فهرست مطالب

Red Crescent Medical Journal - Volume:22 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:22 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Ahmad Soltani* Page 1
  • Mehrab Sharifi Sedeh *, Ali Ardalan, S. Ali Torabi, Kiyoumars Allahbakhshi, Davoud Khorasani Zavareh Page 2
    Context

    Humanitarian logistics aims to reduce the suffering of disaster victims by fulfilling their immediate needs. A key component of humanitarian logistics is the prepositioning of relief items (such as water and food) for effective emergency response.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to explore factors affecting the prepositioning of relief items for natural disasters.
    Data Sources: This was a systematic review. Relevant articles were retrieved from Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. We also assessed other gray literature.
    Data Extraction: Data were summarized and analyzed through thematic content analysis. Overall, 22 final articles were included in the study. Articles that referred to the prepositioning of relief items were included in the study.

    Results

    Factors affecting the prepositioning of relief items were categorized into four main categories and eight sub-categories. These categories included site selection, preparation, and management of warehouse (with two sub-categories of warehouse site selection, warehouse workforce); risk management studies (with two sub-categories of uncertainty, and demand estimation); infrastructures (with two sub-categories of transportation infrastructures, and other infrastructures); and financial and sociopolitical factors (with two sub-categories of financial problems and limitations sociopolitical factors).

    Conclusions

    Appropriate identification of factors that affect relief-item prepositioning can help decision-makers design appropriate models for prepositioning.

    Keywords: Disaster, Humanitarian Logistics, Prepositioning, Relief Items, Supply Chain
  • Leila Kasraian, Sahar Hosseini, Mohammad Salehi Marzijarani, Alireza Ebrahimi, Soheil Ashkani Esfahani* Page 3
    Context

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major bloodborne diseases worldwide. Although many screening tests were introduced and utilized for blood donations, as the main source of HCV transmission, it has still remained a global concern.

    Evidence Acquisition

    The prevalence of HCV infection among blood donors in every country and every WHO region was investigated. A Comprehensive electronic systematic search algorithm in the international databases PubMed, ISI, Scopus, and ProQuest were adopted for articles published until October 2016, using the following keywords: ("Blood Donors" OR "blood donation" OR "donor" OR "donation" OR "blood" OR "blood safety" OR "bloodborne" OR "residual risk" OR "transfusion-transmitted infections") AND ("prevalence" OR "epidemiology") in combination with “hepatitis C” OR “HCV” for hepatitis C. Only cross-sectional studies, which had appropriate measurement and sampling methods, were selected.

    Results

    The review of the literature showed that the global prevalence of HCV was 854.09 in 100,000. The highest and lowest rates of HCV among WHO divisions were seen in the African region by 2503.61 and the European region by 450.21 in 100,000, respectively. The highest and lowest rates among the countries were seen in Cambodia by 14,670 and Netherlands by 25.370 in 100,000.

    Conclusions

    It seems that strategies for prevention of HCV infection in blood donations should be considered for the policymakers; low prevalence countries are suggested to share their knowledge and countries with lower socioeconomic status should be aided to control the HCV infection among their blood donors.

    Keywords: Hepatitis C, Prevalence, Meta-Analysis, Blood Donors, Blood Safety
  • Farideh Shishehbor, Zahra Salimi *, Masood Veissi, Amal Saki Maleh, Mahdi Shiri Nasab, Bizhan Helli Page 4
    Background

    Low Glycemic Index (GI) and high Satiety Index (SI) foods have been associated with the decreased risk of chronic diseases and obesity.

    Objectives

    The present study examined the effect of oak flour on GI, Glycemic Load (GL), and SI of white bread.

    Methods

    This randomized crossover trial was conducted at Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, during the year 2017. To determine the GI, 10 healthy subjects consumed three bread types (white bread, bread containing 25% oak flour, and bread containing 50% oak flour) and reference food (glucose) containing 50 g of carbohydrates on separate occasions. Finger-prick blood samples were collected at fasting (0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after meal consumption. To determine the SI, 20 healthy individuals consumed 240 kcal portions of test bread types (white bread, bread containing 25% oak flour, and bread containing 50% oak flour) on separate occasions. The satiety ratings were collected at fasting and every 15 min for over 2 h after food ingestion to evaluate the SI.

