حکمروایی خوب به میزان (28/0)، به ترتیب در اولویت های بعدی قرار گرفتند. و در خاتمه، با توجه به تحلیل نتایج، پیشنهاداتی کاربردی نیز ارائه شده است و بر این نکته تاکید گردید که شاخص های پایداری اجتماعی (سرمایه اجتماعی، تعلق سرزمینی، مسئولیت پذیری اجتماعی و غیره) در راستای تحقق امنیت اجتماعی تقویت گردد. همچنین رابطه معنی دار بین دسترسی به منابع و بهبود احساس امنیت اجتماعی وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: احساس عدالت اجتماعی، امنیت اجتماعی، احساس امنیت اجتماعی، مدیریت توسعه روستایی
  • محبوبه نامدار، علی اکبر عنابستانی*، محمدرحیم رهنما، سعیدرضا اکبریان رونیزی صفحات 83-106

     امروزه سرمایه های ارسالی مهاجران بین المللی را می توان به عنوان یکی از بزرگترین و پایدارترین ابعاد مالی و سرمایه گذاری در کشورهای در حال توسعه دانست، که با هدایت و بکارگیری صحیح آن در سایر بخش های اقتصادی، فرهنگی- اجتماعی، کالبدی و غیره می تواند تاثیر بسزایی در پیشرفت توسعه و ارتقای شاخص های کیفیت زندگی ساکنان مناطق مبدا به همراه داشته باشد. تحقیق حاضر، که با هدف بررسی و تحلیل اثرات سرمایه های ارسالی مهاجران بین المللی نیروی کار بر کیفیت زندگی ساکنان مناطقی از جنوب استان فارس صورت گرفته است، از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش، توصیفی و تحلیلی است. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از روش های اسنادی و میدانی بهره گرفته شده است. در همین راستا پرسشنامه هایی در قالب 4 شاخص بر اساس طیف لیکرت تنظیم و به صورت تصادفی بین شهروندان توزیع گردید. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل 18141 خانوار می باشند که در قالب 17روستا و 3 شهر منطقه پراکنده می باشند، که از این تعداد خانوار بر اساس فرمول کوکران حجم نمونه برابر با 314 خانوار انتخاب شده اند. تجزیه و تحلیل پرسشنامه با استفاده از روش آمار توصبفی و تحلیلی از جمله آزمون های تی تک نمونه ای، پیرسون، رگرسیون چند متغیره و تحلیل مسیر انجام گردیده است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد که بین سرمایه های ارسالی مهاجران و کیفیت زندگی ساکنان منطقه رابطه معنادار و مستقیم وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون چند متغیره و تحلیل مسیر نشان می دهد که سرمایه های ارسالی مهاجران با ابعاد کیفیت زندگی با ضریب 830/0 دارای رابطه ای مثبت با شدتی قوی می باشد و شاخص فرصت های شغلی و درآمدی با ضریب تاثیر573/.  بیشترین میزان اثر را بر ارتقای شاخص های کیفیت زندگی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه های ارسالی، مهاجران بین المللی، کیفیت زندگی، نیروی کار، جنوب استان فارس
  • محمدرضا قائدی* صفحات 107-118

    مشارکت سیاسی فراگیر شهروندان در امور مختلف یکی از نمادهای وجود دموکراسی و مشروعیت حاکمیت یک کشور است که دارای ابعاد متعددی می باشد. شرکت در انتخابات یکی از ابعاد مهم مشارکت سیاسی است که ارتقای سطح آن در گرو بهبود وضعیت دیگر ابعاد مشارکت سیاسی و شناسایی و تقویت عوامل موثر بر آن است. هدف پژوهش کاربردی حاضر که با روش توصیفی تحلیلی و همستگی انجام گرفته است ارزیابی مشارکت سیاسی و شاخص های آن و همچنین شناسایی عوامل تعیین کننده آن در میان شهروندان شهر لامرد واقع در استان فارس است. همه شهروندان 18 ساله و بیشتر، که واجد شرکت در انتخابات هستند جامعه آماری پژوهش را تشکیل می دهند که بر اساس نتایج آخرین سرشماری، تعداد آن ها 19595 نفر بوده است. ابزار اصلی پژوهش برای گردآوری داده ها، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود که روایی و پایایی آن تایید شده است. با توجه به محدودیت های انجام سرشماری، با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 378 نفر به عنوان نمونه آماری در نظر گرفته شدند و پرسشنامه ها به صورت کاملا تصادفی در میان شهروندان توزیع و تکمیل گردید. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد بیشترین و کمترین مشارکت سیاسی شهروندان در دو متغیر رای دادن و نوشتن مقالات سیاسی به ترتیب با میانگین 26/4 و 32/2 بوده است. نتایج بررسی وضعیت کلی مشارکت سیاسی شهروندان نشان می دهد میانگین محاسبه شده با مقدار 131/3 بالاتر از حد متوسط می باشد. همچنین نتایج بررسی همبستگی میان متغیر وابسته و متغیرهای مستقل پژوهش نشان داد بین مشارکت سیاسی و متغیرهای پایگاه اقتصادی اجتماعی، احساس کارآمدی و اثربخشی سیاسی، استفاده از رسانه های داخلی، کیفیت زندگی، رضایت از عملکرد دولت، سرمایه اجتماعی، استفاده از شبکه های اجتماعی و آگاهی سیاسی، به لحاظ آماری ارتباط معنادار و مثبتی وجود دارد و میان استفاده از رسانه های خارجی و میزان مشارکت سیاسی ارتباط معنادار و منفی وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج پژوهش نشان داد بین متغیرهای سن، جنس، وضعیت تاهل و درجه مذهبی بودن با میزان مشارکت سیاسی ارتباط معناداری وجود ندارد.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار شهری، مشارکت شهروندی، مشارکت سیاسی، انتخابات، لامرد
  • برآورد پراکنش تاب آوری شهری از منظر بحران زلزله با استفاده از الگوی آمار فضایی (مطالعه موردی: شهر ایلام)
    الیاس مودت*، پرستو گرمسیری، کورش مومنی صفحات 119-134

    از دیدگاه مدیریت بحران، تاب آوری، یکی از مهم ترین موضوعات برای رسیدن به پایداری است. در واقع به منزله راهی جهت تقویت جوامع با استفاده از ظرفیت های آن ها مطرح می شود. از مسئله انتخابی موضوع در شهر ایلام اینکه شهر ایلام در زون زاگرس واقع شده است. از لحاظ وضعیت لرزه خیزی در موقعیت خطرناک قرار دارد. به طوری که منطقه زاگرس بیشترین زمین لرزه های با بزرگی 4 تا 4/5 ریشتر دارا می باشد. بر اساس اهمیت موضوع، پژوهش حاضر با رویکرد توسعه ای- کاربردی و ترکیبی از روش های تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی بدین شرح که با مطالعات میدانی از نواحی 14گانه شهر ایلام و مراجعه به سازمان های مربوطه اطلاعات مورد نیاز از دو بعد کالبدی - اجتماعی تهیه و جمع آوری گردیده است. و با صورت کمی و کیفی با الگوی آمار فضایی و نرم افزارهای GRAFER، EQS، EXCEL و ArcGIS، VPLS و AMOS-SPSS مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. بر اساس نتایج تحقیق بصورت کیفی قابل بیان است که ناحیه 2 از منطقه چهار و ناحیه 2 از منطقه سه به ترتیب به عنوان نواحی که بیشترین تاب آوری و کمترین تاب آوری را در کل شهر ایلام دارا می باشند. و از دیدگاه کمی بر اساس نتایج الگوی Z-Score که مقدار آن برابر 586/5 درصد بوده به احتمال کمتر از 1 درصد تاب آوری در شهر ایلام وجود دارد. به عبارت دیگر به احتمال کمتر از 1 درصد در وضع موجود، شهر ایلام می تواند، در تاب آوری به ایفای نقش بپردازد.

    کلیدواژگان: تاب آوری، مدلسازی، آمار فضایی، ایلام
  • علیرضا زارع، محمد رضا رضایی*، حسنعلی لقائی صفحات 135-148

    امروزه بافت های تاریخی شهرها با افول ارزش ها، کیفیات زندگی و محیطی در تمامی ابعاد شهری روبه رو شدند و این موضوع در صورتی است که شناخت ارزش ها، توانایی ها و پتانسیل های بافت ها تاریخی می تواند موجب توسعه و بهبود شرایط اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و کالبدی شهر گردد. لذا، کیفیت محیطی این بافت ها با توجه به نقش مشارکت مردم سبب برون رفت از مسائل و مشکلات مطرح شده می شود. این مقاله به تبیین نقش شهرسازی تاکتیکال به عنوان رهیافتی نوین در ارتقا کیفیت محیطی بافت های تاریخی شهری پرداخته شده است. رویکرد حاکم بر این پژوهش "توصیفی- تحلیلی" و "توصیفی- پیمایشی" است و به طور کلی تحقیق از لحاظ هدف کاربردی می باشد. جامعه ی آماری ساکنین منطقه هشت شهر شیراز می باشد. هم چنین، در تجزیه وتحلیل اطلاعات و داده های پرسشنامه ای از نرم افزار SPSS و آزمون فریدمن و رگرسیون چند متغیره استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که توجه طراحی محیطی به عنوان پاتوق اجتماعی که می تواند در حضورپذیری افراد در فضاهای شهری موثر باشد، دارای بیشترین اثرگذاری در در ارتقا کیفیت محیطی بوده است. پس از آن دسترسی به خدمات تجاری و کیفیت طراحی محیطی در ایجاد فضای فراغتی بالاترین رتبه را به خود اختصاص داده اند. هم چنین، با توجه به مووفه های بررسی شده بر اساس آزمون فریدمن به ترتیب مولفه های حضورپذیری، مشارکت و فراغت قرارگرفته شدند که هریک از این مولفه ها می توانند کیفیت محیطی بافت تاریخی شهر شیراز را بر اساس شهرسازی تاکتیکال موجب شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: شهرسازی تاکتیکال، کیفیت محیطی، بافت های تاریخی شهری
  • رضا سروش نیا، سید مجید مفیدی شمیرانی*، ایرج اعتصام صفحات 149-166

    پلکس سازی، روشی در طراحی مسکونی است که باهدف تامین مسکنی پایدار، امن و همسو با شرایط محیطی پیشنهاد شده است. مسکن پلکس به دلیل دارا بودن خصوصیات مثبتی چون  همسویی بنا با محیط، اقلیم و منطقه، تقلیل مصرف انرژی بنا در حین گرمایش و سرمایش، صرفه جویی در استفاده از سرانه زمین شهری و ازلحاظ کیفی، ارتقاء پایداری اجتماعی در این نوع مسکن به عنوان نوع مطلوبی از مسکن اجتماعی جهت مطالعه و بررسی انتخاب گردیده است. از طرفی با دقت در معماری بومی می توان دریافت که این نوع معماری از کیفیات منحصربه فردی در ارتباط با ملاحظات اقلیمی، فرهنگی و اجتماعی برخوردار بوده که توجه به این الگوها در معماری معاصر می تواند مسکن را به سرشت و طبیعت سرزمینی که در آن واقع شده بازگرداند. هدف این مقاله، نشان دادن راهبردهای طراحی مسکن پلکس در ارتباط با مسکن بومی اقلیم گرم و خشک در راستای بازخوانی و احیاء الگوهای غنی معماری گذشته در معماری معاصر است. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی و تطبیقی بوده وا طلاعات مورد نیاز از طریق مطالعات میدانی (مشاهده و مصاحبه) و مرور برخی اسناد جمع آوری شده است. نتایج حاصل از بررسی شاخصه های مورد پژوهش نشان می دهد  که در مسکن پلکس و مسکن بومی از بعد موقعیت کالبدی تعامل زیادی دیده می شود. از لحاظ ساختار فضایی این دو نوع مسکن در تعامل بسیار نزدیک می باشند و از دیدگاه اقلیمی مسکن بومی پاسخگویی بهتری به محیط داشته است، ولی در مجموع تمامی معیارهای طراحی در دو نوع مسکن در تعامل با یکدیگر است. مسکن پلکس می تواند به عنوان شکل جدیدی از مسکن معاصر در ایجاد هم پیوندی با معماری گذشته در پاسخگویی به محیط و ایجاد مسکن پایدار مفید و موثر باشد و احیاء الگوهای غنی معماری مسکن بومی  را در معماری معاصر به دنبال داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: مسکن بومی، مسکن پلکس، اقلیم گرم و خشک، گونه شناسی مسکن
  • مهلا شجاعی اناری*، مصطفی خبازی، صادق کریمی صفحات 167-184

