فهرست مطالب

پژوهش و برنامه ریزی شهری - پیاپی 39 (زمستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 39 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • یعقوب ابدالی، سیدعباس رجایی* صفحات 1-16

    امروزه عمدتا شهرها و جوامع سکونت گاهی در مکان هایی ایجاد یا بنا شده اند که به لحاظ مخاطرات طبیعی در معرض وقوع انواع سوانح طبیعی و یا به دلیل پیشرفت های تکنولوژی در معرض انواع سوانح انسان ساخت هستند از این رو یکی از مهم ترین الزامات پرداختن به مسائل کالبدی بافت های مسکونی در شهرها و تبیین مفهوم تاب آوری و به تبع آن مقاوم سازی این بافت ها در مواجهه با حوادث و مخاطرات احتمالی است. قلمرو مطالعه حاضر بافت مسکونی شهر بجنورد است. این پژوهش به لحاظ هدف کاربردی و از لحاظ روش شناسی توصیفی تحلیلی مبتنی بر رویکرد مطالعات کالبدی- سازه ای است. برای دستیابی به اهداف تحقیق شاخص های منتخب اسکلت ساختمان، جنس مصالح، تعداد طبقات، دانه بندی، قدمت ساختمان و کیفیت ابنیه استخراج شد. برای کشف روند الگوها از ابزار رگرسیون و برای وزن دهی به لایه ها در داده های فضایی از روش خودهمبستگی فضایی ابزار موجود در نرم افزار Geoda استفاده شد. برای تعیین نوع توزیع تاب آوری کالبدی (خوشه ای، تصادفی و پراکنده) از ابزار Moran’s I استفاده شده است. همچنین برای بررسی توزیع فضایی اولویت بندی تاب آوری بافت مسکونی از روش خودهمبستگی فضایی موران در نرم افزار ArcGIS استفاده شده است. نتایج مکانی در پژوهش حاضر نشان می دهد که 2235783 مترمربع یعنی 45/28 درصد از کل مساحت که تعداد 10187 بلوک ساختمانی را در بر می گیرد در بازه تاب آوری نسبتا کم تا خیلی کم قرار دارند و 3513732 مترمربع یعنی 70/44 درصد از کل مساحت که تعداد 15269 بلوک ساختمانی را در بر می گیرد در بازه تاب آوری متوسط قرار دارد که نیازمند برنامه ریزی هرچه سریع تر برای این قسمت ها از بافت است. در پایان بر مبنای یافته های پژوهش و در چارچوب 6 مولفه ی منتخب، پیشنهادهایی برای تاب آور نمودن بافت مسکونی شهر بجنورد در بعد کالبدی ارائه شد.

    کلیدواژگان: تاب آوری، کالبدی، مسکونی، ALM، بجنورد
  • حسن حکمت نیا*، میرنجف موسوی، مهدی حسین پور، اکبر حمیدی صفحات 17-32

    پارک های شهری بخشی از زیرساخت های عمومی اند که شهروندان می توانند از آن ها برای سرگرمی های بصری، زیست محیطی، آموزشی، بهداشتی، فرهنگی اجتماعی و تفریحی استفاده کنند. اما یکی از چالش های عمده در تحقق چنین کارکردهای حیاتی پارک ها، نبود ایمنی کافی است. بنابراین، سنجش کیفیت ایمنی پارک ها به منظور ارتقای کارآیی آن مقوله مهمی محسوب می شود. هدف پژوهش، تحلیل شاخص های ایمنی پارک های منطقه ای و شهری ارومیه می باشد. پژوهش حاضر به لحاظ هدف کاربردی و به لحاظ روش، توصیفی تحلیلی است. روش گردآوری داده ها، اسنادی و پیمایشی است. حجم نمونه با توجه به مقیاس عملکردی، وسعت و میزان جمعیت مناطقی که پارک-ها در آن قرار گرفته اند، از طریق فرمول کوکران معادل 380 نفر برآورد گردید. شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ای نیز برای انتخاب نمونه ها بکار گرفته شد. ابزار پردازش داده ها شامل مدل تصمیم گیری چند معیاره الکتره جهت وزن دهی پارک های موردمطالعه از نظر شاخص های ایمنی و آزمون تحلیل مسیر و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون برای سنجش روابط بین متغیرها و نیز ویژگی های فردی پاسخگویان است. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل یافته ها بیانگر این است: نخست، براساس مدل الکتره پارک گوللرباغی با تعداد چیرگی 5، در بهترین شرایط (رتبه اول) و پارک ساعت با تعداد چیرگی 1 (رتبه 5) در بدترین شرایط قرار دارد. دوم، مطابق نتایج حاصل از آزمون تحلیل مسیر در ارتباط با مهم ترین شاخص های ایمنی در پارک های مورد مطالعه، شاخص ایمنی فیزیکی به عنوان عامل مستقیم در احساس ایمنی با بتای 394/0، شاخص روشنایی با بتای 179/0 و شاخص دسترسی فیزیکی با بتای 178/0 به عنوان شاخص های اصلی احساس ایمنی شناخته شدند. سوم اینکه مقدار ضریب همبستگی پیرسون بین دو متغیر شاخص های ایمنی و ویژگی-های فردی پاسخگویان برابر 613/0 بدست آمده و سطح معنی داری کم تر از 05/0 نشان دهنده وجود همبستگی مثبت و معناداری بین این متغیرها است

    کلیدواژگان: پارک های شهری، شاخص های ایمنی، مدل ویکور، تحلیل مسیر، شهر ارومیه
  • مهسا اسدی عزیزآبادی، کرامت الله زیاری*، محسن وطن خواهی صفحات 33-50

    هدف اصلی این پژوهش دست یابی به راهبردهای بازآفرینی پایدار بر اساس ابعاد تاب آوری در شهر کرج می باشد. این پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی و کاربردی است که جمع آوری داده ها با مطالعات کتابخانه ای- اسنادی، بررسی های پیمایشی و مصاحبه با مدیران و مسئولین شهری صورت گرفته شده است. به منظور تحلیل داده ها از تکنیک SWOTET، مدل ویکور فازی و تاپسیس فازی استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش  حاکی از آن است که وجود اراضی مستعد کشاورزی درون محدوده کالبدی شهر و پیرامون، موقعیت مناسب نسبت به بزرگراه تهران_ قزوین و در حال انجام بودن مطالعات طرح های بازآفرینی از جمله فرصت های موجود در بافت فرسوده شهر کرج می باشد. از سوی دیگر نبود امکانات مناسب اجرایی نمودن شورایاری در سطح کل محلات، علنی و شفاف نبودن مراحل اجرایی طرح های تهیه شده برای شهروندان و پایین بودن سطح بهداشت و کمبود امکانات خدماتی سه عامل تهدیدزای مهم برای بافت فرسوده شهر کرج به شمار می روند که بر اساس آن چشم انداز بازآفرینی بافت فرسوده شهر کرج بر اساس ابعاد تاب آوری بدین شرح تدوین شده است. باید بافت فرسوده شهر کرج بافتی با ساختار منسجم و ایمن که دارای زیرساخت، تاسیسات و تجهیزات شهری پایدار و تاب آور که دارای اجتماعات محلی پایدار و تاب آور با کارکردها و عملکردهای اقتصادی پویا به منظور مقابله و مواجهه با هرگونه بحران و مخاطره باشد. از جمله راهبردهای بر اساس مطالعات صورت گرفته شده نیز می توان به اصلاح ساختار دسترسی ها در محلات بر اساس رعایت سلسله مراتب راه ها به منظور ارائه خدمات رسانی در زمان بحران و مخاطره، ایمنی تاسیسات و تجهیزات شهری، مقاوم سازی تاسیسات و تجهیزات شهری، امکان سنجی دقیق نحوه مشارکت ساکنین در راستای اجرای برنامه های بازآفرینی و مدیریت بحران، مشخص کردن مسئولیت های مدیران شهری بر اساس برنامه های جامع مدیریت سوانح طبیعی، ایجاد بستر قانونی مناسب جهت مشارکت مردم در طرح ها و برنامه های بازآفرینی در جهت ارتقا تاب آوری اشاره نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: بافت فرسوده، تاب آوری، شهرکرج، راهبرد
  • الناز جزایری، رسول صمدزاده*، حسین حاتمی نژاد صفحات 51-62

    در دهه های آتی محرک اصلی خسارات و تلفات فزاینده ناشی از بلایای طبیعی، رشد جمعیت شهری و مایملک شهروندان در مناطق بلاخیز است. بزرگ ترین کانون ثقل جمعیتی ایران شهر تهران در قالب 22 منطقه شهرداری است که از طرف شمال و جنوب با تراکم بالایی از گسل های فعال احاطه شده است. از طرفی برای مقابله با مخاطرات طبیعی به ویژه زمین لرزه رویکردهای متعددی وجود دارد که رویکرد تاب آوری در ابعاد چهارگانه یکی از مهم ترین آن هاست. هدف پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی ظرفیت تاب آوری شهری منطقه 12 تهران در برابر زمین لزره از لحاظ ابعاد اجتماعی و نهادی است، که براساس حد بهینه درسطح جهانی ارزیابی شده است. به منظور تعریف حد بهینه در این پژوهش، چنین فرض شد که مقدار عددی هر شاخص در مناطقی در سطح جهان را که تاکنون درآن بحران های متعددی اتفاق افتاده که در برابر آن تاب آور بوده اند (نظیر ژاپن و کالیفرنیا) می توان حد بهینه تاب آور بودن درنظر گرفت.روش تحقیق در این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی است. نتایج یافته ها حاکی از این است که در بین شاخص های اجتماعی، وضعیت شاخص ساختارسنی جمعیت، ساختار جنسی جمعیت بالاتر از حد بهینه محاسبه شده است. در مقابل، وضعیت پوشش سلامتی، فاصله ای زیاد با مقدار بهینه محاسبه شده دارد. در بین شاخص های مربوط به تاب آوری نهادی، همه شاخص ها فاصله محسوسی با مقدار بهینه دارند. در این بین، شاخص روابط نهادی با 46 درصد فاصله از مقدار بهینه وضعیت نامناسب تری دارد. بعد از آن، شاخص عملکرد نهادی با 41 درصد و بستر نهادی با 32 درصد فاصله از مقدار بهینه در رده های بعدی قرار دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: تاب آوری شهری، منطقه 12 تهران، زمین لرزه، تاب آوری اجتماعی، تاب آوری نهادی
  • احمد پوراحمد*، حسن عاشوری، احمد حاتمی صفحات 63-74

    مطالعات در مورد ضایت مسکونی درک ما را از سطح موفقیت یا شکست پروژه های مسکن، کیفیت پروژه و عوامل رضایت یا نارضایتی ساکنان افزایش می دهد. این مطالعات در اطلاع رسانی سیاست های مسکن بسیار مهم است. هدف این پژوهش، ارزیابی میزان رضایت مندی ساکنان از مجتمع مسکن مهر وحدت شهر شیراز می باشد. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش توصیفی- تحلیلی می باشد. جمع آوری داده ها به صورت پیمایشی و با استفاده از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته انجام شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش کل ساکنان مجتمع مسکن مهر وحدت شهر شیراز و حجم نمونه برابر با 384 نفر که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و به روش تصادفی ساده انتخاب شده است. در تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات و داده ها از آزمون آماری t تک نمونه ای استفاده شده است. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که شاخص های استحکام مسکن با میانگین کلی (58/2)، نحوه تصرف مسکن با میانگین کلی (26/3)، تراکم و ازدحام با میانگین کلی (13/3)، کیفیت محله با میانگین کلی (04/3)، 8 شاخص از 11 شاخص دسترسی به خدمات در محله با میانگین کلی (52/2)، پایین تر از حد متوسط (5/3) و دارای وضعیت نامطلوبی بوده و ساکنان از آن ها رضایت نداشته اند. در مقابل؛ سه شاخص دسترسی به مسجد با میانگین (41/4)، دسترسی به سوپرمارکت و مغازه های خرده فروشی و... با میانگین (43/4)، دسترسی به وسائط حمل و نقل عمومی با میانگین (80/3) و شاخص های امکانات اولیه مسکن با میانگین کلی (06/4)، بالاتر از حد متوسط (5/3) و دارای وضعیت مطلوبی بوده و ساکنان از آن ها رضایت داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی، رضایت مسکونی، مجتمع وحدت، مسکن مهر، شهر شیراز
  • یاسر زارع، لیلا شهریاری*، سعید پرهوده، علی کاربخش صفحات 75-88