    Results

    There were no significant differences in the mean of blood glucose Incremental Areas Under the Curve (IAUC) between the test bread types (white bread: 2,883.2 ± 353.7 vs. 25% oak flour bread: 3,163.1 ± 214.7 vs. 50% oak flour bread: 3,245.1 ± 255.9) (P > 0.05). Also, no significant differences were observed between the mean of bread GIs (P > 0.05). The satiety IAUCs of both oak bread types (25% oak flour bread: 377.17 ± 59.83, 50% oak flour bread: 427.87 ± 55.46) were significantly greater than that of white bread (248.55 ± 46.45) (P < 0.001). The SI of both oak bread samples (25% oak flour bread: 202.48 ± 7.92, 50% oak flour bread: 266.25 ± 11.66) was significantly greater than that of white bread (100) (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The addition of oak flour did not modify the GI; however, it increased the SI of white bread and created a greater feeling of satiety.

    Keywords: Bread, Glycemic Index, Quercus, Satiety Index
  • Hassan Araghizadeh, Mahmoudreza Peyravi, Simintaj Sharififar, Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh* Page 5
    Background

    A large number of natural disasters, including floods and earthquakes, occur in Iran annually. Recognition of the factors influencing the civil-military coordination in natural disasters is amongst the prerequisites in disaster management. Experts’ perspectives towards coordination in these disasters can also be indicative of the importance of this subject. Given the fact that no studies have been carried out regarding the relationship between the civil and military forces in the aftermath of natural disasters in Iran, these factors can be recognized according to individuals’ and experts’ viewpoints.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed at extracting the factors influencing the civil-military coordination in the course of natural disasters in Iran through interviewing experts in 2019.

    Methods

    The present qualitative research was conducted through semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 20 key informants who were selected via snowball, convenience, and purposive sampling methods. A session was also held with the presence of the panel of experts. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis in order to extract the factors influencing the civil-military coordination in natural disasters in Iran.

    Results

    The factors influencing the coordination between the military and civil organizations were categorized into personnel, stuff, and system issues (structure). In addition, 33 subcategories were also identified. The specialists emphasized that holding instructional courses and regular and periodic exercises could enhance coordination in response to disasters.

    Conclusions

    The present study showed that coordination between civil and military organizations in the management of natural disasters in Iran is faced with many challenges that should be overcome and reduced through providing organizational, political, and structural supports. Recognition of the factors influencing coordination can be effective in line with the correct management of natural disasters. Furthermore, organizations can be made readier for taking better measures in disasters according to the extracted factors. In order to provide a proper response to natural disasters, all coordination components should be elevated simultaneously and coherently.

    Keywords: Military, Civilian, Natural Disaster, Coordination
  • Nasrin Abdol, Mahbubeh Setorki * Page 6
    Background

    One of the most important herbal remedies in Iran is Echium amoenum L. It has been used in traditional Iranian pharmaceutical formulations and has provided an interesting area of research for various drug activities.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant and antianxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Echium amoenum L. in a socially isolated model of male mice.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 50 male Balb/c mice weighing 25 to 30 g were divided into five groups of 10 mice. The control group received normal saline. The treatment groups received the Echium amoenum L. hydroalcoholic extract for five days at doses of 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg via i.p injection and the negative control group received social isolation and normal saline.

    Results

    Echium amoenum L. hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced immobility in the forced swimming test in mice exposed to social isolation stress. Echium amoenum L. extract at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg significantly increased the number of crossings in the center of the open-field box. The time of staying in the open arms increased significantly in groups receiving the extract at 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg. Treatment with Echium amoenum L. extract reduced the serum and brain tissue levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in mice exposed to social isolation stress and enhanced the total antioxidant capacity of serum and brain tissue.