    امروزه در پی بحران جهانی آب، تمام کشورها در پی شناسایی منابع آب شیرین، کنترل و استفاده بهینه از آنها می‏باشند. با توجه به اینکه کشور ایران در کمربند بیابانی کره زمین قرار دارد و کاهش بارش‏های جوی باعث کمبود آب در ایران و استان کرمان شده، بنابراین شناسایی منابع آبی و بررسی تغییرات پوشش برف لازم و ضروری است. با توجه به شرایط سخت فیزیکی محیط های کوهستانی امکان اندازه گیری دائم زمینی جهت تخمین منابع برفابی و تشکیل پایگاه داده ها وجود ندارد. به همین جهت استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره ای در شناسایی مناطق برفگیر و ارزیابی تغییرات آن بسیار مهم می باشد. در این پژوهش سعی شده تغییرات پوشش ذخیره ‏گاه‏ های برفی مناطق مرتفع حوضه آبخیز هلیل رود با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره‏ ای MOD10A2 مورد مطالعه قرار گیرد. برای این منظور از شاخص تفاضلی نرمال شده پوشش برف استفاده شد[1]. این شاخص دارای ارزش بزرگ تر از 4/0 بوده یعنی پیکسلی که دارای NDSI بزرگ تر از 4/0 باشد به عنوان برف و یخ معرفی می شود. پوشش برف مشخص شده تصاویر ماهواره‏ای در نرم افزار ENVI5.1 وارد محیط GIS شده و به 5 طبقه از 0 تا 5000 طبقه ‏بندی شده و مساحت هر کدام از طبقات محاسبه گردید. سپس وارد محیط SPSS شده و تحلیل و بررسی روی آنها صورت گرفت. با انجام رگرسیون چند متغیره به روش استپ وایس [2] این نتیجه حاصل شد که در بازه زمانی 8 روزه ماه فوریه (از  18 تا 25 فوریه) بیشترین تغییرات مساحت برف که با روند مساحت برف در این چند سال ارتباط قوی و معناداری داشته و در حقیقت توجیه کننده تغییرات برف در این بازه زمانی است، به ترتیب مربوط به ارتفاعات 3 (3000-2001) و سپس 4 (4000-3001) بوده است. طبقه ارتفاعی 3000-2001 به تنهایی توجیه کننده 98.9 درصد روند تغییرات برف در کل منطقه مورد مطالعه است. در وهله دوم اگر ارتفاع 4000-3001 هم اضافه شود، این دو طبقه ارتفاعی با هم توجیه کننده 99.2 درصد تغییرات روند برف در این بازه در طول 19 سال گذشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: حوضه آبخیز، ahow MOD10A2، NDSI، پوشش برف، ایران
  • علی شجاعی فرد* صفحات 185-196

    در جهان امروز تفکر کارآفرینی و استفاده از آن در سازمان ها امری اجتناب ناپذیر است. اندیشمندان رواج دهنده ی توسعه ی روستایی، کارآفرینی را به منزله ی یک مداخله ی راهبردی می دانند که می تواند فرایند توسعه ی روستایی را تسریع بخشد، اما به نظر می رسد که همگی آنها بر نیاز به گسترش بنگاه های اقتصادی روستایی نیز توافق دارند. امروزه با توجه به مشکلات موجود در این جوامع، توجه و تاکید بر کارآفرینی روستایی، اهمیت زیادی دارد؛ زیرا کارآفرینی می تواند با خلق فرصت های جدید اشتغال و درآمد، نقش موثری در بهبود وضع اقتصادی و معیشتی روستاها داشته باشد. به منظور توانمندسازی افراد مستعد برای کارآفرین شدن، باید فعالیت های کارآفرینانه را ترویج داده، روحیه کارآفرینی را پرورش داد و در نهایت محیطی کارآفرینانه حاکم گردانید. این امر مستلزم شناخت، تبیین و تشریح مفهوم و فرایند کارآفرینی روستایی در کسب و کار از طریق توانمندسازی افراد مستعد و دارای کمترین منابع مالی و اقتصادی می باشد. تحقیق حاضر از نوع اکتشافی و از نظر روش توصیفی- تحلیلی می باشد. جمع آوری اطلاعات از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و پیمایش میدانی (پرسشنامه، مصاحبه و مشاهده) استفاده شده است. مکان این تحقیق دهستان آیسین از توابع بخش مرکزی شهرستان بندرعباس می باشد. جامعه آماری سرپرستان خانوارهای این دهستان می باشد که تعداد 184 خانوار از طریق فرمول کوکران به عنوان حجم نمونه برای تکمیل پرسشنامه تعیین گردید که به طور تصادفی در جامعه مورد مطالعه انتخاب شده اند. پرسشنامه تحقیق در 4 مولفه و 32 معرف مربوط به وضعیت گسترش کارآفرینی و اشتغال روستایی تدوین شد. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات به دست آمده و پاسخ به سوال تحقیق از آمار توصیفی و تحلیل عاملی به شیوه تحلیل مولفه های اصلی در نرم افزار SPSS استفاده گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: کارآفرینی روستایی استان هرمزگان، کارآفرینی در کسب و کار، توانمندسازی، محیط کسب و کار، توسعه روستایی
  • اسدالله کشاورز، محمد آشوری*، محمد علی مهدوی ثابت، شهرام ابراهیمی صفحات 197-212

    با توجه به اینکه منابع آب های زیرزمینی در تامین نیازهای آبی مختلف کشاورزی و شرب کشور، نقش برجسته ای داشته  و استمرار حیات در بخش های وسیعی از کشور، به این منابع وابسته می باشد اما به دلیل برداشت های بیش از ظرفیت مجاز از آبخوان های کشور که عمدتا از طریق حفر و برداشت های غیر مجاز و اضافه برداشت از سوی دارندگان چاه های مجاز صورت می گیرد، پایداری بهره برداری از این منابع در معرض تهدیدهای جدی و بسیار نگران کننده ای قرار گرفته است. جرایم زیست محیطی و از جمله در حوزه آب در سطح جهانی  به لحاظ میزان ارتکاب، در ردیف چهارم فعالیت های مجرمانه بین المللی بعد از قاچاق مواد مخدر، جعل و قاچاق انسان قرار گرفته است. لیکن بر اساس مطالعات، این نوع از بزهکاری، متاثر از از نوع سیاست کیفری برگزیده قانونگذاران، کمتر توسط دولت ها، تعقیب، رسیدگی و مجازات می شود. در حوزه قانون گذاری، مقنن با توجه به مبانی نظری از جمله مبانی فلسفی، فقهی و آورده های جرم شناسی و با توجه به نیازهای جامعه به دنبال برنامه ریزی و ارائه راهکارهای حقوقی برای کنترل و مقابله با این جرایم است. در حوزه قضائی، تدابیر و سیاست ها از یک سو بر اساس شدت نوع جرایم و آثاری که مستقیم و کوتاه مدت بر حیات و امنیت انسان دارد و از سوی دیگر بر اساس این که در کدام یک از مراحل فرایند کیفری (کشف جرم، تعقیب متهم، تحقیقات مقدماتی، رسیدگی و صدور رای و اجرای آراء) است، برحسب مورد به سیاست تقنینی نزدیک یا از آن فاصله گرفته است. یافته های تحقیق که بر اساس روش تحلیلی و توصیفی و جمع آوری اطلاعات به شیوه اسنادی بدست آمده است، نشان می دهد برنامه ریزی و سیاست  قضائی در آن دسته از جرایم حوزه آب که به طور مستقیم بر سلامت و حیات انسان تاثیرگذار است با تمرکز بر سرعت در تعقیب تا صدور حکم و اجرای آن همراه است.لیکن در جرایمی که به طور غیر مستقیم  بر سلامت و حیات انسان تاثیرگذار است با مسامحه در تعقیب و ارفاق در محاکمه و پاسخ دهی همراه است.

    کلیدواژگان: سلامت آب، توسعه، متوازن، تدابیر قضائی آب، ضمانت اجراهای کیفری و غیر کیفری آب
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  • Arash Sadeghian *, Naser Barakpor Pages 1-16

    Free economic zones are one of the tools of the neoliberalism system to realize the outsourcing strategy in the paradigm of globalization and one of the main focuses of investor presence. The presence of capital in these areas has led to a more rapid physical development of these areas and their surrounding urban areas than other areas which has increased the necessity of noticing at the of planning and managing land use in the development of free zones. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate land management mechanisms in free zones according to three samples of China, UAE and Iran. The method of this research is descriptive - analytical and based on documentary studies as well as survey. In order to interpretation Content Analysis and Hierarchical Analysis Process (AHP) have been used.The results of a comparative analysis in Iran and the UAE and China show that being sure about providing infrastructure (rated above 80), investment demand analysis and physical environment (rated above 60%) are the most important principles affecting It is land use management. The main feature of land use management system in free zones are sustainable and integrated management of land resources. In Iran's Experience Contrary to the experiences of both China and the UAE, the transparency of land use regulations and executive regulations has not been addressed by the institutional framework of an integrated approach to land use planning and the mechanism of active involvement of local communities and investors in the preparation and implementation of land development plans. This reflects the need for more reflection and thinking in order to achieve the goals of the Free Zones.

    Introduction

    Today, Free Economic Zones are one of the tools of the neoliberalism system to realize the outsourcing strategy in the paradigm of globalization based on the political economy of space and one of the main centers of focus for investors. The presence of capital in these areas has led to a more rapid physical development of these areas and their surrounding urban areas than other areas which has  increased the necessity of noticing  at the of planning and managing land use in the development of free zones.So this study wants to do the comparative investigation on planning and management of land use in three free zones of Iran, United Arab Emirates and China and extract of efficient factors on current mechanism land use management by descriptive – analytical method and based on documental studies and survey. Based on it, the first question rises as what are the main effective factors on mechanism of urban land use management in free zones and how are they differenced? The second question is: what does optimization of land use management mechanism in physical development of these zones need to implement? In theoretical studies section it found that land use management has various goals. These goals have interaction and compare with each other. So planning and managing the whole land use is done in the shape of integrated activity. Integration should be in different levels and consider the whole factors (effects of issues such as land market, global change, economic comparativeness for space, environmental balance and different interpretations of emerging changes in land use and effects of them). On the other hand, free zones are a kind of new development paradigm with the goal of providing economic development and economic security, socio-spatial order for cities with the concept of capital accumulation. With regard to unique properties of economic zones, the mechanism of land use management function in free zones is complicated and affected by many factors that is the reason of their differences from the other cities.Based on theatrical studies, theatrical framework of this study is affected by Ding and Lichtenberg and eight measures are defined to measure the effective factors: consideration to demand analysis and investment in development plans (comprehensive plans) and land use, confidence to appropriate biophysics with regard to conservation principles for future, providing development infrastructure that is harmonious with upstream physical plans system, flexibility in physical development plans based on new theory policies, transparency in regulation of land use and implementation, institutional framework with confidence to integrated approach (economic, social and environmental) in land use planning, access to land use management document and mechanism of active participation of communities and investors in preparing and implementation of land development plans.  

    Methodology

    The study on free zones in china showed that the main property of these zones are presenting structural plans through flexible plans with maximum outer infrastructure to response to the demand and conservation of environment in all decisions. Implementation mechanism of these plans allows land use change by free zone’s official commission of that can determine and change the land use.