    تاکنون در راستای تحقق توسعه پایدار شهری از سوی متخصصان، برنامه ریزان، و سیاست گذاران شهری نسخه های متعددی پیچیده شده است و این برنامه ها در مواردی موفق و در موادی ناکام مانده است. استفاده از فناوری نانو در توسعه پایداری فضاهای شهری، از جمله مواردی است که اکثر صاحب نظران روی آن توافق نظر دارند. یکی از مهم ترین موارد استفاده از فناوری نانو در فضاهای شهر، فناوری نانو بتن است. علی رغم توجه و تاکید محققان بر استفاده از این فناوری در فضاهای شهری، شواهد نشان می دهد تاکنون از این فناوری استقبال ضعیفی به عمل آمده است. این پژوهش در راستای توسعه و ترویج استفاده از این فناوری مدرن در فضاهای شهری، با هدف بررسی و تحلیل اثرات نانو بتن در توسعه پایدار کلانشهر شیراز، با در نظر گرفتن نظرات و دیدگاه های متخصصان، کارشناسان، محققان و اساتید دانشگاهی که در خصوص موضوع مورد مطالعه دارای تجربه کاری و تخصص علمی بوده اند، انجام گرفته است. داده های مورد نیاز با استفاده از مطالعات اسنادی و مطالعات پیمایشی جمع آوری شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد از نظر متخصصان، استفاده از فناوری نانو در بتن با عمکلرد متنوع خود در زمینه های مختلف از جمله بهبود مقاومت مکانیکی، افزایش دوام و پایداری بتن، کاهش نفوذپذیری، سازگاری با محیط زیست و افزایش مقاومت در برابر سایش و ضربه می تواند در توسعه پایدار شهری موثر باشد. نتایج ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد میان دو متغیر استفاده از فناوری نانو بتن و توسعه پایدار کلانشهر شیراز رابطه آماری معناداری وجود دارد و نتایج رگرسیون خطی (دو متغیره) نیز نشان داد متغیر مستقل نانو بتن توانسته است 698/0 درصد از تغییرات متغیر وابسته (توسعه پایدار فضاهای شهری در کلانشهر شیراز) را تبیین نماید.

    کلیدواژگان: فناوری نانو، نانو بتن، توسعه پایدار شهری، شیراز
  • فهیمه نامور حقیقی شیرازی فرد، خلیل حاجی پور*، امیر حسین شبانی، محمود محمدی صفحات 89-102

    رشد روزافزون جمعیت در کلان شهرها باعث گسترش افسارگسیخته شهرها و پراکنده رویی شده است که در نقطه مقابل رشد هوشمند و توسعه درون زا قرار دارد. شهر شیراز دارای 1700 هکتار بافت فرسوده و ناکارآمد و حدود 450 هکتار اراضی بایر و رها شده در داخل شهر است. وسعت این مقدار از بافت های نیازمند توجه، لزوم به کار گیری توسعه درونزا و ابزارهای دستیابی به آن را نمایان می سازد. هدف این پژوهش بررسی تطبیقی سیاست های مدیریت رشد شهری (سیاست های بیرونی مدیریت رشد و سیاست های درونی مدیریت رشد) جهت شناسایی بهترین سیاست درونی مدیریت رشد در شهر شیراز می باشد. بدین منظور در پژوهش از ترکیب مدل های تاپسیس و فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP-TOPSIS) استفاده شده و تعیین امتیازها با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری متوالی و نظرسنجی خبرگان در قالب مدل دلفی دومرحله ای و با استفاده از نظرات 17 نفر از کارشناسان و مدیران شهری شیراز بوده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که سیاست های بیرونی مدیریت رشد به علت تاثیر کلان و گستردگی مساحت تحت تاثیر به طور کل از اولویت بالاتری برای مدیریت شهری برخوردار است. مانند: ایجاد کمربند سبز شهری (0.69)، اعمال محدوده رشد شهری (0.69) که هر دو رتبه دوم و محدوده خدمات شهری (0.63) که رتبه سوم اولویت را کسب کرده اند و در مرحله بعد سیاست های درونی مدیریت رشد قرار دارند که تاثیرگذار ترین آنها، تنظیم مجدد زمین (0.75) با رتبه اول می باشد و سایر سیاست های درونی مدیریت رشد نظیر طرح های جامع الزام آور، انتقال و خرید حق توسعه، مشوق های تراکمی و افزایش مسکن، همکاری ها و توافقات درون محلی و برنامه ریزی اشتراکی، هزینه تاثیر توسعه و مقررات هم زمان و مالیات ویژه و ابزار تامین مالی در رتبه های چهارم به بعد قرار دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: سیاست های مدیریت رشد شهری، تنظیم مجدد زمین، فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، مدل تاپسیس، شهر شیراز
  • سجاد احمدی*، علی موحد، علی شماعی صفحات 103-116

    در این پژوهش فضا بسان ظرفی خنثی و فاقد تاثیر درک نمی شود، بلکه فضا به سان محتوایی آگاهی بخش به انسان ها فهم شده است. به عبارتی دیگر زمان در چارچوب فضا متصلب و هر نوع درکی از فضای اجتماعی، مستلزم فهمی تاریخی و آگاهی از اراده انسان است. هدف پژوهش رمزگشایی سازوکارهای موثر بر تولید فرم شهری «طبقاتی و بی قواره»، کارکرد «مصرف گرای سوژه ساز» و گسست ساختاری «تعاملات اجتماعی» در شیراز است. جریان هایی که درک آن ها به آسانی حاصل نمی شود و نیاز به موشکافی دقیق و تفکر انضمامی دارد. تجربه فضا جدا از متن نیست، بلکه حاکی از قلمروی نظری و درواقع ارتباط «کیفیت ایده آلیسم» با«کیفیت زندگی» دارد. هر نوع تعریف مطلق، انتزاعی، ریاضی، اجتماعی و... فضا، به تبع روش شناسی خاص خود را دارد. با توجه به تولید اجتماعی فضا، نوع پژوهش کیفی و مبتنی بر دیالکتیک سه گانه؛ فضای محسوس (کنش ها و اقتصاد مسلط بر شیراز)، فضای معقول (ساختارها و قوانین حاکم بر شهر) و فضای زیسته (درک اراده مردم) است. درواقع سلطه تکنوکرات های به جای جامعه مدنی، کاهش تعاملات اجتماعی و تفکر، فقدان ساختار مالیاتی، رانتی شدن کدگذاری طرح تفصیلی، ناتوانی مالی عمده شهروندان در استفاده از خدمات با توزیع عادلانه، فقر، شکاف های طبقاتی و... از ویژگی های شیراز امروز است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از فقدان برنامه ریزی در شیراز و تقلیل آن به نقشه طرح تفصیلی است، نقشه ای که تحقق آن با توزیع گسترده و تثبیت تله های فضایی فقر در شیراز همراه بوده است. به طوری که از 477916 خانوار شهر شیراز تا سال 1395، بیش از 45% در خانه های اجاره ای سکونت داشته اند. خانوارهایی که با افزایش حدود 100% قیمت مسکن در پی تورم سال 1397، به شدت متضرر و امیدهای آن های برای خانه دار شدن بر باد رفت.

    کلیدواژگان: طرح تفصیلی و رانت، اجاره نشینی و جرم، فقر
  • مرضیه طالشی انبوهی*، اسماعیل آقائی زاده، مریم جعفری مهرآبادی صفحات 117-134

    آ آگاهی از اثرات افزایش زیست پذیری در بافت های فرسوده شهری نیازمند ارائه تحلیلی ساختاری از آن در آینده است تا به وسیله آن افزایش کیفیت فضاهایی از این دست با به بکارگیری رویکرد زیست پذیری، قابل سنجش و ارزیابی باشد و در نهایت به خلق مراکز شهری پویا و محله های پایدار کمک کند. در این راستا این پژوهش با هدف غایی تحلیل ساختاری زیست پذیری بافت های فرسوده شهری منطقه یک شهر قزوین با رویکرد آینده پژوهی انجام شده است. از نظر روش شناسی، توصیقی- تحلیلی و از لحاظ هدف گذاری کاربردی می باشد. داده ها و اطلاعات پژوهش با استفاده از مطالعات اسنادی و میدانی گردآوری شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش 16 نفر از خبرگان و متخصصان شهری می باشند که به صورت نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب گردیدند. تعداد 14 متغیر برای بررسی آینده زیست پذیری بافت های فرسوده شهری، شناسایی و با نرم افزار MIC MAC مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج به دست امده بیانگر این بود که درجه پرشدگی برابر با 08/79% است که نشان از تاثیر زیاد عوامل بر هم بود.. علاوه بر این از مجموع 155 رابطه قابل ارزیابی در این ماتریس، 41 رابطه صفر(عدم تاثیر)، 27 رابطه عدد یک (تاثیر اندک)، 36 رابطه عدد دو (تاثیرگذاری قوی) و 92 رابطه عدد سه (تاثیرگذاری بسیار زیاد) بوده است. در نتیجه یافته های حاصل از بررسی متغیرهای کلیدی و موثر بر وضعیت بافت های فرسوده شهری محدوده مورد مطالعه، بیانگر ناپایداری این مناطق در ارتباط با زیست پذیری در آینده است.

    کلیدواژگان: زیست پذیری، بافت های فرسوده، تحلیل ساختاری، آینده پژوهی، شهر قزوین
  • ابراهیم معمری، محمد فرخ زاد*، یاسین صیاد سالار صفحات 135-144

    مسکن خردترین و کوچک ترین شکل تجسم کالبدی رابطه متقابل انسان و محیط و خصوصی ترین فضای زندگی انسان است. مسلما شناسایی سطوح کیفیت شاخص های مسکن در نواحی مختلف شهری گامی موثر در تبیین سطوح کیفیت زندگی است. بر این اساس پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارزیابی وضعیت شاخص های کالبدی مسکن در نواحی شهری گرگان صورت گرفته است. نوع تحقیق در این پژوهش «کاربردی- توسعه ای» و روش بررسی «توصیفی-تحلیلی» است. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار صفحه گسترده اکسل و جهت اولویت بندی نواحی بر اساس شاخص های مورد پژوهش از تکنیک های تصمیم گیری چند معیاره WASPAS و WP استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که در تکنیک WASPAS ناحیه دو با ضریب اولویت (355/0) در رتبه اول، ناحیه سه با ضریب اولویت(336/0) در مرتبه دوم، ناحیه هفت با ضریب اولویت (315/0) در مرتبه سوم، ناحیه یک با ضریب اولویت (289/0) در مرتبه چهارم، ناحیه پنج با ضریب اولویت (270/0) در مرتبه پنجم، ناحیه چهار با ضریب اولویت (263/0) در مرتبه ششم، ناحیه شش با ضریب اولویت(240/0) در مرتبه هفتم و ناحیه هشت با ضریب اولویت (235/0) در مرتبه هشتم قرار گرفته است. نتایج تکنیک WP نشان می دهد ناحیه 8 با امتیاز (501/0)، ناحیه 2 با امتیاز(273/0)، ناحیه 3 با امتیاز (251/0)، ناحیه 7 با امتیاز (243/0)، ناحیه 4 با امتیاز (212/0)، ناحیه 1 با امتیاز (197/0)، ناحیه 5 با امتیاز (196/0) و ناحیه 6 با امتیاز (193/0) به ترتیب از پایدارترین تا ناپایدارترین نواحی از لحاظ شاخص های کالبدی مسکن در شهر گرگان است.