    Conclusions

    Modulating the nitric oxide system and reducing oxidative stress may be essential mechanisms of Echium amoenum L. extract in reducing depression and anxiety in mice.

    Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, Mice, Medicinal Plant
  • Atefeh Shahbazi, Mohammad Hasan Naseh, Masoud Habibi, Reza Shirazi, Hamid Choobineh *, Seyed Mohammad Akrami Page 7
    Background

    Vitiligo is a long-term multifactorial polygenic disorder, characterized by the patchy loss of pigments in the skin. Several treatments including therapeutic creams and oral drugs are used to treat vitiligo with varying degrees of success. Some medical treatments can reduce the severity of the disease, but it is difficult to cure the disorder. Autologous non-cultured melanocyte transplantation is an effective method of vitiligo treatment. The utilization of appropriate cell suspension is a safe and efficient strategy to cure such hypopigmentation disorder.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to follow up patients suffering from generalized and stable vitiligo who were treated with transplanted cells. Patients with patches in four different parts (forehead, eyelids, trunks, and hands) were selected because skin thickness varied among different body parts. We compared melanin repigmentation in these areas.

    Methods

    We recruited 39 patients with generalized and stable vitiligo who had patches on their forehead, eyelids, trunks, and hands. Partial grafts were taken from the gluteal regions of all patients. Epidermal cells including non-cultured melanocyte and keratinocyte suspensions were enzymatically isolated and found to be of > 98% viability. Cells were injected intraepidemally. After a 12-month follow-up, repigmentation was observed.

    Results

    The mean repigmentation score continued to improve up to 12 months post-transplantation. The obtained results confirmed that the cellular suspension that consisted of a mixture of epidermal cells improved to restore the normal color of the repigmentation rate. The number of received cells per cm2 positively influenced the repigmentation score. Patches located on the face, neck, and trunk areas showed significantly higher responses to treatment. The pigmentation score was classified as “poor” (1% - 25%), “moderate” (26% - 50%), and “good” (51% - 75%). This study is a research and clinical study with a brief report registered with the Ethics Committee of Avicenna Research Institute, clinical trials (letter number: 93/22/01/89), Tehran, Iran.

    Conclusions

    The application of autologous non-cultured melanocyte-keratinocyte cell suspension could restore the patchy skin color to a near-normal level and the majority of the patients were satisfied with the results.

    Keywords: Vitiligo, Melanocyte, Cell Therapy
  • Hao Wang, Cai Xia Ba *, Xue Feng Bai, Pei Long Zhang, Gang Ling Zhang, Fei Yu Bing, Chang Tian, Zuo Jun Li, Shui Ying Zhou Page 8
    Background

    Recently, some studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRs; miRNAs) mainly regulate gene expression in the transcription of microRNAs. However, the role of microRNAs in cell development, differentiation, proliferation, and other physiological processes remains unclear.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression level of microRNA-195 in the pathological tissues of patients with cardiac carcinoma and its clinical effects.

    Methods

    Patients with primary cardiac carcinoma were enrolled as the study subjects. The tumor and adjacent tissue samples for cancer pathology were obtained during the operation. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of microRNA-195 and its correlation with the clinicopathological features of cardiac carcinoma was analyzed.

    Results

    A total of 64 patients were included in this study. Firstly, the expression rate of miR-195 in cardiac carcinoma tissues showed a significant decreasing trend (3.65 ± 0.42 vs. 2.05 ± 0.33) (P < 0.001) and the actual expression level of miR-195 in pathological tissues of cardiac carcinoma was negatively correlated with the malignant degree of pathological tissues (P = 0.028), invasion (P = 0.037), and lymph node metastasis of cardiac carcinoma (P = 0.023), but miR-195 was not correlated with age (P = 0.615) and gender (P = 0.465).

    Conclusions

    The expression of microRNA-195 is closely correlated to the severity of cardiac carcinoma and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis.

    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma, miRNA-195, miRNA-195 Cardiac Carcinoma, RT-PCT, Mucosa Tissues