فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Mozhgan Bazyar *, Abdolaslam Bonyad, Sasan Babaie Kafaki Pages 135-143

    The Zagros forests (west of Iran) have been highly exploited in recent decades by human impacts. Easy access, abundance and variety of valuable forest yields have led to population growth density, creation of new residential areas and deforestation activities. In order to determinate the distribution and rate of deforestation from 1995 to 2006 by using the satellite imagery (IRS-1C and  LANDSAT image) and possibility of modeling the changes extent and its relation to physiographic and some human factors by using multiple regression in the Kohkeloeye and Boveirahmad province,  Golestan province. Southern Zagros forest, west of Iran. Classification was performed using maximum likelihood classifiers and forest divided two classes (forest and non – forest). Results showed that the maximum likelihood classifiers exhibited the highest results with 96% overall accuracy and 74% kappa coefficient. The results showed that about 462.5 ha from forest areas were deforested in the 12 years. To determination of major element of forest destruction used the multiple regression methods. According to results distance from road and village variables were in contrary of deforestation expanding. Forest destruction was increased with increasing around populated villages and near of this village.

    Keywords: Iran, Deforestation, IRS-1C, Kohkeloeye, Boveirahmad province
  • Sh. Moradianfard *, J. Ghorbani, K. Bakhshy Pages 144-151

    Degradation of acrylic water base color from synthetic wastewater by the Fenton process was performed. Experiments were conducted on the sample containing 100 and 400 mg/l of Acrylic water base color. The study was performed for searching optimum values of FeSO4 and H2O2 concentration, pH and temperature. The H2O2 requirement seems to be related to initial COD of the sample. FeSO4/ H2O2 ratios found were not changed for .the temperature affected the COD removal significantly at high degrees.

    Keywords: Color, COD removal, acrylic water base color, Fenton's oxidation process
  • M. Daylam Jafarabad *, D. Azadfar, M.H. Arzanesh Pages 152-159

    Heavy metals found in urban air with its toxic effects have a direct impact on human health. Selection of appropriate tree species and shrub refining capacity of heavy metals in urban areas can greatly reduce the toxic effects of these materials. This study aimed to identify the most suitable tree and shrub species of broadleaf evergreen, deciduous and coniferous refinement of heavy metals lead, copper and zinc in the air in both units and total leaf weight. 12 species of tree and shrub leaves in City Park in Gorgan in summer (August 2010) was sampled. Heavy elements present in the samples were prepared and measured by atomic absorption instrument. The results showed that the performance of the trees in comparison to shrubs refinement of heavy metals lead, copper and zinc were more appropriate. Among the species present for purification of Pb and Zn, refine Shiraz, Magnolia and Cypress Pine copper refinery in Shiraz were the best and Tehran and Palvnya had the best performance for copper.

    Keywords: Season, species, absorb, heavy metals, Lead, copper, Zinc, Gorgan province
  • Yousef Askari *, Mohammad Kazem Parsapour, Zahra Hosseni Pages 160-169
    To modeling of Suitability Iranian Oak site to establish coppice regenerations, chahartagh forest reserve, Ardal region, chaharmehal and Bakhtiari Province, southern Zagros forest, and southwest Iranian state was selected. To modeling Suitability Iranian Oak used the physiographic element, soil depth, climatology and distance from village selected. To this study used the raster formats by pixel size 20 meter and data convert to this size and physiographic and other parameter extracted. The element have negative impact on the Oak condition was negative score. By used the table of score and range of score detected the site condition. Site condition divided the high un-appropriate, un-appropriate, average, appropriate and high appropriate. Results showed that the 40 percent of study area are appropriate and high appropriate condition for established the seed regeneration. Overall Results showed that the approximately of 40 percent of study area have a suitable condition for regeneration. Prevention of livestock grazing and irregular tree cutting in the degraded forest stands can be suggested as a suitable approach for natural restoration and increasing plant diversity and regenerations.
    Keywords: Iran, Chaharmehal, Bakhtiari Province, Zagros forest, Iranian oak site
  • Rohollah Parma *, Shaban Shataee Pages 170-177

    The use of remote sensing techniques as a suitable solution to estimate the levels of species diversity is of high importance for the sustainable management of forests. In order to investigate the potential of using sensor data from Landsat 7 ETM+ to estimate species diversity in the Zagros forests, digital data related to the August 7, 2002 from forests in the Qalajeh Kermanshah Province were analyzed. To this end, 114 sample plots were created using a systematic method. The plots had the dimensions 60 × 60 m and were positioned using a GPS device. The number of features, species, DBH and crown diameter in two directions, North-South and West-East harvest, were recorded. The Shannon-Wiener species diversity index per sample plot was calculated. After testing for normalization using the Kolmogorov–Smironov test, the Shannon-Wiener index was used as the dependent variable, and spectral values from original and synthetic bands from different processing on the ETM + data were used as the independent variables. The Pearson correlation was used to select the best bands among 40 major and artificial bands, and three-bands (ETM4, NDVI and MSAVI2) were selected. To analyze the relationship between species diversity and these bands, the best subset regression was used. The results showed that the combination of linear regression, in which ETM4, NDVI and MSAVI2 were set as the independent variables, compared to other bands and compounds that were used for species, are better able to estimate the tree and shrub diversities (Radj2=0.327). The results of this study indicate that ETM+ sensor data has a relatively low ability to estimate species diversity of trees and shrubs in the study area that was analyzed.

    Keywords: ETM+, Regression model, species diversity, Zagros, Qalajeh
  • Hamid Ahani *, Hamid Jalilvand Pages 178-184

    Forests are biologically diverse systems, representing some of the richest biological areas on Earth. They offer a variety of habitats for plants, animals and micro-organisms. However, forest biodiversity is increasingly threatened as a result of deforestation, fragmentation, climate change and other stressors. Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or on the entire Earth. Hypothesis of this paper is method of investigation in agro biodiversity for conservation biodiversity beside economic products. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. The biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species. The year 2010 has been declared as the International Year of Biodiversity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, but is consistently rich in the tropics and in specific localized regions such as the Cape Floristic Province; it is less rich in Polar Regions where fewer species are found. Research on biodiversity has been investigated in the species diversity level. The objective of these researches was to study of every plant dispersion spatially woody plants and biodiversity of associated woody species in forests. In addition, type of woody species identified and is documented. Shannon-Wiener ̓s and Simpson ̓s diversity indices are used for evaluating of woody species diversity; also, evenness and richness indices will be calculated. For detecting relationships between diversity indices with richness and evenness, correlation of Simpson s index with its evenness and etc must be analysed. D is Simpson ̓s index and N2 is N2HILL that is applied for very abundant species. H is Shannon-Wiener ̓s index and N1 is McArthur is applied for abundant species. In order to provide a research we can apply every index of biodiversity and spatial pattern formulas to appraisal diversity in agroforestry and other methods such as agro sylvo pasture, aqua forestry and wood culture. In developing countries agroforestry compilation and match of culture in farming must be side conservation on biodiversity.

    Keywords: Agroforestry, Biodiversity, Forest