    کلیدواژگان: مسکن شهری، WASPAS، مسکن، شهر گرگان، شاخص های کیفیت مسکن
  • تحلیلی بر اثرگذاری کیفیت محیط کالبدی بر الگوهای رفتاری شهروندان (نمونه موردی: میدان بابا طاهر همدان)
    ندا صحراکار، کیانوش ذاکرحقیقی* صفحات 145-156

    در طول تاریخ فضاهای شهری به تدریج با نزول کیفیت محیط کالبدی رو برو بوده اند و به جای صحنه های گفتگو تبدیل به فضاهایی برای خیره شدن و مخصوص حرکت سواره شده اند. این پژوهش با هدف شناخت کیفیت محیط کالبدی و تاثیر آن بر الگوهای رفتاری افراد در میدان آرامگاه باباطاهر همدان صورت گرفته است که با استخراج شاخص ها و با بکارگیری از پرسشنامه و نقشه های رفتاری اطلاعات لازم را جمع آوری و برای تبدیل یافته ها به مولفه های کمی از نرم افزار SPSS و برای اولویت بندی محدوده های اطراف میدان جهت مداخله در بهبود الگوهای رفتاری باروش TOPSIS به تحلیل اطلاعات می پردازد. یافته های تحلیل نشان می دهد که نحوه استفاده از فضا به گونه ای است که محدوده شرقی با فعالیت های انتخابی (5%/11) ،فعالیت های اجتماعی (15%) و سپس در محدوده جنوبی با فعالیت های انتخابی (5%/15)، فعالیت های اجتماعی (5%/6) از امتیازات بالاتری نسبت به دیگر محدوده ها برخوردار هستند و به ترتیب معیارهای اجتماعی، ویژگی بصری، کیفیت زندگی شهری ایمنی و امنیت رابطه مستقیمی با رخداد فعالیت های انتخابی و فعالیت های اجتماعی دارند نکته حائز اهمیت مدت زمان رویداد این فعالیت هاست که در بازه زمانی کوتاه اتفاق می افتد، که ارتقا این امر علاوه بر ارتقا کیفیت محیط کالبدی با ایجاد قرارگاه های رفتاری مطلوب و غالب کردن آنها این امر میسر می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: الگو های رفتاری، محیط کالبدی، قرارگاه های رفتاری، آرامگاه بابا طاهر، همدان
  • داود اکبری*، مینا مرادی زاده، محمد اکبری صفحات 157-170

    امروزه با توجه به روند رو به رشد جمعیت در شهرها و روستاها و تمایل به زندگی شهری بیشترین تغییرات کاربری اراضی در نواحی شهری به وقوع می پیوندد. توسعه سریع شهری در دهه های اخیر موجب تغییرات وسیعی در الگوی کاربری زمین پیرامون شهرها شده و تاثیرات زیست محیطی و اجتماعی-اقتصادی زیادی را به همراه داشته است. در این پژوهش با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره ای تغییرات کاربری اراضی و شبیه سازی رشد و توسعه شهر رشت به کمک مدل شبکه عصبی و سلول های خودکار زنجیره مارکوف انجام گرفت. برای این منظور از تصاویر سال های 2000، 2008 و 2017 ماهواره لندست استفاده گردید. پس از پیش پردازش تصویر و انتخاب بهترین ترکیب باندی، تصاویر با روش شبکه عصبی طبقه بندی شد. سپس تصاویر طبقه بندی شده در مدل ساز تغییرات زمین وارد گردید و نقشه های خروجی مدل ساز با روش CA-MARCOVE برای سال 2027 پیش بینی شد. نتایج بدست آمده در فاصله زمانی 2000 تا 2017 نشان می دهد که تغییرات مساحت در اراضی شهری، شالیزار و جنگل به ترتیب به میزان 87/9041، 03/7841  و 78/55 هکتار بوده که میزان آن در شهر رشت مثبت و در شالیزار و جنگل منفی می باشد و نقشه پیش بینی سال 2027 با روش CA-MARCOVE نیز موید افزایش قابل توجه کاربری شهری به مقدار  04/14105 هکتار در سال های آتی است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهند که ادامه روند فعلی تغییرات کاربری اراضی به نتایج مضر زیست محیطی و به تبع آن آسیب های اقتصادی- اجتماعی جبران ناپذیر می انجامد. بنابراین ضروری است دستگاه برنامه ریزی و مدیریت منطقه، رویکردی جامع برای جلوگیری از مشکلات زیست محیطی آتی و مهار توسعه افقی سکونتگاه ها در این منطقه در پیش گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: کاربری اراضی، تصاویر ماهواره ای، مدل شبکه عصبی، سلول های خودکار زنجیره مارکوف، شهر رشت
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  • Yaghob Abdali, Seyd Abas Rajaei * Pages 1-16

    Today, cities and residential societies are mainly established where they are subject to different types of natural disasters or are subject to different man-made disasters due to technological advancements. Hence, one of the most important requirements is addressing the physical issues of urban residential textures and the concept of resilience and consequently, retrofitting these textures in case of possible incidents and hazards. The currently studied domain was the residential texture of Bojnourd County with a total population of 233810, with 34557 residential buildings and a total area of 7859902 m2. This study is an applied research in terms of objective and in terms of methodology, it is a descriptive-analytical research based on physical-structural approaches. In order to obtain the objectives of this research, selected indices such as the structural skeleton, materials, the number of floors, gradation, building age, and the quality of buildings were extracted. In order to determine the trends of the patterns, the regression tool was used. Also, for weighting of the layers in the spatial data, the spatial autocorrelation tool of Weights Manager, available in Geoda software, is utilized. Moran’s I tool is used for determining the type of physical resilience distribution (clustered, random, and sparse). Furthermore, Anselin Local Morans spatial autocorrelation tool in ArcGIS software was used for studying the spatial distribution of the residential texture resilience prioritization. The spatial results in the current study shows that 2235783 m2 i.e. 28.45% of the total area including 10187 residential blocks are in the relatively low to very low resilience range and 3513732 m2 i.e. 44.70 of the total area including 15269 residential blocks are in the medium resilience range which require immediate planning. Finally, based on the findings of this research and within the framework of the six selected components, suggestions are made on the physical resilience of the residential texture of Bojnourd County.

    Introduction

     One of the problems that have always threatened the lives of human societies over many centuries is the occurrence of disasters and disasters that, if unaware and unprepared, cause irreparable damage to various aspects of human life, including social, economic, Imports the environment, psychology, etc. Today, due to the rapid change of cities, part of the urban fabric due to inefficiency have failed to establish a proper relationship with their environment and service to the users. In the meantime, threats such as the existence of hazards, the mismatch of tissues with present-day needs, as well as the wear and tear of these urban tissues, and in particular residential tissues, have been threatened, hence one of the most important requirements for addressing the physical problems of tissues. Residential in cities and explaining the concept of resilience and consequently the resilience of these tissues in the face of potential accidents and hazards. Today, there is a dramatic shift in attitude towards residential contexts worldwide, with the dominant focus being on reducing vulnerability to increasing resilience to any risk. This paradigm with multidisciplinary approach and twist planning It utilizes ecosystems to increase the capacity of ecological systems to absorb disturbances and to maintain the necessary feedback, processes, and inherent structures of the system.The main problem of cities in Iran, which has always driven urban planners and officials, is the physical decline and problematic urban texture or poor texture in the urban space and the adverse effects of non-compliance with resilience principles in urban areas. This field can be upgraded. Bojnourd, as an emerging metropolis, suffers from undesirable textures, influenced by development factors such as the establishment of industries, particularly heavy industries, and the acceptance of immigrant floods, as well as the temporal incompatibility of urban textures with existing needs. Considering the special status of Bojnourd metropolis and its importance in social and cultural dimensions among the cities of eastern Iran and its highs and lows and its importance at national level, its study as a city has a history of resilience. It is very important.

    Methodology

    This study is an applied research in terms of objective and in terms of methodology, it is a descriptive-analytical research based on physical-structural approaches. In order to obtain the objectives of this research, selected indices such as the structural skeleton, materials, the number of floors, gradation, building age, and the quality of buildings were extracted. In order to determine the trends of the patterns, the regression tool was used. Also, for weighting of the layers in the spatial data, the spatial autocorrelation tool of Weights Manager, available in Geoda software, is utilized. Moran’s I tool is used for determining the type of physical resilience distribution (clustered, random, and sparse). Furthermore, Anselin Local Morans spatial autocorrelation tool in ArcGIS software was used for studying the spatial distribution of the residential texture resilience prioritization.

    Results and discussion

     To analyze the map of the resilience indices, after determining the status quo and categorizing each index based on the degree of resilience (high resilience to non-reflux), vectors were presented based on spatial representation. Examination of the building skeleton in the study area shows that about 40% have no skeleton, 31% steel and 28% concrete. Examination of the number of building floors in the study shows that of the existing buildings, about 74% are single storeys, 20% are two storeys, about 4% are three floors, and about 2% are four and more than four floors. The quality of the buildings has been evaluated based on five criteria: new, acceptable, repairs, demolition and lack of quality; Relatively high-rise buildings in this area, especially in the central areas of tissue, have complied with the lack of standards in recent construction due to the inability of residents to settle and mainly in the marginal areas. Also the criteria for renovating, accepting, demolishing and lacking quality include 31.54%, 28.27% and 4.54% of the existing buildings in the study area, respectively. In this paper, the size of the disaggregated fragments, the area of the studied fragments are classified into four classes of less than 100 m 2, 100 m 2 to 200 m 2, 200 m to 300 m 2 and more than 300 m 2, each of which 2.99%, 28.36%, 32.84% and 35.80% of the study area were included. The status of the materials used in the buildings under study was 31.54%, brick and cement 28.27%, cement block 35.69% and brick 4.58%, respectively. Surveying the life expectancy and age of existing buildings in the study area shows about 40% more than 30 years, 31% less than 10 years, 28% between 20 and 30 years, and less than 1% between 10 and 20 years.

    Conclusion

     In the present study, after extraction of physical resilience indices of residential texture in Bojnourd, the regression tool was used to detect pattern trends, and spatial autocorrelation method was used to weight the layers in spatial data. Moran's I tool was used to determine the physical resilience distribution of residential texture (cluster, random, and dispersed). Also, the spatial distribution of resilience indices in residential texture was used by the Anselin Local Morans method and texture preferences were extracted with respect to the existing spatial and spatial relationships and priorities were determined at very high to very low resilience levels. Physical resilience of residential texture of Bojnourd city was categorized into five spectra, among which the average resilience with the highest percentage (70/44 which covers 3513732 sqm of residential texture of Bojnourd) was 1763787 sqm or 22.44% of the total area. Residential texture in very low resiliency which needs to be programmed for these parts of the tissue as soon as possible, 1701504 m 2 (21.65%) Residential texture in high resiliency, 471996 m 2 (6.1%) Low yields and 408883sq m (5.20%) are in high recovery condition.