    Results and discussion

     In Emirates free zones, one of the main achievements is rapid industrial development. The authority of them can attract capital by infrastructure provision. However, each zone has separated authority and land use management is independent and zones lack integrated regional management.  The experience of free zones in Iran show that land use management mechanism is in the way that organization of plan management or planning, prepare and implement the plans after approving by upstream organizations. This framework has many weak points such as lack of transparency in land use regulations, lack of harmony between short decisions and long term plans, lack of hierarchy in approving the plans. Studding the successful experiences of free zones in China and Emirates and comparing them to Iranian ones (by context analysis) to response to the first question (effective factors of land use management) showed that in all cases, there are consideration to demand analysis and investment in development plans (comprehensive plans) and land use, confidence to appropriate biophysics with regard to conservation principles for future, providing development infrastructure that is harmonious with upstream physical plans system, while unlike China and Emirates, in Iran there are no flexibility in physical development plans based on new theory policies, transparency in regulation of land use and implementation, institutional framework with confidence to integrated approach (economic, social and environmental) in land use planning, access to land use management document and mechanism of active participation of communities and investors in preparing and implementation of land development plans and it needs to think deeply about free zones to reach to success.In order to response to second question, we used experts’ opinions in Iran, the results based on AHP showed that confidence to biophysics and demand analysis and investment in development plans (comprehensive plans) and land use and providing infrastructure based on upstream plans are the most important effective factors that should be highlighted.

    Conclusion

    This study also showed that the main property in land use management system in free zones is sustainable and integrated land resource that encourage development. In this regard, environmental, social and economic issues should be analyzed carefully. In spite of regulations and official structure in integrated management of free zones, still there is no urban integrated management due to lack of accepting changes. The main point is the job opportunity. Efficiency of zones’ function based on encouraging private sector, participation like China and Emirates is necessary in public and infrastructure projects. In this case, private partners can help in planning, management and even infrastructure and services. So in order to realization of integrated and sustainable land use management in free zones of Iran, future studies are needed

    Keywords: Free Zones, Land Use Management, Iranian Free Zones, Integrated Management
  • Lida Alizade *, Hamid Shayan Pages 17-30

    Today, one of the important issues in regional planning, The issue of balanced and proportionate development of basic services is proportional to the distribution of the population of that region. Because non-distribution of services will lead to demographic, social and complex spatial problems, in the direction of equitable distribution and balanced development of the regions. The purpose of this research is to measure the level of urban-rural infrastructure services and its relationship with demographic distribution in Khorasan Razavi province. This is a descriptive-analytic study. For collecting data, documentary and field studies were used to analyze the raw data and classify the cities of Khorasan Razavi province using multi-criteria decision making models and GIS software. The findings of the Vikor and AHPF model in the province's cities indicate non-distribution balanced of services. The city of Mashhad has the highest level, and the cities of Sabzevar and Neyshabur are moderate, and Khalil Abad and Jovein are in the unfavorable level. Considering that the city of Mashhad is the first Iranian pilgrimage city, it is the largest attraction zone of the province, it seems that these services are not balanced in comparison with other population centers. And so the research seeks out what strategies can be made to reach the equilibrium point, given local and regional conditions that are practical and feasible. Pearson test was used to investigate the relationship between demographic indicators and the status of cities in terms of urban services. The results showed that there is a direct relationship between population density and population growth rate with the focus of services. The distance from the center of the province is not significantly related to the level of facilities.

     Introduction

      Spatial inequality in the deployment of area residents and activities is not a new phenomenon in any part of the world. But in developing countries, the spatial divergence between regions is exacerbated by the socioeconomic disparities and inequality in the distribution of essential services. Proper and optimal distribution of basic facilities in the social, economic, cultural and health sectors across regions and regions is one of the most important factors in preventing inequality and gaps in development and proper spatial distribution of population across the land. One of these areas is the metropolis of Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi province, which comprises a significant part of the population and is then hierarchically located in the cities of Neyshabur and Sabzevar. In this regard, we are dealing with cities that have not been able to compete with such large metropolitan areas, but this does not mean that the metropolitan areas of Khorasan Razavi have all the potential but rather that they should be compared to the population in which they are located. The city of Mashhad itself has many deprived areas that cannot compete with the central parts of the city and its populations lack basic and basic services on a large scale. Therefore, this research seeks to find out what is feasible and feasible for local and regional conditions, so that the province can be brought to regional equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between population component distribution and basic services with the spatial justice approach in Khorasan Razavi cities. The obtained results were obtained through combination models and rank-sum method and correlation method.

    Methodology

     In this study, the integration model (a combination of multi-criteria decision making models) is used to analyze and weight the research indicators of the model (TOPSIS), and to integrate the eight indicators, the VIKOR model and the model A fuzzy hierarchy (AHPF) is used. At the end of the research, Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between population indices (population density and population growth rate) with the degree of basic services of provincial cities.  

    Results and discussion

    Findings of Vikor model and AHPF model in Khorasan Razavi province provinces show unbalanced distribution. Mashhad is in the highest level and the cities of Sabzevar and Neyshabur are in the average level and Khalilabad and Javin are in the lower level. Pearson test was used to examine the relationship between population density, distance of cities from provincial centers and population growth rate with the status of provinces. The results of this test show that there is a direct relationship between population density and natural growth rate with the distribution of urban services such that Mashhad, Neyshabour, Sabzevar and Quchan have the highest density and natural growth rate among provincial cities. They have a relatively favorable spatial distribution. The results showed that the relationship between the cities distance from the center of the province and the rate of enjoyment of the urban services index is very weak, so that Neyshabur and Sabzevar cities have relatively high distance with the capital city in the high ranks. They are indexed by municipal services, while Binaloud is 68 kilometrs from the provincial capital. Also by comparing the distance of Torbat-e-Heydariyeh and Torbat-Jam cities, both of which are approximately the same distance from the provincial capital but do not have the same status in terms of Utilities Index. In other words, the distance from the provincial capital does not guarantee superior municipal services at the regional level.

    Conclusion

    Given that many cities of Khorasan Razavi province are in undesirable level, paying attention to the potentials and capabilities of these areas, especially in the cultural and health index, can lead to significant spatial inequalities in the distribution of services and facilities. Reduce the need for balanced and balanced development at the regional level.

    Keywords: Population Distribution, Distribution of Services, Space Justice, Regional Inequality, Khorasan Razavi Province
  • Aliasghar Banouei, Zahra Ziyaee, Parisa Mohajeri * Pages 31-48

    Application of any types of location coefficient leads to unwanted adjustment in official data of GDP and value added of economic sectors in regional accounts. This problem appears even in the extended FLQ (EFLQ) method which as compared to the former methods is more sensitive to the spatial dimensions of regional sectoral economy. To tackle this problem, in this paper, regional input-output tables for Gilan province is calculated with using a new mixed EFLQ-RAS method and three questions is analyzed: one- Can the application of new methods solves the problem of unwanted official data? Second- As compared to the FLQ and EFLQ methods, does the new method have less statistical errors? Third- Which one of the variables like specialization, concentration, intermediate imports and value-added coefficients have significant effects on? Overall findings are as follows: The unwanted adjustment in GDP and sectoral value added in EFLQ is inevitable whereas the new mixed EFLQ-RAS method solves these problems. The new mixed EFLQ-RAS method outperforms the FLQ and EFLQ methods, and the specialization has a significant negative effect and intermediate import has a significant positive effect on.

    Introduction

     Regional input-output tables (RIOTs) were introduced by Walter Isard to address the issue of quantifying the spatial economy in the framework of Leontief input-output general equilibrium approach. So far, three general methods have been introduced in estimating RIOTs: survey based method, non-survey based method and hybrid method. Among these three methods, the non-survey based spatial location quotient method, which focuses on estimating regional input-output coefficients (RIOCs), is less costly and time consuming than the survey based method and requires less data than the non-survey based method and therefore it is more acceptable. Among the variety of location quotient methods, Flegg Location Quotient (FLQ) and its modified (AFLQ) versions are the most commonly used. Using these methods requires determining and identifying the appropriate  value which depends on the relative size of the region. The major weakness of these methods is that the determination of the appropriate value of  is the same for all sectors of the region regardless the size of sectors is large or small.To overcome the above drawback, the regional analysts have modified the FLQ method which is known the extended FLQ method (EFLQ). One of the advantage of this method is that  can be determined at sectoral level, on the basis of which RIOC matrix and the propensity to import from other regions can be estimated. The EFLQ method has at least two advantages over the FLQ

    method

    1. A more detailed adjustment of the national domestic coefficients matrix and the propensity to regional import2. Linking j to the problem of spatial dimensions suchas centralization and specialization at the regional level using the econometrics approach;It is expected that the EFLQ method will have less statistical error than the FLQ method. The main concern of the present article is that using any kind of location quotient method to estimate RIOTs leads to an unwanted adjustment of official GDP figures and value-added vectors of provinces in regional accounts. This weakness appears even in the EFLQ method, which is more sensitive to the spatial dimensions of the region than other methods. In order to overcome this weakness, a new hybrid method EFLQ-RAS is introduced. This brings to mind three basic questions: Can a new method solve the problem of an unwanted adjustment of official statistics? Does using of the new method have less statistical errors than the FLQ andEFLQmethods? Three - Do variables such as centralization, specialization, intermediate imports and value added of the sectors have a statistically significant effect? The present study attempts to answer the above questions.

    Methodology

      Applying any non-survey based location quotient method to estimate RIOT requires taking into account of two residuals: the vector of value added to balance the columns of table and the vector of exports to balance the rows of table. The former is far from reality due to the existence of official data in regional accounts, while the latter is inevitable due to the lack of required statistics at the regional level. Using the EFLQ-RAS hybrid approach can eliminate the first shortcoming. The following steps have to be taken for applying the above approach:Step One - Calculate the domestic input-output coefficients of the region by EFLQ

    method

    Step Two - Calculate the regional intersectoral transaction matrix by EFLQ

    method

    Step Three - Calculate intermediate import coefficients vector and regional intermediate import vector from other regionsStep Four - Calculate the intermediate import vector of a region from abroadStep Five - Subtract the region's intermediate import vector from other countries and the intermediate import vector of one region from the other region from the intermediate cost vector of sectors in the regional accounts that are sectoral or totally available. This computes the required row vector of the sum of domestic consumption by the RAS method.Step 6 - Calculate the region's intermediate demand vectorStep 7 - Calculate the export vector as residual after calculating the components of final demand vectorStep Eight – prepare the matrix structure without the domestic regional intersectoral transaction matrix Step 9 - Use the Initial regional intersectoral transaction matrix of the EFLQ method and then apply the RAS method to calculate the final regional intersectoral transaction matrix In this paper, two types of data bases are used: 1- A symmetric RIOT with the assumption a fixed product sales structure industry by industry table for Iran and Gilan province in 2002. Two- Regional accounts of Gilan Province in 2002. The calculation of SLQ, FLQ, EFLQ and EFLQ-RAS methods are based on the above data. For the second question of the paper, the statistical errors of the estimated tables from the above methods are compared to the province survey based RIOT using the minimum absolute value of relative error (MAPE).

    Results and Discussion

    With respect to the first question, applying the EFLQ method to estimate RIOT and taking the sectoral value added as a residual for column balancing table, the results show that the deviation of the estimated GDP and the official GDP of 1.0739 percent. The deviations at sectoral level is pronounced and ranges between maximum of 54.850% in the manufacture of paper and paper products sector and a minimum of 0.0098% in the wholesale, retail, repair of vehicles and goods sectors. In this article, we show how the new EFLQ-RAS hybrid approach can theoretically and practically solve this shortcoming. Concerning the second question, the findings indicate that the mean statistical errors in the FLQ and EFLQ methods are 9.4150% and 4.6727%, respectively, while the corresponding figure in the new hybrid method is 1.7318% which is less than the EFLQ method error and far less than the FLQ method error. The econometrics method is used to measure the effect of spatial dimensions variables (such as sectoral centralization, specialization, intermediate imports and value-added of the province) as effective and explanatory factors on the sectoral j. The overall findings show significance of the sectoral centralization and value-added effect is not statistically acceptable. The regional specialization index has a significant and negative impact and the intermediate import ratio has a positive and significant effect on Gilan province.

