فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan *, Samira Zahmatbar, Hamed Delam, Azizallah Dehghan, Mozhgan Jokar, Esmaeil Kavi Pages 2-7
    Background

    Resiliency is considered as a coping method for nurses in dealing with work problems. Because different personality characteristics also cause different responses by nurses in coping with challenges, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality traits and resilience in Nurses and Paramedical staff in Lar and Gerash hospitals.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study. The research sample consisted of 160 nurses and paramedical staff in Lar and Gerash hospitals that were selected by convenience sampling strategy. To measure the variables, NEO Personality Inventory (NEO- FEI) and Connor - Davidson Resiliency Scale (CD-RISC) were used. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS version 25 software.

    Results

    Statistical analysis showed that extraversion personality traits (r=0.680, P<0.001), openness to experience (r=0.452, P<0.001), agreeableness (r=0.298, P<0.001), and conscientiousness (r=0.635, P<0.001) had a positive and significant correlation with the resiliency variable, and it was only the trait of neuroticism (r=-0.749, P<0.001) that had an inverse and significant correlation with the resiliency variable.

    Conclusion

    In the nursing profession, resiliency is a key element in improving the mental health of nursing staff and helping them to cope better with their stress, challenges and difficulties. Therefore, awareness of the effect of the nurses’ personality traits leads to better management, and since resilience is an educable and changeable variable, problems with nurses who lack effective personality traits can be improved by increasing resiliency

    Keywords: Psychological resilience, Nurse, Personality
  • Leila Bazrafkan, Rahmat Allah Mohammadjani, Tayebeh Rakhshani * Pages 8-16
    Introduction
    Given the importance of aggression in adolescents and the effects of parenting practices, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of parenting skills intervention on adolescent aggression in Abadeh Tashk town, Fars province, in 2018.
    Methods
    This randomized clinical trial was carried out on 200 adolescents and their parents in Abadeh Tashk in 2018. The sampling was done through the cluster sampling method and the subjects were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups (100 in each group). The study outcomes were aggression and parenting styles measured by the control and education groups before and two months after the intervention. The data were analyzed using the SPSS20 software as well as the statistical tests such as paired t-test, independent t-test and chi-square test.
    Results
    The results showed that there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of physical aggression (P = 0.98), verbal aggression (P = 0.62), anger (P = 0.40), hostility (P= 0.15), and the total aggression score (P= 0.38) before the intervention. However,  after the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, and overall aggression score (P <0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that parenting style intervention was effective in reducing physical and verbal aggression, anger, hostility, and overall aggression in students. It is suggested that long term interventions should be conducted aiming at parental control over the problems of students since childhood.
    Keywords: education, Parenting Styles, Aggression, Adolescents
  • Khadijeh Darabi, Abooalfazl Azhdarpoor *, Mansoureh Dehghani Pages 17-21
    Background
    Carbamazepine is a pharmaceutical compound used as an anticonvulsant for epilepsy and can enter the environment by inappropriate treatment of hospital wastewater. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the removal of carbamazepine from the aquatic environment, using the ozonation process.
    Methods
    This is an experimental study in which certain concentrations of carbamazepine were removed, using the ozonation process. The effect of such factors as pH (3-11), carbamazepine concentration (5-15 ppm), ozone dose (200-400 mg/hr), and reaction time (15-180 seconds) on the removal efficiency was studied. Data analysis was performed to measure carbamazepine, using the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
    Results
    The results showed that the carbamazepine removal efficacy at pHs of 5, 7, and 11 was 81%, 66%, and 21%, respectively at 15 ppm, the reaction time of 30 seconds, and the ozone dose of 200 mg/hr, respectively. Also, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/hr injectable ozone at pHs of  5 and 7, removal efficiency was 81%, 66%, 97%, and 78%, respectively.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, at pH=5, reaction time of 30 seconds, the carbamazepine concentration of 15 ppm, injectable ozone dose of 200 mg/h, a removal efficiency of 81% was obtained. The ozonation process can react directly or indirectly with the drug contaminant in very low concentrations in aqueous solutions due to its high oxidation power, leading to its destruction or elimination, which may indicate that the ozonation method may be used as an effective method to remove carbamazepine and other similar contaminants.
    Keywords: Carbamazepine, Aquatic Environment, Ozone, Degradation
  • Kourosh Mokhtari, Hossein Mazaheri *, Amir Hossein Baghaie, Ali Hassani Joshaghani Pages 22-30
    Background

    High concentration of heavy metals and NO 3 in vegetables may pose serious health risks to humans. Therefore, this research was done to evaluate the carcinogenic and non- carcinogenic risk of heavy metals and NO 3 due to the consumption of most important greenhouse vegetables produced in Markazi province.

    Methods

    In this descriptive study, sampling of cucumber, tomato, and bell pepper produced in the greenhouses of Markazi province was done randomly and the concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and NO 3 of them were determined. Non-cancer risk related to heavy metals and NO 3 sorption from vegetables was evaluated using the EPA method for men and women.

    Results

    The mean concentration of all the studied metals except Cu was in the allowable concentration range. The mean concentration of NO 3 in the cucumber was 300 mg/kg FW, which was about 1.5 times higher than the maximum allowable concentration of that in vegetables. The HQ of Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu and NO 3 for all population groups were smaller than 1. The results showed that NO 3 and Pb were the major risk contributor for the consumers. The excess lifetime cancer risks of Ni for all receptor groups were greater than 1×10 −6 .