    Keywords: resilience, physical, residential, ALM, Bojnourd
  • Hasan Hekmatniya *, Mirnajaf Mosavi, Mahdi Hoseinpour, Akbar Hamidi Pages 17-32

     Urban parks are part of a public infrastructure that citizens can use for visual, environmental, educational, health, cultural, social and recreational entertainments. But one of the main challenges in realizing such vital functions of parks is lack of safety. Therefore, measuring the quality of park safety is important in order to improve its efficiency. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety indexes of Urmia Regional and Urban Parks. The present research is applied in terms of its purpose and in terms of descriptive-analytic method. The method of data collection is documentary and survey. The sample size was estimated by the Cochran formula according to the scale and the population of 380 people at the areas where the parks were located. A random cluster sampling method was also used to select samples. Data processing tools include a multi-criteria decision-making model for checking the weight of the studied parks in terms of safety indicators and Pearson's path analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient for measuring the relationships between variables and the individual characteristics of the respondents.The results of the analysis indicate that: First, based on the model of the Gulflag Baghre Park with the number 5 is in the best conditions and the first rank and Saat Park with number 1 ranked 5th and is in the worst conditions. Second, according to the results of the analysis of path in relation to the most important safety indicators in the studied parks the physical safety index was recognized as a direct factor in the sense of safety with a beta of 394/0, a brightness index with a beta of 0.9 and an index of physical access with beta of 0.178 as the main indicators of safety sensitivity. Third, the Pearson correlation coefficient between two variables of immune indices and individual characteristics of respondents is equal to 613/0 and a significant level of less than 0.05 indicates a positive and significant correlation between these variables.  Parks are part of the public infrastructure that citizens can use for visual, environmental, educational, health, cultural, social and recreational entertainment; But one of the major challenges in accomplishing such vital functions of parks is the lack of sufficient safety. If parks are perceived as unsafe, they may reduce visits and affect citizens' health, it also reduces citizens' sense of tranquility and participation in outdoor physical activity; In order to prevent and rebate the damages and dangers of using park services and facilities, including sharp cuts of objects and equipment, to secure these public environments that include floating social groups are indispensable and necessary. Hence, assessing the quality of parks safety is an important issue to improve its efficiency. In other words, the safety of parks is very important because of its great impact on different aspects of quality of life and sustainability of urban communities. First, this paper attempts to identify urban parks safety indicators and then analyze and prioritize the status and position of the regional and urban parks in these areas up to eventually provide to finding ways to improve the safety of these parks. Thus the main research questions are: 1) How is the quality and level of safety indicators of Urmiye Regional and Urban Parks?  2) What is the dispersion and spatial distribution of safety indexes in studied parks? 3) Is there a significant correlation between respondents' individual characteristics and safety indexes in study area?

    Methodology

     This research is an applied based on purpose and descriptive – analytical type. The method of data collection is documentary and surveying; All survey methods such as questioner, interview and field observation were used to match the data and indicators used with the existing facts. The designed questionnaire was performed with a five-point Likert scale, focusing on five key indicators. The validity of questionnaire was content-based, so that quality of measuring tool was improved after experts' review and elimination of duplicate and ambiguous questions. Cronbach's alpha test was used to assessment the reliability of research tools. Hence, questionnaire was completed by 36 people (6 people in each park) in the pre-test phase and its Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.885 indicating that questionnaire was suitable for data collection. The statistical population of this study is visitors of Urmiye parks. The sample size was estimated to be 380 person using Cochran formula. The number of samples were estimated in Forest Park, Ellar Baghei, Gollar Baghei, coastal, Tokhm-Morghei and Saat Parks, respectively, about 158, 89, 54, 29, 30 and 19 persons. Cluster random sampling was used to select of samples (each park was considered as a cluster). Data analyses tools including: multi-criteria decision making such as Electere,for weighting of studied parks in terms of safety indices and Path Analysis test and Pearson correlation coefficient for measuring the relationships between variables and individual characteristics of respondents. SPSS and Arc GIS software were used to perform the calculations and display results of the analyzes.

    Results

    To analyze of studied parks in terms of safety, a decision matrix was formed. The weight and importance of each criterion were calculated using Hierarchical Analysis (AHP). Among the indicators, physical accessibility (0.221) is more important. Lighting (0.220) is in second place, the calculated weights for physical safety index (0.126), safety feeling (0.122), and health safety (0.083) which are in next order. After performing Electere model steps, it was distinguished that level of safety was not same between studied parks and there was a significant difference between them in terms of safety indices; The Gollar Baghei Park has the highest level of safety with "5" dominance. After that, Tokhm-Morghei parks with dominance of "4" are in the second rank and Coastal and Ellar Baghei parks with dominance of "3" are in the third place. Forest Park with dominance "2" is in the fourth rank and finally Saat Park with dominance "1" is at the lowest level. Among the five variables studied, variables of safety sense and health safety had no direct effect and were determined physical safety variable with coefficient of 0.394, brightness 0.179 and physical access with 0.178 had the most direct effect. The indirect effects of variables are that physical safety has no indirect effect and physical accessibility variable with coefficient (0.182) has the highest indirect impact. Pearson test was used to measuring of significant relationship between respondents' individual characteristics and safety indices. The correlation coefficient value among two variables is equal to "0.061" and since the level of significance is equal to "0.000" and its value is less than "0.05", so there is positive correlation between two variables.  

    Conclusion

    The results of study in terms of measuring to spatial distribution of safety indices in the studied parks showed that spatial distribution was heterogeneous among these parks, respectively, results of Electre model represent Gullar baghei Park with dominance of 5, placed in the best condition (1st rank) and Saat Park with dominance 1 (5th rank) in the worst condition. In this context, results of Ebrahimzadeh's and Rustaei (2016) research are almost similar to those of present study. According to the results of Path Analysis test in relation to the most important safety indices in studied parks, it can be said that physical safety index as a direct factor in safety sense with 0.394 beta, brightness index with 0.179 beta and accessibility physical index with a beta of 0.178 are the main indicators of feeling safe. The results of Raya et al. (2006) research are similar to results of the present study in physical safety index and physical accessibility. It is also different from the results of Khakpour et al. (2017) research.

    Keywords: Urban Parks, Safety Indicators, Vicor Model, Route Analysis, Urmia City
  • Mahsa Asadi Azizabadi, Keramatollah Ziari *, Mohsen Vatankhahi Pages 33-50

    The main objective of this study is to achieve sustainable regeneration strategies based on resilience dimensions in Karaj city.This research is a descriptive-analytical and applied research. Data collection has been done with library-documentary studies, surveys and interviews with city administrators and authorities, as well as for data analysis using the SWOTET technique,Vickor fuzzy and Topsis fuzzy were used. The results of the study indicate that the presence of suitable agricultural lands within the physical area of the city and its surroundings, the appropriate position on the Tehran-Qazvin highway and ongoing recreational design studies are among the opportunities available in the worn-out texture of the city of Karaj. Appropriate facilities for the implementation of councils at the whole neighborhood, lack of transparency in the implementation process of the plans prepared for the citizens and the low level of hygiene and lack of services are three major threats to the worn-out texture of Karaj.Based on the resilience dimension of Karaj City's worn-out tissue regeneration perspective, it has been formulated that the Karaj City's worn-out texture should be a coherent and secure structure with a sustainable and resilient urban infrastructure, facilities and equipment that has sustainable local communities. And be resilient to dynamic economic functions and operations to cope with any crisis.Studies based on strategies can also modify the structure of access to neighborhoods based on hierarchies to provide services in times of crisis and hazardousness, safety of urban facilities and equipment, retrofit of urban facilities and equipment, and detailed feasibility of resident participation. In line with the implementation of recreation and crisis management programs, identifying the responsibilities of urban managers based on comprehensive natural disaster management plans, creating an appropriate legal framework for public participation in recreation plans and programs to enhance resilience. 

    Introduction

     Cities are like living creatures that grow and spread in the area of time and place,as they suffer from physical, functional and functional wornout,and on the other hand face natural hazards and artifacts.Therefore,the explanation of the integrated strategies of urban regeneration based on the resilience dimensions in urban worn out texture can provide a basis for reducing the vulnerability of these texture to natural and artificial hazards as well as reducing the resilience of them.Therefore, it has a high vulnerability and low resiliency in dealing with crises and hazards, and recreation of these tissues based on resilience dimensions can provide a suitable urban context to deal with any natural and artificial hazards. Geographically, it is the third country in the world to be exposed to natural hazards including earthquakes, floods, droughts, drizzles and landslides, and other factors such as the trend of urban expansion and expansion, irregular migration and urban population, lack of Considering retrofitting laws and regulations in cities, lack of facilities and readiness to deal with crises It makes Iranian cities vulnerable to natural and artificial hazards.Karaj, one of the major cities of Iran and the center of Alborz province, with 785 hectares of worn-out texture and facing natural and abnormal hazards such as earthquakes, floods, storms, fires and drift is one of the most vulnerable cities in Iran. The physical, infrastructural, social, economic, and institutional problems in the worn-out texture are facing. Therefore, explaining integrated urban regeneration strategies based on the resilience dimensions in the worn-out texture of the city of Karaj can provide a context for damage. Reduce the susceptibility of these tissues to natural and artificial hazards and resilience of worn out tissues of Karaj Greatly enhance and tissues as well as residents prepare to deal with the risks.  

    Methodology

     The main objective of this study is to achieve sustainable regeneration strategies based on resilience dimensions in Karaj city.This research is a descriptive-analytical and applied research. Also, this research is based on applied nature and also descriptive-analytical according to the research method. In order to elucidate integrated urban regeneration strategies based on resilience dimensions in Karaj city, studies have been conducted on the basis of library-documentary studies, survey surveys and interviews with city managers and authorities. In addition, fuzzy TOPSIS and fuzzy wicker methods have been used to analyze the data and formulate key pathways to explain the strategies through the combination of SWOTET technique. In this process, the first internalized, externalized and propulsion forces matrix was prepared and SWOT matrix was combined. To prepare the Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE), first list the strengths and then the weaknesses and then each of the components in the SWOT model based on three indices: 1% immediate efficiency, 2% effective intensity and 3% wide range of impacts. It was reviewed by 5 elite urban planners. The five-point Likert scale (very low, low, medium, high and very high) was used to calculate the weight of each of the resilience components in the SWOTET matrix. In this way, each of the components was weighted by SWOTET questionnaire according to the above three indices. Next, the final score of each factor is calculated to determine its final score. It should be noted that if the average of any internal factors is less than 2.5, the neighborhood is weak in terms of internal factors and if the average score is greater than 2.5, it means the neighborhood is strong. In the next step, after determining the weight of each of the criteria and indices of indoor and outdoor environment, SWOTET matrix is ​​presented. In this way, the prioritized matrices of the inner and outer environment as well as the driving forces will be identified and displayed in the matrix. These matrices form the basis of the formulation of the guides or suggested research strategies. The driving forces include 1- positive trend (PT), 2- negative trend (NT), 3-positive event (PE) and 4-negative negative event (NE). Identified in the worn-out area of ​​the city of Karaj and can have undeniable effects on the resilient regeneration process.  

    Results and discussion

     According to SWOTED analysis, TOSIS FUZY and VIKOR FUZZY techniques of Route 3 which aim to enhance the resilience of worn-out tissue in Karaj due to the intensification of informal tissue burnout and the widespread distribution of worn-out tissue in Karaj. In addition, based on the resilience dimension, the perspective of regeneration of the worn-out tissue of Karaj city can be formulated as follows: Karaj city worn-out texture with a secure and coherent structure with stable, resilient urban infrastructure, facilities and equipment that has sustainable local communities. Resilient to dynamic economic functions and operations to deal with any crisis and risk that has organizations and plans in the field of regeneration of the worn-out texture of Karaj with regard to sustainable regeneration approaches and indicators, resilience and crisis management. All in all, the results of the study indicate that the presence of suitable agricultural lands within the physical area of ​​the city and its surroundings, the appropriate position on the Tehran-Qazvin highway and ongoing recreational design studies are among the opportunities available in the worn-out texture of the city of Karaj. Appropriate facilities for the implementation of councils at the whole neighborhood, lack of transparency in the implementation process of the plans prepared for the citizens and the low level of hygiene and lack of services are three major threats to the worn-out texture of Karaj. Based on the resilience dimension of Karaj City's worn-out tissue regeneration perspective, it has been formulated that the Karaj City's worn-out texture should be a coherent and secure structure with a sustainable and resilient urban infrastructure, facilities and equipment that has sustainable local communities. And be resilient to dynamic economic functions and operations to cope with any crisis. Studies based on strategies can also modify the structure of access to neighborhoods based on hierarchies to provide services in times of crisis and hazardousness, safety of urban facilities and equipment, retrofit of urban facilities and equipment, and detailed feasibility of resident participation. In line with the implementation of recreation and crisis management programs, identifying the responsibilities of urban managers based on comprehensive natural disaster management plans, creating an appropriate legal framework for public participation in recreation plans and programs to enhance resilience.