    Conclusion

    The main concern of the present article is that using any kind of location quotient method to calculate regional input-output tables leads to unwanted adjustment of official GDP figures. In order to overcome this shortcoming, a new hybrid method EFLQ-RAS is proposed. This brings to mind three basic questions: Can a new method solve the problem of unwanted adjustment of official statistics? Does using of the new method have less statistical errors than the FLQ and EFLQ methods? Three - Do variables such as centralization, specialization, intermediate imports and value added of the sectors have a statistically significant effect?In this article, we show how the new EFLQ-RAS hybrid approach can theoretically and practically solve this problem. The findings indicate that the mean statistical errors in the FLQ and EFLQ methods are more than the new EFLQ-RAS method. The econometrics method indicate that the regional specialization index has a significant and negative impact and the intermediate import ratio has a positive and significant effect on Gilan province, but

    Keywords: Input-Output Table, Location Quantity Methods, New Mixed EFLQ-RAS Method, Concentration, Specialization
  • Nader Zali *, Seyed Ali Sajjadi Asl, Saman Abizadeh Pages 49-66

    Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province, due to its valuable resources and geographic location, can be considered as one of the important industrial hubs, but it has not been able to properly traverse the development path and is recognized as a disadvantaged province. The main purpose of this study is identifying the strengths and weaknesses of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province and Providing Development Strategic Plan. The study, in terms of purpose is an applied one and In terms of method it is kind of explanatory and and on the basis of data nature is a qualitative research. The statistical population includes senior managers of the province from which 23 individuals were selected. Documentary and field methods have been used to data collection. Data analysis has been carried out by SWOT Model, Combining it with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). results of investigating current situation in this province indicate that abundant oil, gas and mineral resources, appropriate geographical and communication location between regionsas the most important strengths, and lack of factories, industrial and mineral workshops, severe weakness in necessary infrastructure of urban centers, and lack of paying attention to rural settlements are known as the weaknesses in this province. possibility to develop activities such as horticulture, animal husbandry and fish breeding are considered as the most important opportunity and staying away from country's economic network, lack of strong connection between settlements, lack of security context to investors have been recognized as the most important threats to this province. Based on these strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, suggested strategies for the development of the province.

    Introduction

     Access to national and regional development is the great ideal of any nation, and realizing this, requires that the planners and policymakers within a detailed understanding of the state of the country and the region select the best models to determine the path of development (Pourmohammadi and Zali, 2009: 33). One of the important tasks of development planners is to assess and identify the development potentials of geographical areas, so that this knowledge can provide the basis for improvement and development of areas (Parizadi et al., 2012: 27). For this purpose, to understand the differences in the level of development of the regions, it is necessary to first examine the current status of each region and then accordingly regional planning can be done to reduce or eliminate the differences (Ismailzadeh and Partners, 2016: 84). Therefore, studying and identifying regional areas and analyzing their capabilities and bottlenecks is of great importance in the process of regional development planning, and awareness of these opportunities and bottlenecks is nowadays a necessity for presenting development schemes and plans (Einali et al., 2016: 60).

    Methodology

     This research is an applied research in terms of purpose, and based on the nature of the data, is a Mixed-method research. The statistical population includes senior managers of the province. The research is a survey research in terms of data gathering, which uses a combination of both documentary and field methods to collect the required data. In order to conduct this research, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the province were identified and these factors were rated by experts including experts in the field of development and the most important strategies were obtained. Finally, according to these strategies, a strategic regional development plan for the province's development was presented. To analyze the data using SWOT analysis and its integration with the AHP model, the most important development potentials and constraints of the province were extracted and strategies were presented to remove development obstacles in the province.

    Findings

    In the present study, using high-level plans such as Provincial Spatial Plan, provincial development document and according to experts in this field, the most important internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and the most important external factors (opportunities and threats)  presented In the tabular form. Then, considering the variety of issues using Strategic Analysis technique (SWOT), the conditions affecting the developments in the province and their effectiveness were investigated. Then the most important internal factors including strengths and weaknesses as well as the most important external factors affecting the status of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad province in the format of opportunities and threats were identified and evaluated based on the AHP process. Since the questionnaire of this research was paired comparisons, it was not necessary to measure validity and reliability and the accuracy of the responses was calculated by calculating the adaptation rate. Each of the SWOT factors has a number of sub-criteria and in AHP method these sub-criteria are compared in pairs. After the data collection, Expert choice 11 software was used to perform the calculations. Accordingly, pairwise comparison of SWOT factors in AHP format was carried out to plan for development of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province

    Conclusion

    Therefore, using SWOT analytical model results, the approaches and strategies for provincial development planning were divided into four aggressive, adaptive, contingent and defensive strategies as follows: SO Strategy: Aggressive-Action Strategies (Maximum-Maximum): - Proper context for establishing constructive economic interactions with neighboring provinces, especially southern provinces, to create dynamics in the province's commercial sector.-Provincial industrial development in the field of oil and gas as the basic economy of the province.- Facilitating the exploitation of mines in the province taking into account environmental principles and sustainable development and avoiding crude sales and enhancing the value added of the mining sector with the development of mineral processing industries. -Facilitating and serious efforts to accelerate the development of the province's agricultural sector and increase hydro-electric power generation through adequate annual rainfall. WO strategy, adaptive strategy, (minimum - maximum): - Establishment of industrial and mining factories and workshops and development of oil and gas related activities in the province with regard to the capability and availability of mineral and industrial resources in the province and the possibility Development of the province in the field of oil and gas.- Strengthen and properly organize communication networks, both by land, air and rail, in the province, and establish strong links with ports in the south of the country to promote economic and commercial activities at national and transnational levels.-Special attention to rural areas of the province with emphasis on growth and development of activities such as gardening, beekeeping, animal husbandry, aquaculture and establishment and promotion of infrastructure and superior services in urban centers of the province with the aim of attracting surplus rural population and Preventing migration from the villages of this province to the prosperous provinces in the country.  ST Strategy, Contingency Strategy (Maximum - Minimum): - Establish strong linkages between provincial settlements and strengthen transnational communication and economic links with appropriate location across provinces. -Improve the rational and psycho-administrative structure and establish industrial organizations and settlements to secure and facilitate investment, especially in the oil and gas industries. - Optimal water engineering and proper planning to strengthen water resources management. - Improving the level of up-to-date technologies in different areas of the province's development, especially the mining sector, to enhance the province's competitiveness in national and transnational areas. WT Strategy, Defense and action Strategy, (Minimum - Minimum): - Strengthen transport lines, especially rail and air, and enhance the technology level in the province to form strong links between settlements and service centers at the provincial and country level. Serious efforts to establish major conversion industries with the aim of enhancing the dynamics of economic activity and the provincial role-playing in the national economy by providing appropriate plan to facilitate the bureaucracies governing investment and creating a safe environment for the investor. Providing superior services in the main cities of the province as a supportive and influencing population in the urban and rural centers of the province and the management of the province and the future prospects of water resources with the aim of its proper utilization, especially for the more dynamic agricultural activities in the rural settlements.

    Keywords: Strategic Planning, analytical models, regional development strategies, Kohgiluyeh, Boyer-Ahmad Province, AHP – SWOT Analysis
  • Vakil Heydari *, Sharare Saeb Pages 67-82

    This paper aims to explanation of relationship sense of social justice with sense of social security of villagers in the rural areas of Ardabil County. The research method was analytical -explanative survey type. It can be said that studied population in this study consists of all villagers living in rural areas of Ardabil County in 2016 (N= 85053), among which 383 persons were selected as statistical sample using Cochran formula. Sample size was determined based on the Cochran’s formula and the required data were collected through questionnaires. Finally, the results of reasearch descreaptived findings showed that fom among of avreage on social justice sense variables, variable average of economical walfare (808), exist in the first order, and variable average of social coherence (2.08) in the final order. Also, fom among of componenet sense social security average, the component of collective security aveage (12.85) exist in the first order and average of cultural security (2.22) in the final order.  Moreover, as shown by the results of Pearson test, there as significant relation between the variables of access to resource, good governance, economy walfare, economy justice, individual personality growth, lack of social discrimianation, access to social serviceses, rate of satisficatiion and rate of social participation and sense of social security in Ardabil County. In addition, in term of obtained results from Beta coefficient, the variable share and role “access to resources” in amounts (0.48), in explanation of dependent variable “sense of social secuirty” is more than oher variables. Also, variables of economical walfare in amounts (0.40), and good governance in amounts (0.28), orderly, settled in following priorites. In end, with due attention to results analysis, appliead recommindations has been recommended that social sustainability indexes (social capital, territorial belonging m social responsibility and…) in attainment of social security has been reinforced. And also, with due attention to, significant relationship between access to resource and improvment of sense social justice, the government should afford for villagers the educational and healty servicess and other serviess needful of villgers to credit, servocess and extensional equipments, use of informational resources and subsid supply.

    Introduction

    Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income". In the many countries, this is usually called welfare or a social safety net, especially when talking about developed countries. Social security protection is clearly defined in ILO conventions and UN instruments as a basic human right – albeit one that a small proportion of the people on our planet actually enjoy. Broadly defined as a system of contribution based health, pension and unemployment protection, along with tax-financed social benefits, social security has become a universal challenge in a globalizing world. Only 20 percent of the world’s population has adequate social security coverage, while more than half lacks any kind of social security protection at all. Those without coverage tend to be part of the informal economy – they are generally not protected in old age by social security, and they cannot afford to pay their health care bill. In addition, many people have insufficient coverage – that is, they may lack significant elements of protection (such as health care or pension) or what protection they do have is low or declining. Experience shows that people are willing to contribute to social security benefits that satisfy their priority needs.Undoubtedly, for creating of social security interference different factors in the rural areas that lack them hinder the establishment of social security. The necessary of research and study about designed problem is resulted from this that rural societies stand the lower level versus urban societies from perspective access to therapy services, healthy and educational, enjoinment of social welfare indexes, enjoinment of resources and equipments, access rate of bayt-al,mal produced earning, access to banking and credit facilities. This factors, affect the satisfaction of life in the rural areas and encounter sustainable development of rural region with different. Hence, with reinforcement of social justice for attaining empowerment and capacity-building of rural societies by government interventional action, attention to resource redistribution, reducing of class gap, presentation of social services, exert of good governance, reinforcement of satisfaction, reinforcement of social cohesion, reinforcement of social support, act to structural evolution, weakening of reeducation of social discriminations and ready of social groups participation backgrounds for  meaning of rural societies elimination of  deprivation can help to improvement of social security in the rural areas. sense of social justice is one of the most impotent elements of improvement sense of social security via reinforcement of resources access components,  good governance, economical just, individual personality growth, lack of social discrimination and access to social services, satisfaction and social participation and etc. hence, this paper aims to explanation of relationship sense of social justice with sense of social security of villagers in the rural areas of Ardabil County.

    Methodology

     The research method was analytical -explanative survey type. It can be said that studied population in this study consists of all villagers living in rural areas of Ardabil County in 2016 (N= 85053), among which 383 persons were selected as statistical sample using Cochran formula. Sample size was determined based on the Cochran’s formula and the required data were collected through questionnaires. Sample size was determined based on the Cochran’s formula and the required data were collected through questionnaires.  Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by professors and experts and its reliability was determined based on Cronbach's alpha (0.75-0.87).

    Results and Discussion

    In end, with due attention to results analysis, applied recommendations has been recommended that social sustainability indexes (social capital, territorial belonging m social responsibility and…) in attainment of social security has been reinforced. And also, with due attention to, significant relationship between access to resource and improvement of sense social justice, the government should afford for villagers the educational and health services and other services needful of villagers to credit, services and extensional equipments, use of informational resources and subside supply.  The findings of research show that there as significant relation between the variables of   good governance, economy welfare, economy justice, individual personality growth, lack of social discrimination, access to social services, rate of satisfaction and rate of social participation and sense of social security in Ardabil County. Regarding linking between good governance and social security sense must say that good governance help to reinforcement of social security sense in the rural areas by reinforcement of hope, reinforcement of social opportunities, decreasing of childes mortality,  access to knowledge, political freedom and participation, decreasing of social risks and reducing of poverty and etc. Regarding linking between economical welfare and social security sense must say that many of development thinkers, economical welfare highlight such as country development substructure at all backgrounds.Regarding linking between social participation and improvement of social security sense must say that many of development thinkers, social participation can help to financial security, judiciary security, employment security, intellectual security, cultural security, economical security collective security¸ person security and ethical.