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that the total risk index of heavy metals and NO 3 through consumption of greenhouse vegetables grown in Markazi province was below one. Also, in the most age groups this index is greater for women related to the men.

    Keywords: Lead, Cadmium, Vegetables, Risk factors, Environmental Pollution
  • Seyed Yaser Hashemi, Mojtaba Emkani, Azizallah Dehghan, Reza Kalantari, Milad Gholami * Pages 31-35
    Background
    Job stress is one of the most hazardous factors in workplace that endangers the workers’ public health physically and psychologically.
    Aims
    This study was conducted to investigate the general health status and occupational stress of workers in an electrical tablet production industry in Iran.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was carried out amongst 110 workers employed in electrical industry. The data were gathered by using demographic features questionnaire, general health questionnaire (GHQ), and job stress questionnaire (OSIPOW). The questionnaires were completed by interview to minimize the error in the data collection stage. Data were analyzed using SPSS (ver.20). A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
    Results
    63.6% of the participants in this study were in inappropriate general health status. There was a significant difference between the total score of general health and education level (P=0.04). Also, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in working time in administrative and non-administrative parts. A significant relationship was observed between inefficiency and dichotomy of job stress with the total level of general health (P<0.05).
    Conclusions
    Education and job stress are effective factors on the workers working in this industry.
    Keywords: Occupational Stress, Mental health, Psychology industrial
  • Ali Sabz Tajari *, Iravan Masoudi Asl, Somaye Hessam Pages 36-39
    Background
    Millions of people around the world suffer from occupational accidents each year, many of whom become disabled or die. The purpose of this research was to study work-related accidents and its effects on the costs incurred by Social Security Organization (SSO) of Iran during the years 2012-2016.
    Methods
    This comparative-descriptive study examined the insurance and medical costs of approximately 96,000 occupational accidents registered in the SSO systems over the period of 2012-16. Data were collected through statistical forms and Medical Commissions Comprehensive System, as well as the data recorded in the SSO systems. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Excel software, and SPSS 22. Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between work-related accidents and the research variables (short-term and long-term medical costs and lost working years).
    Results
    Findings indicated that an average of 115 people (0.59%) die each year from work-related accidents. Occupational accidents also lead to total disability of 176 people (0.91%) and partial disability of 292 people (1.5%) per year. About 5% of the victims (998 people) receive lump sum payments as compensation for permanent impairment and 92% (17665 people) fully recover from job injuries. Work-related accidents impose an average financial burden of about IIR 147 billion annually on SSO as short-term costs, about IIR 247 billion as inpatient and outpatient treatment costs, and about IIR 497 billion as long-term costs. Overall,
    Keywords: work-related accidents, costs of work-related accidents, insured
  • Kourosh Azizi, Aboozar Soltani, Shokat Ali Amiri, Mohammad Reza Fakoor Ziba, Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah Fard * Pages 40-47
    Background

    The application of insecticides against vector mosquito larvae is a crucial step to control human malaria. Insecticide resistance is a major impediment to vector control strategies. The main aim of this study was to conduct laboratory and semi-field evaluations on lethal and residual effects of temephos and pyriproxyfen insecticides against malaria mosquito larvae, Anopheles stephensi.

    Methods

    Both susceptibility test and residual bioassay were performed to assess the lethal concentrations of each insecticide on 50% (LC50) of the IV instars larval populations and their activity periods according to standard protocols of WHO. Nine and eleven different concentrations with two sets of control in each case were applied for temephos and pyriproxyfen, respectively. Data were analyzed using probit analysis and SPSS software.

    Results

    The LC50 and LC90 for temephos and pyriproxyfen under laboratory conditions were 0.4 and 0.63, and 1.69 × 10-4 and 4.036 × 10-4 ppm, respectively. Although the field strain of An. stephensi larvae was completely susceptible to pyriproxyfen, there was noticeable resistance (8% mortality at the diagnostic dose) to temephos in Nikshahr County, Southeast Iran. This is the first report of resistance to temephos for this malaria main vector in Iran. Depending on the applied variable doses, the residual effects of temephos and pyriproxyfen under semi-field conditions lasted maximally for 3 and 10 weeks, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The high lethal and residual effects of pyriproxyfen on mosquito larvae confer an unprecedented opportunity in vector control operations leading to elimination of malaria in Iran.

    Keywords: Anopheles stephensi, Pyriproxyfen, Insect Growth Regulator, Temephos, Insecticide Resistance
  • Jalal Mohammadi, Hossein Faramarzi, Aboozar Soltani * Pages 48-50

    The class Diplopoda (the millipedes) is the most abundant and diverse group within the Myriapoda, comprising 15 orders and numerous families. They range in length from very tiny (∼5 mm in Polyxenida) to the longest terrestrial invertebrates (some Spirostreptida being up to 35 cm long) in tropical and subtropical regions. On the 29th September 2018, the residents of Dare Mal (a village of Marvdasht city) were faced with a massive infestation of an unknown larva. Arthropods were transferred to the Entomology Laboratory of Shiraz Health School. The unknown arthropods were identified as millipede larvae belonging to the Polyxenidae family (Polyxenus spp.) Millipede larvae are not of medical importance, but they cause panic among the residents and make them evacuate their homes. The source of their infestation was a leftover farmyard watering near the village. The number of larvae declined sharply and their activity decreased after conducting the control program. This program included physical control as well as spraying of the infested areas with permethrin and diazinon. Activity of larvae abruptly decreased and eventually they were removed from all infested homes.

    Keywords: Millipedes, larvae, Infestation, residential areas, Iran