    Keywords: Worn out texture, resilience, city of Karaj, Strategy
  • Elnaz Jazayeri, Rasoul Samadzadeh *, Hosein Hatami Nezhad Pages 51-62

    In the next decades, the major driver of the increasing damages and losses from disasters will be the growth of people and assets in harm’s way, especially in urban areas. Tehran's largest gravity center in Iran is22 districts of the municipality, which is surrounded by high densities of active faults on the north and south.In order to deal with natural ‌hazards, especially earthquakes, there are several approaches in which the four-dimensional resiliency approach is one of the most important ones. So, objective of the current research is assessment of rates of indicators of social and characteristic aspects of resilient of Dist.12Tehran against earthquake that it has been assessed in global level based on optimal limit. For determination of optimal limit in this research, it was supposed that numerical amount of any indication in zones across the world level, in which has occurred various crisis up to now, being resilient against it (such as Japan & California) can be considered as optimal limit. Method of research in this text is descriptive-analytical type.The results of results indicate that among social indicators, indicator status of age structure of population, gender structure of population has been calculated upper than optimal limit. However, status of studies level and health cover is lower than optimal limit. Among the indicators, related to institutional resilient, all indicators have a noticeable distance with optimal rate. Furthermore, institutional communications indicator with 46%distance, has a worse status from the optimal rate. Consequently, Institutional operation indicator with 41% and institutional background with 32% distance from the optimal rate are located in the next rows.

    Keywords: urban resilience in Dist. 12, Tehran, earthquake, social resilience, Institutional resilience
  • Ahmad Pour Ahmad *, Hasan Ashouri, Ahmad Hatami Pages 63-74

    The studies in the field of residential satisfaction increase our understanding of success or failure level of housing projects, project quality, and the factors of residential satisfaction or dissatisfaction. In this regard, the goal of this research is to assess the residential satisfaction of Vahdat Mehr housing complex (located in Shiraz). The current research is a practical research in terms of objective and is a descriptive-analytic research in terms of methodology. Also, the survey data collection method has been performed by a researcher-made questionnaire to collect data. The research's statistical society is all the residents of the Vahdat Mehr housing complex of Shiraz and the sample size is 384 people that is randomly selected using Cochran formula. To analyze the information and data, the one-sample T-test was used. The results show that the housing strength index with total average of 2.58, the housing tenure index with total average of 3.26, the congestion index with total average of 3.13, the neighborhood quality index with total average of 3.04, and 8 out of 11 access indices with total average of 2.52 are less than average (3.50) and have an undesirable condition so that the residents are not satisfied with them. However, the other three access indices with total average of 4.21 as well as the indices of initial housing facilities (with total average of 4.06) are above average (3.5) and have a desirable condition so that the residents are satisfied with them.

    Introduction

     In the last half-century, one of the most important and most complicated social changes is urbanism and urban development. In fact, the urban population of the world has raised from 14 percent in 1900 to 50 percent in 2007. The housing sector can be considered as one of the most important parts of urban development in society. Despite the fact that governments have committed and attempted to provide sufficient, suitable, and high-quality housing for different income groups—with an emphasis on developing affordable housing—but there are still two major problems. The first is quantitative so that the number of houses provided isn’t enough for the demand of the low-income group. However, the second is qualitative so that the types of provided houses do not fit the family housing, comfortability, social, cultural, and religious requirements. The studies related to residential satisfaction are done for various purposes such as evaluating the current housing situation, needs and preferences, success or failure level of housing projects, and project quality. The necessity to study the residential satisfaction enhances our understanding of residents’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction of residents. On the other hand, these studies are very important for informing housing policies. The evaluation of housing quality through residents (how they think about their houses and how this matter affects their lives) has become a useful tool to measure the success level of residential projects. In this regard, this research evaluates the satisfaction level of Vahdat Mehr complex’s residents in Shiraz.

    Methodology

    The current research is practical in terms of purpose and is descriptive-analytic in terms of methodology. Data was collected by surveying and using a researcher-made questionnaire. The statistical society of the research is the residents of the Vahdat Mehr complex locating in shiraz. Also, the sample size (384 people) was selected using the Cochran formula and simple random method. The questionnaire was validated using content validation method and the indices tested in related studies as well as by consulting with professors and experts. Also, the reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by Cronbach’s Alpha method and the result was 0.960, showing the internal cohesion of the questionnaire. In this research, six indices were used to study the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the residents in Shiraz’s Vahdat Mehr Complex. These indices are the strength and beauty of the housing, basic facilities, type of housing occupation, density and congestion in residential unit, service accessibility in the neighborhood, and neighborhood quality. Furthermore, the one-sample t-test was employed to analyze data.

    Results and discussion

    In the current study, we attempted to evaluate the satisfaction level of the residents in Shiraz’s Vahdat Mehr Complex using mental indices including housing cohesion, basic facilities, type of housing occupation, density and congestion, service accessibility, and neighborhood quality. The findings of the research showed that respondents were satisfied only with the basic facilities and evaluated the other indices as weak.

    Conclusion

     The results of the research indicate that respondents were not satisfied with six out of seven housing cohesion indices. The overall mean of these six indices (2.37) was less than average (3.5) and undesirable. On the other hand, the index of building lighting during the day (3.85) was evaluated higher than average and desirable. Also, the residents were satisfied with the basic facilities of housing. The overall mean of this index was 4.06 which is more than average and desirable. The index of housing occupation with an overall mean of 3.26 was less than average and respondents evaluated it as undesirable. The evaluation of density and congestion showed that respondents were not satisfied because its overall mean (3.13) was less than average, implying the dissatisfaction of residents. Also, the residents were not satisfied with eight out of the eleven indices related to service accessibility in the neighborhood and evaluated them as weak (with the overall mean of 2.52). however, three out of those eleven indices were desirable so that their overall mean was higher than average; these desirable indices include access to supermarkets and retailers (4.43), access to mosque (4.41) access to public transportation including taxi and bus (3.80). The evaluation of residential satisfaction about neighborhood quality showed that respondents were not satisfied with fourteen out of seventeen related indices and evaluated them as weak. The overall mean of these fourteen indices was 2.92 which is less than average and undesirable. The other three indices of neighborhood quality were average. However, the final neighborhood quality index (3.04) was less than average, demonstrating the bad situation of neighborhood quality and dissatisfaction of residents.

    Keywords: &quot, Assessment&quot, Residential Satisfaction&quot, Vahdat Complex &quot, Mehr Housing&quot, Shiraz city&quot
  • Yaser Zare, Leila Shahriyari *, Saaed Parhodeh, Ali Karbakhsh Pages 75-88

      Many city planners, policymakers and specialists offered a different solution for having a sustainable urban development so far and some of them have been successful to some extent. Using nanotechnology for sustainable urban development is a measure that most experts agree on and nano concrete is one of the most important uses of nanotechnology in this field. Despite the researchers’ focus and emphasis on the use of this technology in urban environments, it has not received much attention. In the spirit of expanding and promoting the use of this modern technology in urban environments and with the goal of analyzing the effects of nano concrete on the sustainable urban development of shiraz metropolis, this study was conducted. The opinions of experts, specialists, professors and other researchers who have enough experience in this field has also been taken into account for this study. The required sources were gathered using survey study and documentary research. Study results show that, according to experts, because of its varied functions in different fields such as improving mechanical resistance, improving concrete’s durability and stability, decreasing permeability, compatibility with the environment and improved resistance against abrasion and impact, the use of nanotechnology in concrete can be effective in sustainable urban development. Pearson’s correlation coefficient results showed that there is a meaningful statistical relationship between the use of nano concrete technology and the sustainable development of Shiraz metropolis. Linear regression results (two variables) showed that the independent variable of nano concrete could explain 0.697% of the changes in the dependent variable (sustainable urban development of Shiraz metropolis). 

    Introduction

     Today, nanotechnology, as a key technology, has provided many opportunities for sustainable development of urban spaces in a variety of areas, including faster, more flexible, more desirable, more sustainable and more cost-effective construction in the world. A review of existing literature and documents shows that nanotechnology and Nano-concrete technology are theoretically effective in the physical, environmental and even social and economic development of urban spaces. The researchers intend to investigate the effects of Nano-concrete on the sustainable development of urban spaces from the perspective of public and private sector experts. To achieve the above-mentioned goal, field studies have been conducted in Shiraz metropolis, which is one of the most prominent urban areas in the country for the development of nanotechnology and Nano-concrete technology. Therefore, according to the findings, the basic question the researchers in the present study are seeking to analyze and examine is as follows: Can Nano-concrete technology directly affect the sustainable development of Shiraz metropolis? And how does it work?

    Methodology
    The purpose of the present study is to conduct an applied research the method of which is a hybrid (documentary and survey) study in which quantitative and statistical methods have been used for the analysis. According to the title and purpose of the research, the statistical population includes all specialists in the field of nanotechnology and Nano-concrete working in public and private companies based in Shiraz metropolis as well as academics, with scientific background and work experience, active in the fields of civil engineering, architecture, urban development and urban planning. Due to the lack of information about the number of these individuals, finally 150 people were considered as the statistical sample, which are statistically acceptable numbers for correlational and causal studies. The main instrument of this study for collecting the required information was a questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed by observing the principles of statistics. The instrument is designed in three separate parts. The first part deals with the personal characteristics of the respondents and the second part deals with the experts' opinions on the advantages and disadvantages of using Nano-concrete in various constructions and activities at the urban spaces level; the third part of the questionnaire deals with indicators and variables of sustainable urban development. Overall, the research process was that after evaluating the opinions and views of experts on the advantages and disadvantages of using Nano-concrete in urban areas as well as examining the status of sustainable development indicators in Shiraz metropolis, the effects of using Nano-concrete (as an independent variable) on sustainable urban development (as a dependent variable of research)  was examined. Frequency distribution table, correlation coefficient and linear regression tests were used to analyze the collected data in SPSS software.

    Research findings

    The results of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that the calculated correlation coefficient of 0.698 was significant at the level of error less than 0.01 and indicated high positive correlation between the two variables. In other words, with the increasing use of nanotechnology and Nano-concrete in the urban development process, the level of sustainable metropolitan development improves, and vice versa. Analysis of the effect of Nano-concrete technology (as an independent research variable) on sustainable urban development in Shiraz metropolitan area (as a research dependent variable) using simultaneous linear regression showed that the values ​​of multiple correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination and adjusted coefficient of determination were 0.698, 0.487 and 0.484, respectively, among which the adjusted coefficient reporting was statistically more logical. Therefore, it can be concluded that the independent variable of Nano-concrete was able to explain 48.4% of the dependent variable (sustainable development of urban spaces in Shiraz metropolis).

    Conclusion

    The results showed that the viewpoints of experts and specialists in nanotechnology as well as academic professors specializing in civil, architecture, urban planning and urban development, were significantly positive about the application of Nano-concrete technology in urban spaces. This is due to the physical, economic, environmental benefits of applying this new technology to urban spaces. The results also showed that there was a positive and relatively strong statistical relationship between the application of Nano-concrete technology and sustainable urban development in Shiraz metropolitan area. The regression impact factor of the independent variable on the dependent variable of the study with the value of 0.698 was statistically significant. This demonstrates that in both theoretical and empirical aspects, Nano-concrete technology can be used as an effective tool in the development of urban spaces. Therefore, according to the results, the use of Nano-concrete technology in the whole process of construction of urban physical facilities and equipment is recommended. It should be noted that with respect to the significant advantages of Nano-concrete technology in the development of urban spaces, evidence suggests that the use of this technology faces several challenges. Poor policy making in the use of Nano-concrete technology, high cost of the process of procurement of these materials, low technical knowledge of the companies active in the field, poor citizen awareness of the benefits of using these materials in the process of construction in urban areas and poor infrastructure requirements, are among the most important challenges and  obstacles to the development of Nano-concrete technology in Shiraz metropolis, that by adopting the measures and executive solutions  to tackle the above- mentioned obstacles, a clear perspective can be imagined for further use of this technology in the study area and other cities of the country.