    Conclusion

     the results of research descriptive findings showed that form among of average on social justice sense variables, variable average of economical welfare (808), exist in the first order, and variable average of social coherence (2.08) in the final order. Also, from among of component sense social security average, the component of collective security average (12.85) exist in the first order and average of cultural security (2.22) in the final order.  Moreover, as shown by the results of Pearson test, there as significant relation between the variables of access to resource, good governance, economy welfare, economy justice, individual personality growth, lack of social discrimination, access to social services, rate of satisfaction and rate of social participation and sense of social security in Ardabil County. In addition, in term of obtained results from Beta coefficient, the variable share and role “access to resources” in amounts (0.48), in explanation of dependent variable “sense of social security” is more than other variables. Also, variables of economical welfare in amounts (0.40), and good governance in amounts (0.28), orderly, settled in following priorities.

    Keywords: Sense of Social Justice, Sense of Social Security, social security, Rural Development Managment
  • Mahboubeh Namdar, Aliakbar Anabestani *, Mohammad Rahim Rahnama, Saied Reza Akbarian Rounizi Pages 83-106

     Nowadays, the international immigrants' remittance can be considered as one of the biggest and most sustainable financial and investment aspects in the developing countries, which by directing and utilizing correctly in the other sectors of the economy, sociocultural, physical, and etc., this can have a significant effect on the development and the improvement of the life quality indicators of the inhabitants of the origin regions. The present study, aimed at analyzing and examining the effect of the international immigrants' remittance of the work force on the life quality of some residents of southern Fars province, is practical and developmental in the terms of purpose, and is descriptive and analytical in the terms of matter and method. Documentary and field methods have been used to collect information. In this regard, questionnaires were arranged in four indicators based on Likert scale and distributed randomly among citizens. Statistical population of the study consisted of 18141 households from of 17 villages and 3 cities of the region, which of these households, 314 families have been selected as the sample size based on the Cochran formula. The analysis of the questionnaire was carried out using descriptive and analytical statistical methods including the tests of T, Pearson, multivariate regression and path analysis. The results show that there is a meaningful and direct relationship between the immigrants' remittance and the life quality of the residents of the region. Also, the results of multivariate regression and path analysis indicate that the immigrants' remittance has a strong positive relation with the life quality by a coefficient of 0.830; and the index of the career and income opportunities has the most effects on the improvement of the life quality indicators by the impact factor of 0.573.

    Introduction

    Nowadays international remittances can be considered as one of the largest and most sustainable financial and investment dimension in developing countries, which can have a significant effect on the economic, cultural, social, physical and other sectors. Improvement in the development and fulfilling the quality of life indicators for residents of the source regions. In Iran, people in the southern parts of the country, including residents of parts of the south of the Persian Gulf as the name of Larestan, have been sending large numbers of migrants to the oil-rich southern Gulf States since the mid-twentieth century. Labor immigrants send a vast amount of their financial capital each year to their house and place of origin. These remittances, regardless of family and personal expenses, are utilized in different ways to develop and improve the quality of life of residents in the area. It is good to note that most of the remittances without any pre-determined plans or purposes and lack of effective viewpoint and managing the capital allocation on the other hand, mainly in certain sectors such as religion is practiced (construction of mosques and Hosseinieh, etc.). This has resulted in some of these areas, despite the large remittances, deprivation and shortages. In this context, this study follows to respond the question of how much the remittances could bring about changes in the quality of life of the inhabitants of the area in economic, socio-cultural and physical-environmental aspects. And which has been the most affected by remittances since the quality of life of the residents in the study area?

    Methodology

    The present study, is practical and developmental in the terms of purpose, and is descriptive and analytical in the terms of matter and method. Documentary and field methods have been used to collect information. In this regard, questionnaires were arranged in four indicators based on Likert scale and distributed randomly among citizens. Statistical population of the study consisted of 18141 households from of 17 villages and 3 cities of the region, which of these households, 314 families have been selected as the sample size based on the Cochran formula. Also, reliability of the questionnaire was estimated with Cronbach's alpha 648.0. The analysis of the questionnaire was carried out using descriptive and analytical statistical methods including the tests of T, Pearson, multivariate regression and path analysis. The variables investigated in this study included immigrants ' assets as independent variables and sustainable economic development-management as a variable.
    Discussion and

    Findings

    Due to the findings, 84.2% of the respondents are men and 15.8% are women, out of which 78.7% are employed, 10.5% are unemployed, 2.2% have other jobs. Regarding the investment status of persons, 69.9% of respondents mentioned that they had some forms of investment in their place of origin. Regarding the place of investment, more than 50% of the respondents noted that they make investments in addition to their place of residence in the surrounding cities and other areas, due to the lack of necessary infrastructure and suitable market for investment in the place of residence. Pearson test was utilized to evaluate the correlation between independent variables with other indicators of dependent variable. According to the results of the Pearson test in cases where the probability value is less than 0.05, the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between independent variable and dependent variables is rejected, that is, between remittances sent by international migrants with improved economic, social and quality indicators. There is a significant physical-environmental relationship. Therefore, it can be mentioned that by increasing the remittances to the region, the quality of life indicators also will be increased.

    Conclusion

     In this study, three components of job and income investment, social knowledge and accessibility and quality of access component were surveyed to assess the impacts of remittances on residents' quality of life in the region. According to the data collected from the studied samples, three statistical tests, one sample t-test, correlation and regression were used to determine the results of the study. The results show that there is a meaningful and direct relationship between the immigrants' remittance and the life quality of the residents of the region. Also, the results of multivariate regression and path analysis indicate that the immigrants' remittance has a strong positive relation with the life quality by a coefficient of 0.830; and the index of the career and income opportunities has the most effects on the improvement of the life quality indicators by the impact factor of 0.573. But in general, all of the relevant components have positive effects, with little or no intensity, and therefore, it can be argued that remittances have positive impacts on promoting and improving the quality of life indicators, such as increasing resident income, improving access quality, reducing poverty and unemployment, increasing the participation in public utilities, etc. in the area under study, and if these investments are planned and directed to the required segments of society, it could exacerbate these developmental effects and provides the aspects of growth of this area especially rural areas and less developed cities.

    Keywords: Remittance, international immigrants, life quality, work force, southern residents of Fars province
  • Mohammadreza Ghaedi * Pages 107-118

    The inclusive political participation of citizens in various matters is one of the symbols of the existence of democracy and the legitimacy of the sovereignty of a country that it has multiple dimensions. Participation in elections is one of the most important aspects of political participation that is enhanced by improving the status of other aspects of political participation and identifying and strengthening the factors that influence it. The purpose of this quantitative and applied research which has been done by descriptive_analytical and correlation method, is to evaluate the political participation and its indicators as well as identify its determinants among the citizens of Lamerd city in Fars province. All citizens 18 years old and over who are eligible to vote, constitute the statistical population of the survey which according to the results of the last census were 19595 persons. The main instrument of research for data collection was a researcher made questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed. Due to the limitations of the census, using the Cochran formula, 378 individuals were considered as statistical sample and the questionnaires were distributed among the citizens completely randomly. The results show that the highest and the lowest political participation of citizens in the two variables of voting and writing political articles were 4.26 and 2.32, respectively. The results of the survey of the general situation of political participation of citizens show that the calculated average is 3.131 above the average. Also the results of correlation analysis between dependent and independent variables of research showed that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between political participation and socioeconomic variables, sense of political efficiency and effectiveness, use of internal media, quality of life, satisfaction with government performance, social capital, use of social networks and political awareness. And there is a significant negative relationship between the use of foreign media and the level of political participation. The results also showed that there is no significant relationship between the variables of age, sex, marital status and degree of religious affiliation with political participation.

    Introduction

    The formation of civil society as a specific social phenomenon is subject to a set of specific objective and mental conditions that are created themselves by long-term social transformations at a specific stage in the history of society. therefore,  civil society cannot be achieved at will, at any time and in any social context, and  should  to consider, obtain the right to choose, the right to be elected and the right to hold public office as essential rights for participation in the political life of society in order to achieve civil society.  citizens of Lamerd as one of the cities of Fars province, during the past decades, have had a high rate and percentage of participation in various levels of elections (local, regional and national) as one of the most important components of political participation. Since political participation is of various dimensions and participation in elections is only one of its dimensions, it is important to explanation the other aspects of political participation among citizens. It should be noted that there are numerous political, social, economic, and cultural factors that can contribute to increasing or decreasing the rate of political participation. according to the above mentioned content, the main questions that the researchers in this study seek explanation are: how is the status of political participation among citizens living in Lamerd? what are the most important determinants of political participation among the citizens of Lamerd?

    Methodology

      This research is applied in terms of methodological divisions, of purpose and in terms of descriptive-analytical and causal research method and is used for gathering information and data required by both documentary and field methods. and the statistical population of the study consists of all people over 18 years old, according to the latest documented statistics, 19595 people. to consider the limitations of the census, 378 individuals were considered as the statistical population using the conventional methods of estimating sample size (Cochran formula). descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis by SPSS software.

    Findings

    Investigating the Status of Indicators of Political Participation among Citizens The results show that among the mentioned indicators, the highest and the lowest political participation of citizens in the two variables of voting and writing political articles were 4.26 and 2.32, respectively. Overall, the results show that half of the indices surveyed were below average and the other half were above average, and overall judgment on the degree of political participation of citizens in the study area should be left to the overall assessment of political participation.The results of the frequency distribution table show (Table 3) that the political participation rate was 11.9% of the citizens at low and very low levels, 28% at moderate level and 54.3% at high and very high levels. Also, the results of the single sample t-test show (Table 4) that the calculated mean with 3.131, at 99% confidence level, is more than the base number. Overall, it can be stated that the level of political participation of citizens in the study area is above average and is at an acceptable level.Investigating the relationship between independent research variables and citizens' political participation. the results show that among the variables studied are the relationship between variables of socioeconomic status, political awareness, social capital, use of internal media, foreign media, satisfaction with government performance, sense of political efficacy and effectiveness, use of social networks, and quality of life with political participation was significant relationship and there was no significant relationship between the variables of age, gender, married status and degree of religious affiliation with political participation. It should be noted that among the variables that had a significant relationship with the political participation of the citizens, the only correlation between the variable of use of foreign media with the political participation was negative and the other variables had a positive correlation with the political participation. That is to say, as citizens' use of foreign media increases, their political participation decreases, and vice versa. It should be noted that the highest correlation of political participation with the two variables of social economic base and the feeling of political efficiency and effectiveness were 0.557 and 0.513, respectively, indicating a significant correlation between these two variables with citizens' political participation.      

    Conclusion

    the results of the study of the overall status of citizen participation in the study area showed that overall the level of political participation of citizens is above average and is at an acceptable level. The results are consistent with the findings of Hashemi et al. (2009), Jafarinia (2012), Jahangiri and Mohammadi (2014), Athari and Shahriari (2014), Habibpour Gottabi and Mousavi Khorshidi (1395), Abdollahinejad et al (1395), Ahmadi And Rezaei, (2015), Mohammadifar et al. (2015), Shapiro and Winters (2008), Flavin and Kane (2012) and Ebrahimi Kiyapi et al. (1977). Regarding the negative relationship between the use of foreign media and political participation, the present study is in line with the results of Rezaei and Kazemipour Sabet's (2016) research. The results also showed that there is no significant relationship between the variables of age, sex, married status and degree of religious affiliation with political participation, which is in line with Jafarinia (2012).