    Keywords: nanotechnology, nano concrete, sustainable urban development, Shiraz
  • Fahimeh Namvar Haghighi Shirazi Fard, Khalil Hajipour *, Amir Hosein Shabani, Mahmoud Mohammadi Pages 89-102

    Rapid population growth in metropolises has led to the expansion of urban sprawl; this results in urban expansion which is in contrast to Smart Growth and Infill Development. The city of Shiraz has 1700 hectares of worn and inefficient texture and about 450 hectares of Brownfield inside the city. The extent of this amount of land requires using Infill Development and its means of achieving it. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is adaptively to investigate urban growth management policies for introducing appropriate growth management policies and identify the best internal urban growth management policy in Shiraz. To this end, aAHP-TOPSIS model has been used and the scores were determined using a Sequential sampling method in a two-step Delphi model using the views of 17 experts and managers of Shiraz city. The results show that the generally external urban growth management policies due to the immense impact and extension of the affected area has a higher priority for urban management, such as Urban Green Belt (0.69), Urban Growth Boundary (0.69)Which both ranked second and Urban Service Areas with third ranked in priority. In the next step, there are internal external urban growth management policies, the most influential of which is Land Readjustment (0.75) and ranking first, Followed by other growth internal management policies such as, Mandatory Comprehensive Plans, Transfer/Purchase of Development Rights, Density Bonuses and Inclusionary Housing Provisions, Inter-Local and Joint-Planning Agreement, Concurrency Provisions and Development Impact Fees and Special Tax/Financing Tools in the fourth place onwards.

    Introduction

     Rapid population growth in metropolises has led to the expansion of unplanned urban sprawl. This expansion that is in contrast to Smart Growth and Infill Development usually emerges as separate development and low density in suburban areas. The importance of preventing urban sprawl and reaching infill development leds to examining the growth management policies. In Iran, growth management policies are not known well despite the problems associated with the unnecessary expansion of cities. Indeed, a line has been drawn as the boundary line whilst its definition is not clear. Shiraz has 1700 hectares of worn-out urban texture and about 450 hectares of vacant lands within the city. This amount reveal the need to employ infill development and the tools to achieve it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to compare the urban growth management policies (external growth management policies and internal growth management policies) to identify the best internal growth management policies in Shiraz in order to examine if “Land Readjustment is the most effective internal growth management policy for Shiraz city”.

    Methodology

     The present descriptive-survey study is applied in terms of purpose. The theoretical data were collected using documentary and library method; the field data were also obtained through Delphi Model of assessing questionnaire. Indeed, a AHP-TOPSIS model has been used and the scores were determined using a Sequential sampling method in a two-step Delphi model using the views of 17 experts and managers of Shiraz city having B. Sc.; M. Sc. and PhD in Urban Planning.

    Results and discussion

    Based on the research findings, four urban policies including urban green belt, urban growth boundaries, urban services areas and extra-territorial jurisdiction are exterior growth management policies; mandatory comprehensive plans, concurrency provisions and development impact fees, Inter-local and joint-planning agreement, transfer/purchase of development rights, density bonuses and inclusionary housing provisions, special tax/financing tools and land readjustment are internal growth management policies. Furtheremore, among the four criteria of measuring growth management policies, environmental protection and sprawl control showed the highest importance (weigh=0.427). It  followed by infill development and utilization of internal capacity of cities (weigh=0.256), institutions and executive infrastructure (weight=0.16) and the flexibility of growth management policy (weigh=0.108).

    Conclusion

     A comparative examination of growth management policies showed that the external policies have a higher priority for urban management due to the large impact and the expansion of the affected area. For instance, urban green belt (0.69) and urban growth boundaries (0.69) are in the second level, and the urban services areas (0.63) ranked third. The reason can be attributed to the enormity of these policies and affevting a large area around the city. The disadvantage of these policies, however, is that although they are successful in controlling external growth, preventing sprawel, and achieving infill development goals, but they have no suggestion for how to utilize the city's internal capacities. These policies were close to the negative ideal in terms of implementation (the two criteria for the existence of institutions and infrastructures - ease and flexibility). Indeed, it is concluded that no entity or organization manage the metropolitan integratedly in practice. Moreover, there is not a coherent law to support these policies. Among the policies to control growth, in general, and internal growth, in spesific, the most effective policy is land readjustment (with a score of 0.75). It indicats that this policy is appropriate to the management structure and executive system of urban planning of Iran especially Shiraz. Controlling sprawl is not very successful in external management policies in contrast to internal ones due to the smaller scale of projects. But these policies doing better in achieving infill development. these policies have different conditions in the two implementing criteria. The criterion for the existence of legal institutions and infrastructures is moderate due to its new policies and its mismatch with the common methods of urban management in Iran as well as the prevailing social, economic and institutional features. This criterion enjoys a good condition in joint-planning agreement and density bonuses (due to their mechanism in facilitation offices), mandatory comprehensive plans (due to their approval in the Iranian urban planning system), and transfer/purchase of development rights (exchange of land or municipalities toll exemptions). Due to the small scale of implementation of these policies and the ability to accurately identify the target group as well as the financial issues and value added of the policy implementation, the criterion of ease and flexibility has an intermediate position in these policies, and in some policies, the distance from the ideal positive and negative is the same. It should be noted that due to the inconsistency of urban growth management policies some of these policies can be implemented simultaneously in order to synchronize their strengths. For instance, to use positive environmental advantages, the policy of “urban green belt” can be used with "land readjustent" in vacant lands and worn-out textures. There have been few studies in identifying and exploring growth management policies in Iran and numerous studies in global experience; however, most studies have focused on describing or expressing the experiences of a particular policy in a specific neighborhood or city. Indeed, they have not been compared altogether. The innovative aspect of this research was actually the comparative examination of different policies with each other in order to apply the appropriate policies to the Iranian metropolitan conditions in general and the city of Shiraz in particular

    Keywords: Urban Growth Management Policies, Land Readjustment, AHP, TOPSIS, Shiraz
  • SAJJAD AHMADI *, Ali Movahhed, Ali Shamai Pages 103-116

     in This Study, Space is Not Understood as a Neutral and Unaltered Container, Rather It Is Considered as an Informative Content for Human Beings. In Other Words, Time In A Space-Bound Framework Is Fixed, And Understanding The Existence of A Social Space Requires A Historical Awareness And Knowing The Man. The Purpose of This Study is To Decode the Mechanisms affecting The Production of Classy and Disordered Urban Form, The Subjective Function of Consumerism and The Rupture in The Structure of Social Interaction in Shiraz. Flows that are Not Easily Understood and Require Careful Thought - Based Scrutiny. The experience of space is not separate from the text, but implies the theoretical realm and indeed the relation between the quality of idealism and the quality of life. Every kind of absolute, abstract, math, social, and so on definition of space follows its own methodology. According to the social production of space, the type of research is qualitative and based on the triple dialectic; Perceived Space (Shiraz's economy and market), Conceived space (The laws and structures governing the city), and living space )Shiraz people's will and creativity). this Research Ontology at Examining the Existence of a Social Space Based on the Interconnectedness of Action, History and Time. The conclusions of the present research shows the complete absence of planning to the Shiraz city and it is reduced to map. Moreover the domination of technocrats rather than civil society, reduce social interaction and meditation, lack of tax structure, rental of detailed plan coding, inability to use equitable distribution services and class gaps are from fundamental characteristics of shiraz. Ultimately, the consolidation of map planning in SHIRAZ is the consolidation of poverty traps. According to, UP to 2017 more than 45 percent of 477916 Households in Shiraz, lived in Tenant Houses. Those that were hit by inflation of 100 percent Increase in housing prices in 2019 and their hopes of becoming a homeowner were lost. 

    Introduction

     The Essence of This Cosmos, Which Human And His Thoughts Belong To It, Has Features That Can Be Described In Three Notions: Energy, Space and Time. ‘There is no way in which we can understand what is happening to the world, to our societies, to our environments, to the seas, to the air around the entire planet, and so on, if we do not look at three related factors: the unprecedented concentration of humans in cities, the growth of the human population, and the increase in certain forms of consumption’ (Mendieta, 2001; 10). Therefore, in This Study, Space is Not Understood as a Neutral and Unaltered Container, Rather It Is Considered as an Informative Content for Human Beings. In Other Words, Time In A Space-Bound Framework Is Fixed, And Understanding The Existence of A Social Space Requires A Historical Awareness And Knowing The Man. According To Heidegger, It Must Be Accepted That The Subject Is Not The Initiator of His Thinking; Thinking And Theorizing Is Not Possible in a Vacuum, But Always Within a Historical Tradition Based on Previous Assumptions Lie in This Tradition. The Purpose of This Study is To Decode the Mechanisms affecting The Production of Classy and Disordered Urban Form, The Subjective Function of Consumerism and The Rupture in The Structure of Social Interaction in Shiraz. Flows that are Not Easily Understood and Require Careful Thought - Based Scrutiny. The experience of space is not separate from the text, but implies the theoretical realm and indeed the relation between the quality of idealism and the quality of life. Methodology         Every kind of absolute, abstract, math, social, and so on definition of space follows its own methodology. According to the social production of space, the type of research is qualitative and based on the triple dialectic; Perceived Space (Shiraz's economy and market), Conceived space (The laws and structures governing the city), and living space )Shiraz people's will and creativity). In fact, Understanding the space of Shiraz depends on the presence of the phenomenologist (quintuple's senses), the study of the history of thought, including works by thinkers such as Hafez, Hegel, Marx, Schopenhauer, Lefebvre's, Harvey ..., as well as dialogues with the Elites and residents of Shiraz. The method of analyzing the data and documents examined in this study is "Critical Discourse". Table 1- Appropriate production of housing and unfair distribution in Shiraz  

    Results and Discussion

    History Does Not Give The Objectivity To The Old Rational Entity in The Man; Rather Provide It In A Coherent Set of Institutions, Groups And Limited Systems of "Law, Family, Morality, City, Trade, Etc." Theoretical approach of this study is based on Henri Lefebvre (1901-1991) theories. Lefebvre argues (1970), Industrial society is seen not as an end in itself but as a preparatory stage for urbanism. Industrialization, he argues, can only find its fulfillment in urbanization, and urbanization is now coming to dominate industrial production and organization. Industrialization, once the producer of urbanism, is now being produced by it. Lefebvre argues (1974), that social space is a social product and also it is political issue. He introduced an epistemological system for the urban which emphasizes Dialectic of space, structural and semiotic analysis along with a critique of urban planning system. To analyze the social space, Lefebvre considers three moments perceived, conceived and lived- and claims that there is a dialectical relation-in Hegelian term- among them; that is, each one try to negate another.

    Conclusion

    This Research Ontology at Examining the Existence of a Social Space Based on the Interconnectedness of Action, History and Time. The conclusions of the present research shows the complete absence of planning to the Shiraz city and it is reduced to map. Moreover the domination of technocrats rather than civil society, reduce social interaction and meditation, lack of tax structure, rental of detailed plan coding, inability to use equitable distribution services and class gaps are from fundamental characteristics of shiraz. Ultimately, the consolidation of map planning in SHIRAZ is the consolidation of poverty traps. According to Table 1, UP to 2017 more than 45 percent of 477916 Households in Shiraz, lived in Tenant Houses. Those that were hit by inflation of 100 percent Increase in housing prices in 2019 and their hopes of becoming a homeowner were lost. Table 1- Appropriate production of housing and unfair distribution in Shiraz Residential Units  in Shiraz City Home Ownership Number percent Households of  Shiraz City 472356 Owner 211161 %44.7 477916 Tenant 213651 %45.2 others 47544 %10.1 Source; Statistical Center of Iran, (2017) Finally in the competition between representation spaces and representations of space, what is left is spatial practices that has continuity as reproducer of government survival. Nevertheless, The Everyday Life Is the Realm of Producing Meanings; a Realm in Which The Individual and Collective Capabilities are Built. By Reaching Such as Cognition, Individuals Become Aware of Their own Issues and Their Community to Make Changes in Their Individual and Collective Lives. Indeed, Representational Spaces, In Contradiction With Unified Laws And Induced Coherence, Reminding The Conceptual and Symbolic Elements, Place Of Enthusiasm, Actions, And Beings, Immediately Refer to Time. in Such a Situation, in Contrast To the Materialist Approach and The Abstract views Based on The Capitalist System, Concrete Explanation Can Be Found in the Context of The Social Space. In article of “the rights to the city, Harvey examines (2003); the creation of a new urban commons, a public sphere of active democratic participation, requires that we roll back that huge wave of privatization that has been the mantra of a destructive neoliberalism. We must imagine a more inclusive, even if continuously fractious, city based not only upon a different ordering of rights but upon different political-economic practices. If our urban world has been imagined and made then it can be re-imagined and re-made. The inalienable right to the city is worth fighting for. `City air makes one free' it used to be said. The air is a bit polluted now. But it can always be cleaned up.