    Keywords: sustainable urban development, Citizen Participation, Political Participation, Elections, Lamerd
  • Estimated distribution of urban resilience from the perspective of the earthquake crisis using the Spatial Stats Model (Case Study of Ilam)
    Elias Mavedat *, Parsto Garmsiri, Korosh Momeni Pages 119-134

     From the point of view of crisis management, Resilience, One of the most important issues is to achieve sustainability. Indeed, it is a way of strengthening communities by using their capacities. The issue of choice in the city of Ilam is located in the Ilam city of Zagros. In terms of seismic state, it is in a dangerous position. So that the Zagros are a has the highest earthquake with magnitude 4 to 4/5 richter has. Based on the importance of the subject, the present study is based on a developmental-applied approach and a combination of descriptive-analytical research methods, Thus, with the field studies of the 14 areas of Ilam and referring to the relevant organizations, the required information has been compiled from two physical-social dimensions. Finally, data analysis with spatial statistics theory and GRAFER, EQS,EXCEL and ArcGIS, VPLS and AMOS-SPSS software were used. The results of the research have shown that, based on the results of the Ilam earthquake classification, vulnerable areas are classified in seven classes. According to the results, zone 2 of area 4 and area 2 of area 3 respectively at a confidence level of 99% and 90% as the cold and hot spatial areas of the city of Ilam, there is a degree of volatility and vulnerability. And based on the results of the Z-Score, which is equal to 586.5%, there is probably less than 1% of the radiation in the city of Ilam.

    Introduction

    The key characteristic of resilience as a tool is to provide the best scale and method for intervention achieve maximum profit and minimum cost to show. The key characteristic of resilience as a tool is to provide the best scale and method for intervention Reaching the maximum profit and spending the least money. Therefore, urban planning plays a vital role in shaping resilient cities. This requires strategic planning and good urban form to accommodate the issue. From the point of view of crisis management, Resilience, One of the most important issues is to achieve sustainability. Indeed, it is a way of strengthening communities by using their capacities. The issue of choice in the city of Ilam is located in the Ilam city of Zagros. In terms of seismic state, it is in a dangerous position. So that the Zagros area has the highest earthquake with magnitude 4 to 4/5 richter has.  The city of Ilam is first considered as the best place for human gathering and the other as the city most vulnerable to natural disasters in order to mitigate the effects of these catastrophic disasters.Therefore, based on the necessity of the subject, the city of Ilam is located in the Zagros zone. Seismically, Ilam is in a dangerous position. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of resilience in two social-physical dimensions of the 14 districts of Ilam.

    Methodology

      Based on the necessity of the subject, the overall purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of spatial statistics approach to investigate the issue of urban resilience caused by earthquakes in Ilam. This can be used to increase the confidence rating of resilience areas. That is to say, in terms of spatial statistics, the reduction of the error coefficient and the presentation of confidence intervals by increasing the volume of variables.For statistical analysis of spatial statistics it is necessary to consider a statistical model. A random field is usually considered as a statistical model for spatial data.[├ Z (S): S∈D⊑R ^ d; d≥1] ┤ Is where D is the set of transition indexes. Each random field can be parsed as follows: Z (S) = µ (S) + δ (S)  Where µ (S) is the large scale change or trend and δ (S) is the small scale change or random field error process. It is noteworthy that if the finite distribution of any finite number of random variables of a field has a normal distribution , Will be the Gaussian random field. If the mean of the random field is constant and does not depend on the position, that is, E ({Z (S)) and the variance of the expression It is only a function of the distance of the positions, then they are called the random field of the second order. Also, the transform and change functions are always conditional negative and always positive, respectively. In addition to the value of h, the variogram depends on its direction. In other words, only a function of the size of the distance h means | h | = | S_i-S_j |, they are called (or random field) isotropic.Based on the importance of the subject, the present study is based on a developmental-applied approach and a combination of descriptive-analytical research methods, Thus, with the field studies of the 14 areas of Ilam and referring to the relevant organizations, the required information has been compiled from two physical-social dimensions. Finally, data analysis with spatial statistics theory and GRAFER, EQS, EXCEL and ArcGIS, VPLS and AMOS-SPSS software were used.

    Results and discussion

     Figure 1- Overall Resilience Pattern of Ilam City Based on Qi Ranking- Based on the above model: Value is 0.227%. This indicates an inappropriate distribution and random pattern in Ilam.Figure 2- Land Use Resilience Distribution of Ilam City As mentioned, the estimation of spatial statistics, based on the Kriging interpolation method, is a process by which the value of one quantity at a point with known coordinates can be used to determine the value of the same quantity at other points with known coordinates. Achieved. Kriging is based on weighted moving averages and can be called the best linear estimator. In this method different fitting patterns are used to estimate the resilience rate in the city, then the higher accuracy model is used as a suitable model for mapping the resilience zoning. Kriging methods are based on the variogram definition and the success of the method depends on the selection of the appropriate or optimal variogram model and the variogram is used to determine and describe the spatial structure of the data. Variography is the first step in modeling spatial structure for use in kriging. In this case, we have the following: 
    Figure 3- Pattern of social resilience in Ilam city areas A variogram is used to determine and describe the spatial structure of the data. Variography is the first step in modeling spatial structure for use in kriging. The variogram is calculated by the following relation: In the above relation: (h) γˆ: The value of the variogram for the number of N sample pairs separated by h step or Lag distance, and z (xi + h) Also, the values the x-area variables are at points i and i + h.- Based on the results, the value was 5.58%. That is probably less than 1 percent of resilience in the city of Ilam. In other words, less than 1% of the elements studied can play a role in resilience of Ilam.

    Conclusion

     The results of the research have shown that, based on the results of the Ilam earthquake classification, vulnerable areas are classified in seven classes. According to the results, zone 2 of area 4 and area 2 of area 3 respectively at a confidence level of 99% and 90% as the cold and hot spatial areas of the city of Ilam, there is a degree of volatility and vulnerability. And based on the results of the Z-Score, which is equal to 586.5%, there is probably less than 1% of the radiation in the city of Ilam.
    Accordingly, to the research, the characteristics of resilient communities can be summarized as follows:Internal Independence: Able to operate independently of external control.Strength: The ability to withstand attacks or other external forces.Interdependent: with related system components, so that they support one another.
    Compatibility: The capacity to learn from experiences and the flexibility to change. In this case, we have the following:Cooperation or Cooperation: Many opportunities and incentives for stakeholder engagement.

    Keywords: resilience, Modeling, Space Statistics, Ilam
  • Alireza Zare, Mohammadreza Rezaei *, Hassanali Laghai Pages 135-148

    Today, the historical fabrics of cities are faced with declining values, quality of life and environment in all urban dimensions, while recognizing the values, abilities and potentials of historical contexts can improve and enhance the economic, social, cultural and physical conditions of the city. Therefore, the environmental quality of these tissues, due to the role of people's participation, leads to issues and problems. In this regard, this paper explores the role of tactical urbanization as a new approach in enhancing the environmental quality of urban historical fabrics. This research is a descriptive-analytical and a descriptive-survey research based on the researched components, also it is an applied based on the nature of the research topic and the aims of the research. The statistical population is inhabitants of Eighth district of Shiraz. SPSS software, Friedman test and multivariate regression were used for data analysis.The results indicated that attention to environmental design as a social hangout that can be effective in the presence of people in urban spaces has had the greatest impact on promoting environmental quality and then access to commercial services and environmental design quality in creating space. Leisure has the highest rank. Also, according to the components investigated in the research based on Friedman test, the components of attendance, participation and leisure were ranked, each of which could contribute to the environmental quality of the historical context of Shiraz based on tactical urbanization.

    Introduction

     Today, the historical fabrics of cities are faced with declining values, quality of life and environment in all urban dimensions, while recognizing the values, abilities and potentials of historical contexts can improve and enhance the economic, social, cultural and physical conditions of the city. In this regard, numerous concepts, approaches, approaches and concepts have been proposed to improve the quality and environmental, functional and functional conditions of these contexts, including theoretical areas of environmental quality. On the other hand, considering the role of citizens' participation in revitalizing and enhancing the environmental quality of these textures, effective measures can be taken to address problems such as the inadequacy and inefficiency of urban services in the context, the decline in social security due to insufficient and adequate control and urban services. For residents and citizens in these contexts and so on. Also, in recent decades, tactical urbanization is one of the most innovative and innovative ways of satisfying citizens and benefiting from short-term projects at low cost. In this new approach, the main goal is to meet the needs of citizens in urban spaces through interventions, design and implementation of small-scale projects. Therefore, explaining the role of tactical urbanization as a new approach in enhancing the environmental quality of urban historical contexts is of more importance. Generally, The historical context of Shiraz, now the municipality of Shiraz District 8, now has a structure of approximately 378 hectares consisting of elements such as the Zandieh complex, Ahmadine Mousa Shah Shahragh and its bazaar, as well as the population of the area according to the 2016 Census. It has 75,000 people. Over the past decades, this texture has been degraded by the physical-spatial expansion process of Shiraz, resulting in problems such as access and passages, environmental pollution, lack of leisure facilities, leisure and recreational facilities, lack of green space, etc. And also during this period the attention of city managers and officials on the technical and physical aspects of the city. Therefore, considering the issues and problems of the study area, the question arises how to improve the historical texture of Shiraz city through tactical urbanization? On the other hand, according to the studies done for the purpose of research and reviewing the aforementioned backgrounds, it can be concluded that environmental quality assessment in urban areas has been evaluated from various aspects but providing integrated strategies leading to environmental quality improvement. Historical contexts of cities have not been taken into account with the new approach of tactical urbanization, which simultaneously focuses on improving the environmental quality of historic contexts and tactical urbanization in order to present strategies and strategies as the strength of the present study.

    Methodology

     According to the studied components, the nature of the subject and the aims of the research, the dominant approach in this research is "descriptive-analytical" and "descriptive-survey" and generally the research is applied in terms of purpose. The statistical population is inhabitants of Eighth district of Shiraz. The statistical population of the study is 9767 according to the latest census. Sample size was calculated based on Cochran formula of 369 persons. The researcher-made questionnaire was randomly distributed among the statistical population. SPSS software and Friedman test and multivariate regression were used for data analysis.

    Results and discussion

     To calculate the impact of each of the research variables, the correlation coefficient of each of the components in the research variables was calculated based on Pearson correlation coefficient. The coefficient of determination is 0.789, so the environmental quality indices clearly account for 0.789% of tactical urban change and the remaining 80.01% are related to different factors than the factors under study in the present study. The results of the study of the impact of tactical urbanization on environmental quality promotion show that environmental design attention as a social hangout with an impact factor of 12.3 had the greatest impact on environmental quality promotion. Access to business services with an average of 12.05 was ranked second and the quality of environmental design in the leisure space was ranked third with an impact factor of 11.7. On the other hand, the visual attraction with an impact factor of 3.61 was the lowest. On this basis, it can be said that attendance and leisure component are more important in explaining strategies to improve the environmental quality of the historical context of Shiraz city based on tactical urbanization. As can be seen from the results of this test, among the metrics examined, the presence variable had an average rating of 4.24 in the first rank. Partnership metrics with an average rating of 3.68 rank second in impact. Also, leisure component metrics rank third with an average rating of 3.59.In addition, Friedman test was used to rank the impacts of tactical urban planning measures on environmental quality improvement. As can be seen from the results of this test, among the metrics examined, the presence variable had an average rating of 4.24 in the first rank. Partnership metrics with an average rating of 3.68 rank second in impact. Also, leisure component metrics rank third with an average rating of 3.59.

    Conclusion

    In today's cities, and especially in the historical contexts of cities, one of the problems that has led to the decline of quality in different contexts is the existence of places that have become inefficient over time due to physical, environmental, economic and social dimensions; In other words, at the time of construction, these facilities had a variety of quality and pleasant amenities, but over time they were transformed into non-quality spaces that lack any amenities. It is also worth noting that the quality of the environment is not merely a quantitative and technical concept, but is associated with qualitative concepts such as quality of life, social activities, spatial dependencies, and so on. Influential components of quality play an important role in citizens' satisfaction in physical, social, economic, visual and environmental environments. So, executive solutions that can be suggested including naming the spaces in the historical context of Shiraz city for the purpose of identity in space; create dynamic and vibrant spaces; Create urban wall with visual beauty; Construct interactive spaces in the historical urban context to create a sense of cooperation among citizens; Use of vibrant and vibrant urban furniture in an urban historical context; Observance of color, facade, materials and architectural style appropriate to the vitality and identity of the texture through the development of criteria related to landscape and landscape in the form of enhancing the quality level of the visual context of the texture; Considering the need for all classes in the historical context of Shiraz; Dedicate programs to encourage citizens to build urban spaces based on social creativity; Provide funding to create interactive spaces based on the needs of residents.