    Keywords: Social Space, Shiraz, Detailed Plan, Poverty, objective
  • Marziye Taleshi Anbohi *, Esmaeil Aghaeizade, Maryam Jafari Mehrabadi Pages 117-134

     Awareness of the effects of increasing the livability of urban Deteriorated textures needs to provide a structural analysis of it in the future in order to increase the quality of such spaces, with the application of the livability approach, can be measured and evaluated and finally, help to create dynamic urban centers and sustainable districts. In this regard, this research has been carried out with the final aim of structural analysis of the livability of urban deteriorated textures of Qazvin city with a futuristic approach. This study is considered descriptive-analytical paper in terms of methodology and in term of target is a practical one. Data and research information are gathered using documentary and field studies. The statistical population of the study was 61 experts who were selected by purposeful sampling. The number of 14 variables were identified and analyzed by MIC MAC software to determine the future of livability of urban deteriorated textures. The results indicate that the degree of filling is 80.79%, which demonstrates the high impact of factors on each other. In addition, of the total of 155 measurable relations in this matrix, 41 relations are number zero (lack of impact), 27 relations are number one (low impact), 36 relations are number two (strong impact) and, 92 relations are number three (significantly high impact). So, Findings of the study of the key variables affecting the status of urban deteriorated textures in the study area expresses the instability of these areas in relation to future livability.

    Introduction

     The urbanization of the world's population and the globalization of the cities and their role in the national and global development are the main concepts in the transition from the agricultural age civilization to the industrial and business one. The consequences and effects of the rapid growth of urbanization would lead to the concentration of more than 60 percent of the world's population in cities, with 3.1 billion populations by 2030. So, in the present era, the urban, the urbanism and the citizenship have become the most important issues, influential on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the human life. People expect higher standards of the urban environment in which they live. The urban deteriorated fabrics are among the most important aspects of the cities, which could be the cause and effect of many urban problems. Despite the turn in the urban developmental pattern’s policies in the recent decade from the horizontal development to the investment in the urban fabrics, the biological system of these fabrics has impairment and inefficiency in terms of both the structure and the function of the critical components. Therefore, identifying and understanding the needs of the citizens (the subjective demand) and the livability of these residences (the objective suitable conditions) enhance the quality of life (the subjective satisfaction) in the urban areas and provide a basis for the sustainable development. Since the task of the future city is paying attention to the most important concerns of a human being in the form of his activities, creating a livable city is a great and complex commitment; and the urban residents need the support of the urban planners in terms of the livability indicators.

    Methodology

    This research was applied according to the subject and the purpose and it was explanatory based on the new methods of the futures study. A library-survey method was used for collecting the data in order to obtain the necessary theoretical insight and to study the research literature. Delphi questionnaires were prepared numerically and through weighting. The interaction matrix was formed in two stages after collecting the indicators and variables, so that the indicators have been placed in its rows and columns. Regarding the factors influential on the livability of the urban deterioratedfabrics, the viewpoints of the sixteen professors and experts in urban livability from academic and research centers were taken using Delphi technique. The weight of this questionnaire was measured by pairwise comparisons. Also, the amount of the relation among the variables was assessed with numbers ranging from zero to three. The Delphi technique requires obtaining the data from the elites and specialists and analyzing them. The purposive sampling was used to select the Delphi team, since the research aim was not to generalize the results. The criteria for selecting the elites included the theoretical proficiency, the practical experience, the willingness and the ability to participate in the research and their accessibility. The important point in determining the number of elites was to ensure the comprehensiveness of the different viewpoints in the research. The scoring was done through the Interaction Technique (Structural Analysis Method) using the MIC MAC software.

    Results and discussion

     The purpose of this study was to identify the most important factors influential on the future status of the urban deteriorated fabrics' livability in zones one, two and three of Qazvin city’s district one and studying to what extent and how these factors could have such influence using futures studies approach. In this study, Delphi technique was used to identify the primary variables influential on the future of the livability of the studied deteriorated fabrics, due to their dispersal and overlap with the urban livability. Also, the structural interaction analysis was used to examine to what extent and how the factors influenced it and finally to identify the key factors in the livability of the urban deteriorated fabrics. After library studies, to identify the influential factors on the livability of the urban deteriorated fabrics, 14 factors were identified and a 14 * 14 matrix was arranged in six different domains. In general, the results of the interaction analysis showed that the overall pattern of the dispersion of the key factors in the livability of the urban deteriorated fabrics indicates the status of an unsustainable environmental system. In such system, the key factors have complex and interstitial condition in terms of the influence and affectedness. Among the 14 identified variables for the livability of the deteriorated fabrics, 6 ones were identified as the key factors in the livability of Qazvin city’s deteriorated fabrics including the attractive public territories, the security and safety, the recreation and leisure, the accessibility, the environmental health and the public transport.

    Conclusion

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most important factors influential on the future status of the urban deteriorated fabrics' livability in zones one, two and three of Qazvin city’s district one and studying to what extent and how these factors could have such influence using futures studies approach. In this study, Delphi technique was used to identify the primary variables influential on the future of the livability of the studied deteriorated fabrics, due to their dispersal and overlap with the urban livability. Also, the structural interaction analysis was used to examine to what extent and how the factors influenced it and finally to identify the key factors in the livability of the urban deteriorated fabrics. After library studies, to identify the influential factors on the livability of the urban deteriorated fabrics, 14 factors were identified and a 14 * 14 matrix was arranged in six different domains. The dispersion of the key variables influential on the livability of the urban deteriorated fabrics of the zones one, two and three of Qazvin city district one indicated the unsustainability of the system. Much of the livability factors of the deteriorated fabrics was scattered around the diametric pivot axis of the plate. Except a few cases that showed their high influence on the system, the other variables had almost the same status relative to each other. Other findings also indicated that among the 14 studied factors in this research, six factors were selected as the key ones influencing the livability of the urban deteriorated fabrics. The variables such as the attractive public territories, the security and safety and the recreation and leisure in the risk area (Northeast zone), and the factors including accessibility, the environmental health and the public transportation in the zone one had the highest influence and the lowest affectedness. They were the most influential and crucial factors from the experts' viewpoints. The variables such as housing, the trust-participation and the satisfaction, the social interactions and relationships, the identity and sense of belonging to a place, the historical-natural landscape and the respect are among the variables with the low influence and high affectedness. In fact, these variables played a strategic role in the livability of the deteriorated fabrics of the studied area, but their status in the future depends on the constructive effects of the other variables.

    Keywords: Livability, Deteriorated Texture, Structural Analysis, Future Studies, Qazvin City
  • Ebrahim Moameri, Mohammad Farrokhzad *, Yasin Sayyad Salar Pages 135-144

    The smallest housing and the smallest form of physical embodiment is the interconnectedness of man and the environment and the most private space of human life. Obviously identifying the quality levels of housing indices in different urban areas is an effective step in explaining the quality of life levels. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate the status of housing indices in urban areas of Gorgan. The type of research in this research is "Applied-development" and the "descriptive-analytic" method. In order to analyze the data from the Excel spreadsheet software and to prioritize the areas based on the indicators, WASPAS and WP multi-criteria decision-making techniques were used. The results show that in the spastic technique of the region 2 with the priority coefficient (355/0) in the first place, the third with a priority coefficient (336/0) in the second order, the seventh with a priority coefficient (315/0) in the third order The first one with a priority coefficient (0.228) in the fourth order, the fifth area with the priority coefficient (0.27) in fifth order, the fourth area with the coefficient of priority (0.263) at the sixth level, the sixth area with the priority coefficient (240 / 0) is in the seventh rank and area eight with a priority coefficient (235/0) at the eighth position. The results of the WP technique show that area 8 with a score of (501/0), area 2 with a score of (273/0), area 3 with a score of (251/0), area 7 with a score of (24/03), area 4 with Score (212/0), District 1 with score (197/0), Area 5 with score (196/0) and Area 6 with a score of (193/0), respectively, from the most stable to the most unstable areas in terms of physical indicators of housing In the city of Gorgan.

    Introduction

     Quantitative and qualitative housing analysis is done through a tool called variables called housing indices that represent different economic, social, cultural and physical dimensions of housing. Housing is a basic human need, and this confirms that governments are legally responsible for ensuring citizens have adequate access to adequate housing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of physical housing indices in eight districts in order to rate the status of districts in terms of quantitative and qualitative indices of housing to prioritize the preparation of a comprehensive housing plan in Gorgan. Thus, firstly, general understanding of the physical status of this area will be achieved for urban managers and planners, and secondly, areas of poorer quality physical planning will be identified and prioritized in terms of planning. In general, the most important goal of this study can be summarized as follows: The need for a proper and adequate understanding of the current situation in order to achieve proper and effective planning in the physical housing situation.

    Methodology

    The purpose of this research is applied research and its descriptive-analytical nature with regard to method of work. The data were collected through library and documentary studies. The information was extracted from the official data of the 2011 statistics of Gorgan. The composite indices used in this study to evaluate housing status in eight districts of Gorgan have been extracted from urban planning and geography and urban planning researchs, including: x1 Residential Infrastructure (m), x2 Residential Area (m), x3 Gross Residency, x4 Single Floor Buildings, x5 One Storey Infrastructure (m), x6 Residential Area Only, x7 Population, x8 area (m), x9 net residential density, x10 three-story buildings, x11 three-story buildings, x12 two-story buildings, x13 two-story buildings, x14 percent occupancy, x15 per capita and x16 are building density (m). Since each of the 16 indices have different significance coefficients, Shannon entropy method is used to weight the indices. After determining the weight of the indices, multi-criteria decision-making methods have been used to classify the areas in terms of housing indices. Gorgan city with an area of 3669 hectares is located in the northern cities of Iran and the center of Golestan province, located in the southeast of the Caspian Sea. Its average elevation is 155 meters. The city extends to 54 degrees 26 minutes east longitude and 36 degrees 50 minutes north latitude on the north slope of the Alborz Mountains. Currently, Gorgan has a population of 354,000 with three regions and eight districts, covering a population of 115,000 in 1st region, 124,000 in 2nd region, and 114,000 in 3rd region.

    Results and discussion

    The obtained relative entropy coefficient was 0.931, which is very low at 1, indicating a balanced population distribution in Gorgan. The results of the waspas model show that the urban areas of Gorgan, in terms of urban housing indices, are at different levels, out of 8 urban areas, Area 2 in the south of Gorgan, and in the favorable part of urban climate with priority coefficient (0.355) ranks first in terms of urban housing indicators. Area 3 in the north of Gorgan with priority coefficient (0.336) in the second rank; Area 7 in the eastern entrance of the city with priority coefficient (0.315) in the third rank; Area 1 with priority coefficient (0.289) in the fourth rank; Area 5 with priority coefficient (0.270) in fifth order, Area 4 with priority coefficient (0.263) in sixth order, Area 6 with priority coefficient (0.240) in seventh order and Area 8 with priority coefficient (0.235) ranked eighth in terms of urban housing indicators. This indicates the poor condition of Gorgan city in terms of urban housing indicators. Of the Gorgan city areas, Area 2, which includes the southern part of Gorgan, and the newly constructed parts of the city, built on the principles of engineering and commensurate with the properties of the almonds, is the best in terms of housing indexes and Area 8, which contains centralized and downtown tissue, for some reason, including old tissue, has a high population and inadequate housing, and has the worst situation in terms of urban housing indicators. The WP model results show Area 8 with score (0.501), Area 2 with score (0.273), Area 3 with score (0.251), Area 7 with score (0.243), Area 4 with score (0.212), Area 1 with a score of (0.197), Area 5 with a score of (0.196) and Area 6 with a score of (0.193), respectively, from the most stable to the most unstable areas in terms of housing physical indicators in Gorgan city. Examination of the current status of physical indicators of housing in Gorgan shows that the housing situation in different parts of the city is not equal and has a significant difference with the principles of justice. However, a look at the status of different housing indicators in different areas reveals that a significant percentage of housing has been created without regard to existing principles and standards.