    Keywords: Tactical Urbanism, Environmental Quality, Urban Historical fabrics
  • Reza Soroushnia, Seyed Majid Soroushnia *, Iraj Etessam Pages 149-166

    Plex construction is a method in residential design which has been suggested with the aim of a sustainable, secure and consistent with environmental conditions. Plex housing has been selected as an optimal type of social housing for study and analysis due to positive specifications like consistency with the environment, climate and region, reduction of the building energy consumption during cooling and heating, saving in the use of urban land per capita, and in qualitative respect, promotion of social sustainability in this type of housing. In one hand, by attention to vernacular architecture, we may find out that this type of architecture benefits from unique features relating to climate, cultural and social considerations that regarding these patterns in contemporary architecture, could return the housing to the nature of the land in which it has been located. The aim of this study is to show the approaches of designing plex housing relating to vernacular housing of warm and dry climate for reviewing and reviving the rich patterns of past architecture in the contemporary architecture. Research method in this study is descriptive-analytical and comparative and the required information has been collected through field studies (observation and interview) and reviewing some documents. The results obtained from investigating the studied indicators show that in plex housing and vernacular housing, a great interaction is observed in respect of physical position. These two types of housing are in a very close interaction in respect of spatial structure and in climate view, vernacular housing has better responded the environment, but totally all design criteria in two types of housing are interacting with each other. Plex housing may be effective and useful as a new form of contemporary housing in creation of a linkage with the past architecture in responding the environment and creation of sustainable housing and follows revival of rich patterns of vernacular housing architecture in contemporary architecture.       

    Introduction

      Plex construction is a method in housing design which has been proposed with the aim of providing a sustainable, secure housing consistent with environmental conditions. Considering the wide range of the buildings constructed for residential application and appropriation of a high rate of energy consumption to them, placement of several buildings beside each other may reduce the rate of energy wastage (Ghialvand, 2007). Also, this is necessary regarding the shortage of urban land per capita, using the constructional techniques which reduce the per capita rate of using land. Plex construction is significant as a method which includes energy reduction and respecting the environment and less use of land (Goodarzi et.al, 2013, 67). On one hand, Iran vernacular architecture has unique specifications that besides attention to the environment respond the climatic needs of every region that this issue is abundantly observable in warm and dry climatic regions. By recognition and investigation of the vernacular architecture and the features consistent to the climate, they may be used in improvement of today buildings architecture. In this regard, the vernacular housing of Kerman city is evaluated with the aim of achieving the designing approaches of contemporary housing utilizing the rich patterns of past architecture in the physical and climatic dimensions. The research questions include: what features and criteria may provide adaptability of plex housing as a type of contemporary social housing with past models of vernacular housing in physical and climatic dimensions? And how much the past model of vernacular housing is consistent to warm and dry climate relating to plex housing? The proposed hypothesis is that the plex housing may lead to revival of past vernacular housing and systematic recognition by adaption to past architectural models which is responsive to the needs of contemporary housing relating to the climate and improvement of designing quality in architecture of contemporary architecture.

    Methodology

     The present study is a combination of analytical- descriptive and comparative methods with applied objective. The required data has been used through field and documentary studies. The statistical population of the present study is Kerman city vernacular housing (in respect of features of warm and dry climate vernacular housing). At first, the principles and criteria of plex housing and vernacular housing are identified, then for evaluation of the design specifications, these criteria have been used in study samples of plex housing and vernacular housing and achieving the rate of utilizing each sample from assessed criteria of scoring systems. Since the rate of efficiency of each sample is different from the considered criteria, the scoring system has been used that based on viability world literature1 and the rate of adaptability of these two types of housings are investigated.

    Results

      For comparison of the designing criteria in the architecture of vernacular and plex housing, the searchable points in designing studied samples were extracted. The studied criteria have been categorized in the format of two physical and climatic indicators. Then, for making the assessment process more accurate, the considered indicators were classified in the format of component and criterion and the searchable criteria were assessed in the studied samples. So, the rate of distinction of each criterion is investigated in each sample and all study samples in vernacular and plex housing as scoring. For evaluation of the specifications of these two types of housing, comparative comparison of the obtained scores was performed and the rate of adaptability of the considered cases in both housing was obtained. The designing criteria are conformed to each other in climatic respect in plex and vernacular housing in using air flow and relation to the environment. In using native materials, construction of vernacular housing is completely matched with native materials but in plex housing, this trend is descending and almost in most constructions, new materials have been used. Saving in energy consumption in vernacular housing has been more considered. The building orientation in vernacular housing has been applied very carefully but in plex housing some descending trend is observed. In plex housing and vernacular hosing, in respect of the structure commonalities have been in interaction with each other, using central yard as a collective space is seen in both housings. Collective spaces for creating more social interactions and building joint sections are seen in both housings. In respect of situation, adjacency exists in both types of housings but in vernacular housing, adjacency of the residential units has more consistency that this leads to more energy saving. In respect of space independence, both housing types are in interaction with each other. In respect of security, spatial and functional privacy, in vernacular housing is more observed due to the building introversion, but generally in both housing types, the element of security exists in the view of defined relations to joint parts and spaces

    Conclusion

    The theoretical fundamentals show that in the past planning of vernacular and plex housing, each has been evaluated based on its features and the interaction of these two types of housings have been ignored by planners and designers whose consequence is environmental and urban problems relating to the contemporary architecture. The salient feature of vernacular residential housing is conformation of housing to the environment and climatic and regional conditions and responding the environmental needs affected by climatic conditions. So, revival of vernacular architectural values which include the experiences of past skillful architects in construction of climatic housing and its adaption to contemporary architecture may lead to qualitative housing promotion. For rereading and revival of these models, the present study evaluates the features of plex and vernacular housing. The results obtained from the study show that in plex housing and vernacular housing, much interaction is seen in view of physical position. In respect of the spatial structure, these two types of housings are in close interaction with each other and in climatic view, the vernacular housing better responded the environment, but totally, all designing criteria in two housing types are in interaction with each other. Plex housing as a new form of contemporary housing may be useful and effective in creating a link to past architecture in responding the environment and creating sustainable housing and follow revival of the rich models of vernacular housing architecture in contemporary architecture. The results of the study indicate adaption of features of designing plex housing in relation to vernacular housing.

    Keywords: vernacular housing, plex housing, hot, dry climate, housing typology, plex
  • Mahla Shojaei Anari *, Mostafa Khabazi, Sadegh Karimi Pages 167-184

    Today, in the wake of the global water crisis, all countries seek to identify, control, and utilize freshwater resources. Due to the fact that Iran is located in the desert belt of the earth and the reduction of precipitation has caused water scarcity in Iran and Kerman province, therefore identifying water resources and investigating changes in snow cover is necessary. Due to the harsh physical conditions of mountainous environments, it is not possible to permanently measure the terrain to estimate snow sources and to form a database. Therefore, using satellite imagery is very important for identifying snowy surveys and assessing its changes. In this study, we attempted to study the changes in snow cover reservoirs in Halilroud watershed using MOD10A2 satellite imagery. For this purpose, Normalized Difference Snow Index was used. This index has a value greater than 0.4, meaning a pixel with a NDSI greater than 0.4 is referred to as snow and ice. The snow cover specified in the satellite images in ENVI5.1 software was entered into GIS and was classified into 5 classes from 0 to 5000 and the survey of ​​each class was calculated. Then they entered into SPSS and analyzed. Stepwise multivariate regression showed that during the 8-day interval of February (from 18 to 25 February), the most changes of snow survey had a significant and significant relationship with the snow survey trend in these years. In fact, the explanations for the snow changes in this time interval were related to height 3 (2001-3001) and then 4 (3001-4000), respectively. The 2001–3001 height alone accounts for 98.9% of the snowfall trend in the entire study area. Secondly, if the height of 4000-3001 is added, the two class,s justify 99.2 percent of the snowfall change over the past 20 years.

    Introduction

    According to studies, about 60 percent of surface water and 57 percent of groundwater in the country are located in snowy regions and feed on snow melt water (Najafi et al, 2004: 2). Most of the rainfall in the mountainous areas is snow-covered and inaccessible to the mountainous areas, so it is impossible to study them with high-cost, over-the-top terrain methods, and so on, The use of satellite remote sensing technology would be very useful in these studies. The water resources in the mountainous areas are affected by the amount of snowfall and are often fed by snowmelt waters. And the status of the water balance and the discharge regime of the water resources in such areas depend on the extent and speed of snow melting or its persistence on land and their nutritional basin levels. Today, in the wake of the global water crisis, all countries seek to identify and control freshwater resources and their optimal use. As one of the most important Islamic countries in the Middle East, Iran is in dire need of full growth and development. Given that the country lies in the desert belt of the earth, the identification of these very important water resources equals about one-third of the water required for agricultural and irrigation activities around the globe (Najafzade et al, 2004). : 3). In our country, these highlands can also be considered as a rich source of fresh water. Therefore, today in the process of efficient water resources management, the use of remote sensing data with the objective of obtaining accurate information from snow cover is operationalized. Given that recent droughts and shortages of rainfall have caused severe water shortages in Kerman province, changes in snow cover and the prevailing climate conditions are necessary and urgent for the public and authorities to reduce water resources. Be warned and find ways to prevent this crisis. Hezar, Laleh Zar and Bahr-e Asman Mountains (in the central areas of Kerman province) are suitable for detecting changes in snow cover due to their location and elevation in the face of various climate systems. Therefore, in this study, the changes of snow cover during the winter of the study years are studied in three mentioned peaks. Therefore, the following question and hypothesis is raised:Hypothesis: The percentage of snow cover seems to have decreased over the past 20 years.Q: Has the percentage of snow cover at different altitudes changed over time?

    Methodology

     Normalized snow cover differential index greater than 0.4 means that pixels with NDSI greater than 0.4 are introduced as snow and ice and obtained using the 5-2 relationship (Hall et al, 1995: 120).(1) NDSI = (MODIS4-MODIS6) / (MODIS4 + MODIS6)Snow and ice are generally determined by having NDSI values larger than other levels. A pixel in a low forest area is called snow or ice when it is 0.4≥ NDSI. While snow and ice cover in forested areas may have NDSI values below 0.4, the combination of NDSI and NDVI (Normalized Vegetation Index) can help to separate snow and ice cover from non-snow and ice in forest areas (Zhang : 2003: 52). The accuracy of the NDSI method is estimated to be 91-95%, which is less accurate in forest areas and in Tondra areas (Hall et al, 1998: 31).

    Results and discussion

     The specified snow cover satellite images were entered into GIS environment in ENVI5.1 software and were classified into 5 classes from 0 to 5000 and the area of ​​each class was calculated. Then they entered into SPSS environment and analyzed. Stepwise Weiss multivariate regression showed that during the 8-day interval of February (from 18 to 25 February) the most changes of snow area had a significant and significant relationship with the snow area trend in these years and in fact justified. The changes in snow during this time interval were related to altitudes of 3 (2001–1000) and then 4 (4000–3001), respectively. The 2001–2003 altitude alone accounts for 98.9% of the snowfall trend in the entire study area. Secondly, if the altitude of 3,000-4,000 is added, the two altitudes justify 99.2 percent of the variation in snowfall over the past 19 years.