    Conclusion

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of housing indexes in eight districts in order to rank the status of districts in terms of housing indicators to prioritize the preparation of a comprehensive housing program in Gorgan in order to gain a general understanding of the physical status of this area for urban managers and planners, identify areas of less favorable physical quality and priority in terms of urban housing planning. Finally, it can be said that Areas 3 and 2 are in stable condition in relation to housing properties. Areas 1, 5 and 7 are in semi-stable housing terms. Areas 8, 6 and 4 are unstable in terms of housing indicators.

    Keywords: Urban Housing, WASPAS, housing, Gorgan, Housing Quality Indicators
  • Explain the effect of physical environment quality on behavior patterns(Case Study: Baba Taher Hamadan Square)
    Neda Sahrakar, Kianoosh Zakerhaghighi * Pages 145-156

    Throughout history, urban spaces have been gradually declining in the quality of the physical environment and have become staging spaces for staging and movement. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of physical environment and its impact on behavioral patterns of people in Babatahar tomb in Hamadan, Iran. In order to prioritize the areas around the field to intervene in the improvement of behavioral patterns, TOPSIS analyzes the information. The results of the analysis show that space use is such that the eastern area with selective activities (11.5%), social activities (15%) and then the southern area with selective activities (15.5%), social activities ( 6.5%) had higher scores than other areas. As such, social criteria, visual attributes, quality of urban life, safety and security are directly related to the occurrence of selective activities and social activities. More effective in the vitality and dynamics of this place. But the important thing about the duration of the event is that it happens in a short period of time, which in addition to enhancing the quality of the physical environment by creating desirable behavioral sites and dominating themthem.

    Introduction

    Human behavior is the result of one's motivations and needs, the capability of the environment, the mental image resulting from his perception of the outside world, and the meaning that this image has for him. Behavior is strongly influenced by culture and society because behavior is shaped by the environment and spaces around it. Throughout history, urban spaces, especially historic squares, have gradually declined with the quality of the physical environment and have become spaces for dazzling, rather than speculative, scenes of riding. The present study investigates the quality of physical environment and its impact on the behavioral patterns of users of Hamadan tomb space, which is one of the urban signs of Hamadan. Firstly, the theoretical foundations of factors influencing one's behavior in the environment, behavior patterns, behavior, and behavioral bases, environmental quality components in urban design and then extracting indicators of physical factors influencing the behavior of the environment are: Security, safety, visual features, quality of urban life, social.

    Methodology

    Considering the research objectives, this study, while examining the theoretical foundations including factors affecting individual behavior in the environment, behavior patterns, behavior and residences behavior and environmental quality components in urban design in the first place, indicators of evaluation and affecting physical environment Behavioral patterns are extracted from valid internal and external sources such as: security, safety, visual attributes, quality of urban and social life, and then by direct observation (behavioral mapping) and indirect observation (questionnaire), opinions and behavior of individuals. Harvested. Factor analysis in SSPS software and TOPSIS in excel software to prioritize defined boundaries of physical environment to enhance their effectiveness in applying and making the best decisions through empowerment approach have been used to convert qualitative findings to quantitative components. And finally, using the analysis and information gathered, the suggested principles and strategies and priorities for realizing the impact of physical quality on behavior patterns.         

    Results and discussion

     The results of the analysis show that the use of space in the field range is that in the frequency analysis of behavioral patterns, the eastern range with selective activities (11.5%) and social activities (15%) and then in the southern range of selective activities (5 15%) and social activities (6.5%) have higher scores. As such, social criteria, visual attributes, quality of urban life, safety and security are directly related to the occurrence of selective activities and social activities, and promotion and organization of these cases primarily in the south, west and then the area boundaries, east side and north side, respectively. Improves the vitality and dynamics of this place more effectively.

    Conclusion

    According to the analysis of the impact of physical environment on the behavioral patterns of the field under study, the answer to the first question of the research that is about the influence of behavioral patterns on the quality of physical environment is that the relationship between the quality of physical environment and the activities selected by There is a direct relationship to behavior, but it is important to note that the duration of the event is short-lived and causes the vibrancy and dynamics of this urban space to decline. On the other hand, the use of space in social activities shows that in addition to enhancing the quality of the physical environment, it is advantageous to create favorable behavioral domains and to dominate these activities and social-activity nodes, which can extend the duration of the activity by considering the second question. That is how urban society relates to urban space in this way. William White summarizes the result of his study of social life in a small urban space: "People sit where they can sit." This sentence, while obvious and ordinary, is very important and can change the life of a city.

    Keywords: behavioral patterns, physical environment, behavioral setting, Baba Taher Tomb, Hamedan
  • Davood Akbari *, Mina Moradizadeh, Mohammad Akbari Pages 157-170

     Nowadays, most land use changes occur in urban areas, due to the growing population in cities and villages and the desire to live in urban areas. Urban rapid development in recent decades has led to large changes in the cities around and has had many environmental impacts. In this research, we evaluated land use changes and urban development simulation using satellite imagery and with neural network model and Markov chain auto-cells in Rasht city. For this purpose, Landsat satellite imageries were used from 2000, 2008 and 2017. After preprocessing the image and selecting the best band combination, the images were classified using the neural network method. Then the classified images were entered into the land changes model and predicted modeling output maps using the CA-MARCOVE method for 2027. The results obtained between 2000 and 2017 indicate that the area changes in urban lands, rice fields and forests were 9041.88, 7841.33 and 55.78 hectares, respectively, which were positive in Rasht city and negative in rice fields and forest and the projection map for 2027 with the CA-MARCOVE method also indicated a significant increase in urban use of 14105.04 hectares in the coming years. The results of this study indicate that the current trend of land use changes will lead to adverse environmental impacts and, consequently, irreversible socio-economic damage. Therefore, it is essential for the region planning and management unit to adopt a comprehensive approach to conduct future environmental problems and to curb the horizontal development of settlements in the area.

    Introduction

     The importance of land use as a key component in natural resource management, environmental change and a dynamic and affecting biological condition requires accurate quantitative and qualitative information to be provided and varied in the short term. (Triantakonstantis & Stathakis, 2015: 194; Akbari and Rezaei, 1397: 94). In the meantime, remote sensing data provide valuable multi-temporal data on the processes and patterns of land cover change and land use, and help to develop an understanding of the impact of human activities on natural resources. (Esfahanzadeh, 2016: 34). Urban development is a global phenomenon and one of the most important phenomena that has a great impact on both nature and human environment due to its many ecological and socio-economic aspects. The city of Rasht, like other urban areas, has undergone numerous changes in agricultural and horticultural uses and residential uses over many years. In this study, satellite imagery is used to evaluate land use changes and simulate urban development in the period 2000 to 2017, so that the results of the research can be of great help in micro planning. And provided the experts with a great deal to prevent environmental degradation.

    Methodology

    In this study, using satellite imagery of land use changes and simulation of growth and development of Rasht city using neural network model and Markov chain automated cells. Landsat 2000, 2008 and 2017 images were used for this purpose. After image preprocessing and selecting the best band composition, the images were classified by neural network method. Selected classes include 7 classes, forest, man-made areas, paddy fields, sand, sea, ponds and vacant lots. The digital layers used to classify and apply Markov auto cells include: GPS capture points for image classification and accuracy assessment, proximity to main roads, river avoidance, distance from surrounding villages, slope And height. Then, the classified images were entered into the land change modeler and the model outputs were predicted by CA-MARCOVE for 2027.

    Results and discussion

     The results show that out of the total area of ​​man-made area increased, 3612 hectares were converted to paddy fields and 1 hectare to water use, 2138 hectares were made to man-made areas, 1646 hectares to the sea and 24 hectares to the Bayer area. In the present study, Markov chains and automated cell fusion methods were used to predict land use changes in Rasht. To do this using IDRISI software, three series of land use maps were prepared for the years 2000 to 2017. Finally, based on the factors involved in urban land use changes in the study area, the inputs of the automated cell model were selected as Table (1). The prediction is a function of the model inputs. Table 1: Input variables in the automated cell simulation model Row Variables affecting land use 1 near the main ways 2 distance from the river 3 elevation 4 slopes 5 distance from surrounding villages Source: Authors' Studies, 2018        Then, by calculating the Kramer coefficient in the model, one can obtain an estimate of the correlation of each variable with the existing land uses and hence its ability to predict land use changes. By repeating 10,000 times of trial and error in the multilayer neural network, calibration and conversion potential maps were generated in the images from 2000 to 2008 and 2008 to 2017. Following the acceptable accuracy of the model for prediction, using the CA-Markov model, the 2027 User Prediction Map was prepared for the study area shown in Figure (1).   Figure 1: Land use forecasting map of Rasht city using CA-Markov for 2027, Source: Research Findings, 2018.     Table 2. Land use area of 2027 using CA-Markov User class 2027 forecast area (ha) Jungle 0/13 Sands 0/9639 Water 974/26 rice field 4797/82 Man-made areas 14105/04 Wasteland 1599/03 Sea 6/39          As can be seen from Table 2, the area of most land uses, except for man-made areas and the sea, declined as forest land use from 1031/95, sandy land from 15/42, water from 22/333, paddy fields from 88/12/85 and wasteland from / 66. 3629 hectares decreased in 2000 to 0.13, 0.96, 97.26, 47.72 and 15.03 ha in 2027, respectively. In contrast, the land use area of the man-made areas increased sharply to 14105.04 hectares, while sea use increased by 6.39 hectares.

    Conclusion

    The use of Landsat satellite imagery is useful in terms of availability, duplicate coverage and lower cost of source data, as well as determining the extent of land cover changes and land use prediction using the models used in Research can be a good alternative to costly methods of discovering change in the shortest time possible. Other objectives of this study were to use satellite imagery and LCM tools to detect changes occurring in the region during the study years 2000–2008 and 2008–2017. Therefore, multi-layer neural network method was used to detect the changes. Examination of changes from 2000 to 2008 showed an increase in urban class area, with the city area increasing from 6793.91 hectares in 2000 to 8940.41 hectares in 2008. The highest increase in urban area was observed from 2008 to 2017 after image classification. During the study periods, paddy, forest and wilderness land use has been steadily declining, and vegetation use has had a protective role as urban land use. In this study, the prediction of physical growth in the city of Rasht in the coming years (2027) was investigated. This is how the 2017 forecast map was first derived using the CA-MARKOV model. Comparison of the results of the prediction map with that of the image classification showed high accuracy. The 2027 forecast map also shows a significant increase in urban land use by 14105.04 hectares in the coming years. Considering the results, it is possible to study changes in vegetation cover and to prevent its unnecessary changes and transformations. Because vegetation plays an important role in reducing environmental issues in urban areas. In contrast, the disappearance of vegetation causes severe environmental crises in relation to the rapid growth of urbanization and the formation of the thermal island of the city. As a result, vegetation is considered as an indicator of environmental sustainability in urban communities. Therefore, proper vegetation management is considered as an integral part of any sustainable urban development. Since degradation of vegetation and rising surface temperature can have adverse effects on the environment, identifying environmental sensitivities (crises) caused by this factor is essential as it can play an important role in urban development management.

    Keywords: Land Use, Satellite image, Neural network model, Markov chain auto-cells, Rasht city