    Conclusion

     The results of the satellite satellite imagery showed that the MOD10A2 Moderator daily snow product is capable of estimating the snow cover area of ​​the study area. In this research, the snow cover maps prepared in ENVI software were entered into ArcGIS software and the snow cover was identified as the study area. The February snow cover maps were classified into five elevation classes in ArcGIS software: the first floor contains 0-1000 height, the second floor contains 2001-1000 height, the third floor contains 2001-2003 height, fourth floor Includes altitude 3,000-4,000 meters and fifth floor contains altitude 4,000-5001 meters. Then, the snow cover area of ​​each of the elevated floors marked with different colors was calculated. The results of this study include the values ​​of snow cover levels in February as outlined in Table 7. According to the Pearson correlation results, the third floor (2001-2003 m) had the highest average snow area (3293.4 sq km) during the study period. Then the fourth floor (4000-1001 m) in the next row had the highest average snow area (1751.6 sq km) during the study period. Stepwise Weiss multivariate regression showed that during the 8-day interval of February (from 18 to 25 February) the most changes of snow area had a significant and significant relationship with the snow area trend in these few years and in fact justified. Snow variations in this time interval were related to altitude 3 and then 4, respectively. And as the descriptive statistics table observed, the 2001-2003 altitude alone accounted for 98.9% of the snowfall trend in the entire study area. Secondly, if the altitude of 3,000-4,000 is added, the two altitudes justify 99.2 percent of the variation in snowfall over the past 20 years. This means that during this time, snowfall in other elevations has not had much impact on the process of snow changes. In the end, it was determined that the highest snowfall in February (12687.89 sq km) was in 2015. Figure 5 Although the overall snow cover situation in February from 2000 to 2015 showed an upward trend, from 2016 to 2019 this trend declined. Therefore, the crowd has thwarted the whole process.

    Keywords: Watershed, MOD10A2, NDSI, Snow Cover, Iran
  • Ali Shojaeifard * Pages 185-196

    In today's world, entrepreneurial thinking and its use in organizations is inevitable. Just as the birth and death of organizations depend on the insights, insights, and abilities of their founders, their growth and survival depend on factors such as their ability, creativity and innovation. If the planners, decision makers and staff of an entrepreneurial organization are, they will better understand the economic opportunities and be able to use the resources available to innovate and thus grow faster and survive in the competitive arena. Rural development institutions and figures see entrepreneurship as a strategic intervention that can accelerate the rural development process, but they all seem to agree on the need to expand rural businesses.In order to empower individuals to become entrepreneurs, they must promote entrepreneurial activities, foster an entrepreneurial spirit, and ultimately establish an entrepreneurial environment. This requires understanding, explaining, and explaining the concept and process of rural entrepreneurship in business by empowering talented individuals with the least financial and economic resources. The present study is an exploratory and descriptive-analytic one. Librarian studies and field surveys (questionnaires, interviews and observations) were used to collect data in the study area. The location of this study is Aysin rural center of central Bandar Abbas and the statistical population of this study is household heads of households. The research questionnaire was compiled in Four components and thirty tow indicators related to the status of entrepreneurship development and rural employment. Descriptive statistics and factor analysis using SPSS software were used to analyze the data and to answer the research question.

    Introduction

    Today, the role of the Internet in speeding up communication, information transfer and access to the information society of rural businesses has also changed. In general, some areas of entrepreneurship in small towns and cities include agriculture, livestock, food production, indigenous production, etc. By launching various businesses in these areas, you can create employment and meet the needs of the people in that small community. And, on the other hand, to earn an income commensurate with the services provided. Entrepreneurship is one of the important tools for planning and achieving the development of rural communities. Entrepreneurship can play an important role in improving the economic and livelihoods of villages by creating new employment and income opportunities.The important thing about entrepreneurship in small towns and cities is to consider the environmental conditions, capacities and characteristics of the people and the region. In fact, by examining such conditions it is possible to set up the right business according to the needs of the community. Working in industries such as apparel, apparel, and knitting can create jobs, meet the needs of residents, and make money. In addition, setting up agricultural-related businesses is also of great importance and is considered as a source of supply for people's daily needs. In addition, training courses in production, agriculture and crop development have an important role to play in improving the rural business environment. On the other hand, animal husbandry is one of the main pillars of the rural economy and a very good option for entrepreneurship. It is also possible to create employment in rural areas by mechanizing treatment and adherence to animal health principles.
    In the field of sport, entrepreneurship is also possible by launching the necessary facilities, and in addition to creating employment for some rural community residents, untapped talents in various branches of sport can be discovered. Planning for job creation in rural health, setting up health centers and supplying needed health care is another area that is considered as a field for entrepreneurship in the village. In fact, entrepreneurship in this field not only increases the level of health of the rural community, but also leads to economic prosperity in this area. The growing role of internet businesses is undeniable, so it is possible to implement different rural projects by providing the right infrastructure, utilizing startup spaces, and so on.

    Methodology

    The present study is an exploratory and descriptive-analytic one. Librarian studies and field surveys (questionnaires, interviews and observations) were used to collect data in the study area. The location of this research is the Aysin village in central Bandar Abbas. The total population of the village was 4465 in 1395, of which 3205 were between 15 and 64 years of age. Of these, 1611 were men and 1594 were women, with 905 households residing. In this village there is a population working in agriculture and services which shows that the percentage of agricultural workers is higher than other sectors in comparison to the study area and this indicates that the The sector is comparable to other sectors including industry and services. The number of unemployed is 602, of which 416 are men and 186 women. The statistical population of the study is the heads of households in this village. 184 households were selected through Cochran formula as sample size to complete the questionnaire which were randomly selected in the study population.

    Results and discussion

    Factors and variables of this study are: Infrastructure, Economics, Knowledge and Knowledge, Self-Confidence, Individual Creativity, Innovation and Creativity, Physical Infrastructure, and Facility Accessibility, which were determined by SPSS software. All of these have a positive and significant role in the success of rural entrepreneurship.

    Conclusion

    Improvement and development of suitable public infrastructure in the village such as water, electricity, gas, use of appropriate telecommunication infrastructure, bank post, availability of vehicles for transport to market and sales centers infrastructure, skilled and knowledgeable manpower Experience in starting new businesses in the village, making it possible for investors to properly use new businesses in terms of individual capacities and capabilities is crucial. Economic development in rural areas requires new strategies that can be achieved by developing entrepreneurship and enabling environmental policies. Use of credit facilities for small businesses, access to loans for various businesses, availability of funds for doing business, number of local production networks at the village level, granting special facilities and grants to disadvantaged activists. Access to the right market for the supply of local and indigenous products to consumers has increased. Empowerment can provide a good starting point for establishing a small business in the rural areas of Hormozgan province and starting talented people. Of course, the proper process must be defined from the start to the support and stabilization of each job specified in the process presented. These programs have enabled the redistribution of income and increased self-employment and, consequently, increased production, income, and reduced unemployment and the prevention of migration from the countryside to the poor because of the provision of appropriate financial services and services to poorer groups of society. In order to empower individuals to become entrepreneurs, they must promote entrepreneurial activities, foster an entrepreneurial spirit, and ultimately establish an entrepreneurial environment. This requires understanding, explaining, and explaining the concept and process of rural entrepreneurship in small businesses in the villages of Hormozgan province through empowering talented individuals with the least financial and economic resources.

    Keywords: Rural Entrepreneurship in Hormozgan Province, Entrepreneurship in Business, Empowerment, Business Environment, Self-Sufficiency
  • Asdollah Keshavarz, Mohammad Ashouri *, Mohammadali Mahdavi Sabet, Shahram Ebrahimi Pages 197-212

    Regarding this point that underground water sources play a significant role in providing water for agriculture and drinking needs and living of people in many parts of the country depends on these sources are in a great danger because the owners of allowed-wells are trying to use the sources over allowed capacity from the country aquifers and also there are people who are using unauthorized well.  The environmental  crimes related to water   are of the fourth rank of International criminal activities and the first, second ‘and third rank goes to drug dealing forging and human trafficking respectively. The finding of the study based on analytical and descriptive method as well as data collection shows that the judicial policy and planning related to those crimes of water which directly affect the human beings life and health are of enough speed to deal with crimes as well as issuing verdicts and execution .But there is neglection and also lack of responsibility in prosecuting  the crimes which have indirectly effects on people’s life and health.

    Introduction

    There is an increasing need for human beings from one hand and the shortage of water in drylands from other hand, and this problem causes an increasing use of water specially the underground water resources.  There would be sever water crisis if we cannot manage the use of surface water resources properly which can bring social, economical , and political consequences with itself . The total area of Iran is 165 million acres and only a bout 37 million acres are suitable for farming.water resources constraint makes is hard for farming and 8 million acres of lands are under water cultivation , The rest are 6 million acres of dry farming and about 4 million acres of fall cultivation. The agricultural, environmental , social , economical , and legal criteria should be considered in order to provide a better cultivation as well as proper management .There is also and idea that a proper planning of water resource management can save more than 50 percent of water. Water resources management and development act like a dynamic factor in investment , planning , and creating environmental facilities for utilizing water resources, has been stablised for so many years and its main facus is on development of water resources, environmental, legal, and organizational topics. Regarding this point that underground water sources play a significant role in providing water for agriculture and drinking needs and living of people in many parts of the country depends on these sources are in a great danger because the owners of allowed-wells are trying to use the sources over allowed capacity from the country aquifers and also there are people who are using unauthorized well.  The environmental  crimes related to water   are of the fourth rank of International criminal activities and the first, second ‘and third rank goes to drug dealing forging and human trafficking respectively The main problem which the researcher are trying to find an answer for it the researchers are seeking answer for the main problems and they are as follows: To some extend the judicial policy of Iran is in line with the legislative policy, aims, and the needs for the protection of water resources? “To some extend Iran judicial policy is the priority of the judiciary”? “How is the cooperation of judiciary system with other organizations and executive agencies by regarding the sustainable development?

    Methodology

    The research method is a descriptive – analytic one, using library resources such as books, document, rules, judicial and non – authorities, votes, and circulars issued by the authorities. The method of research is as follows: This research uses a qualitative- hybrid way which consists of documentary study method as well as qualitative content analysis. All legal documents and circulars used in judicial practice by judges in dealing with environmental crimes have been investigated in the document study section. All documents, Articles, and circulars which are the basis of judicial procedure in dealing with environmental crimes have been studied in the section of documentary study. Some cases related to the investigations of  Fars province jurisdictions and non-jurisdiction authorities have been studied in the qualitative content analysis section.

    Results and discussion

    Development is a comprehensive, economical, social, cultural, and political process. Whose aim is the improvement wealth of the whole society. But in order to confine the development, an organization named development take from the human rights   and environmental right has been made and is recognized and protected by the world society.  Is some case like water pollution, giving enough authority to In criminal law, mass scattering is basically in the fields of water resources protection and specially underground waters.  If we want to execute the low, first we should give enough power to relevant authorities, such as EPA and the ministry of to do necessary inspections, sampling, and have sufficient care equipment’s.  Which the huge and smaller wits are working properly, those units which should be assessed by environmental standards; they should install momentum monitoring systems (online) and send the data (information) to Environmental protection agency in order to prevent air pollution. The issuance and extension of operating license is closely related to the execution of this issue. (Clean air act 1396). This method should be used for water and its resources which are polluted with a focus on the responsibility of one organization instead on distribution across multiple organizations. This can be used for other elements of nature. Inconsistency of rules not only shows the lesser sensitivity of government and parliament but it seems that the aforementioned forces instead of predicting future behavior of abusers for these crimes and trying to preventing them , are waiting  for misbehavior and trying to deal with them after happening. They have happened. Inconsistency of rules, and doubtful legislation, or long –term regulatory legislation make it possible for dissemination of judicial procedure to happen. Extension  aggression to the environment is the result of this kind of disorder , Adopting specialized and comprehensive laws inspired by local and universal strategies of protecting the environment can be very impressive. We should say that environmental victim is a human being or any other creature which is harmed by deliberate or careless behavior of others.

    Conclusion

    The nation of environmental victimization defined by regarding human interest and harm to human. Regarding the above mentioned statements, with respect to the effects of these crimes, and study of environmental rules we can say that Iran criminal judiciary policy is affected by the crimes related to water which can directly affect the  human health and life with focusing on speed up in prosecution until trial and criminal response and is a priority for judicial review.

    Keywords: Water safety, Development, Balanced, Water judicial measures, Criminal, non-criminal enforcement of water