فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Mohammad Mehdizadeh *, Zoleikha Mehdizadeh, Zahra Baghaeifar Pages 1-8
    Environmental risks resulting from increasing application of herbicides have raised many concerns about human health and safety of agro ecosystems and environment. Hence, it is very important to find practical and effective methods for reducing the use of pesticides in environment as well as the increasing the efficiency of these compounds. Addition of adjuvants to spray solutions could be considered as one of these methods. Greenhouse studies were conducted using a complete randomized design with a factorial arrangement during 2015-2016 to evaluate the impact of different adjuvants (citogate, canola oil, and castor oil) at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 (%v/v) with 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g a.i. ha-1 of tribenuron methyl herbicide to control common lambsquarters. Results showed that all applied adjuvants enhanced the efficacy of tribenuron methyl in decreasing the biomass of common lambsquarters. Efficacy of this herbicide increased with enhancing its concentrations. The required dose of herbicide to give 50 per cent common lambsquarters control (ED50) for no adjuvant, citogate, castor oil, and canola oil application (0.2 (%v/v)) was 21.24, 11.48, 11.65, and 11.81 g a.i. ha-1, respectively. Totally the application of citogate and canola oil had the highest and the lowest impact on tribenuron methyl performance to control of common lambsquarters respectively. Also, the Relative Potency values were significantly increased when adjuvants were added to this herbicide. The results revealed that the use of citogate and vegetable oils can increase the efficiency tribenuron methyl, and reduce the application rate of this herbicide in agro ecosystems.
    Keywords: Adjuvants, Citogate, ED50, Vegetable oils
  • Wenli Sun, Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian *, Qiman Huang Pages 9-16
    Drought cause yield loss of soybean production is the major reason to yield losing of soybean. To improve the germination and growth of soybean seeds under drought stress; We studied the effect of the single walled carbon nanotubes (SwCNTs) material in seed germination and the physiological changes occurred under drought condition, performed SwCNTs treatments in soybean (Zhonghuang 35) seeds at PEG drought stress, evaluated the germination, root and shoot length, fresh weight, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the contents of maleic dialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and H2O2. The results showed that under osmotic potentials of 0, -0.3, -0.6 with PEG 6000, the germination percentage of SwCNTs-treated seeds was higher than the control treatment (SwCNTs-untreated seeds). The fresh weight of SwCNTs-treated seeds were evidently higher than that of the controls under the osmotic potentials of 0, -0.3, -0.6 MPa. The root and shoot length were also longer than control in SwCNTs-treated seeds at 0,-0.3, -0.6 MPa (P
    Keywords: Soybean, Germination percentage, Drought, Nanotubes
  • Shahriar Saeidian *, Bahaaldin Rashidzadeh, Roza Negahdari Pages 17-28
    Crude wild pear lipoxygenase (LOX) from ripe Kurdistan wild pears was used in this study. Extracted crude LOX was assayed spectrophotometrically for raw, ripe wild pear lipoxygenase and after 7-day storage. The effects of different buffers and pHs, substrate preparations, temperature, inhibitors and metal ions on LOX activity were evaluated at three conditions. The enzyme was most active with Hcl-Tris buffer at a pH of 7.5 and a temperature of 40ºC. The best substrate was the first preparation with linoleic acid/Tween 20 at a ratio of 1:1. The kinetic parameters determined under the best conditions were a Km of 6.5 mM and a Vmax of 0.9 unit/mg protein for raw condition, 5.8 mM and a Vmax of 0.95 unit/mg protein for ripe condition and 5 mM and a Vmax of 1.1 unit/mg protein obtained after storage. The enzyme was heat-labile. It was shown that crude wild pear LOX is fully active at room temperature (20-30ºC), while the best activity occurred at 35ºC for Lox after storage that activity of lipoxygenase increased up to 130%. The results showed that lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of chemical compounds and standard compound decreased in the order of ascorbic acid > nicotinic acid > benzoic acid > DL-α-tocopherol. Monovalent and trivalent ions are inhibitors of LOX and divalent ions except Zncl2 are activators of LOX.
    Keywords: wild pear, Lipoxygenase, crude, Kinetics, substrate
  • Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Mehdi Khoshkharam, Peiman Zandi, Wenli Sun, Cheng Qi * Pages 29-39
    Pyrethrum is a perennial daisy grown commercially for the insecticide that is extracted from its flowers. In order to evaluate germination and seedling growth of pyrethrum under different temperature and drought stress treatments, an experiment was conducted in seed technology laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture of Islamic Azad University of Isfahan branch in 2018. During this experiment, polyethylene glycol (PEG) at 6 levels (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1.0 MP) and two temperature treatments (10oC and 15oC) were used. Two separate factorial trials, on the basis of absolute randomized design with three replications were used. Drought stress impact on germination percentage, mean time germination, shoot and root length, abnormal germination, germination uniformity, plumule dry and fresh weight, root dry and fresh weight and seed stamina index was significant. The influence of temperature was meaningful on germination percentage, mean time germination, shoot and root length, plumule dry weight, plumule fresh weight, root dry weight and root fresh weight. The rate of germination, germination percentage, as well as seedling growth and establishment were significantly lowered with the rise of stress levels using PEG. Control treatment and 15oC had obtained the highest germination percentage, mean time germination, shoot and root length, germination uniformity, plumule dry and fresh weight, root dry and fresh weight, and seed stamina index. Taking all traits into account, a clear understanding of the germination responses of seeds is useful in screening for tolerance of species to extreme temperatures.
    Keywords: Drought stress, germination, Pyrethrum, Seedling growth, Temperature
  • Mohammad Raoofi *, Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim, Somayeh Giti, Mohammad Khanjani, Mahnaz Akbari, Mohammad Ali Baghestani Pages 40-57
    The current study evaluated the ill-effects of different doses of an herbicide i.e. Imazethapyr on the population density of some natural enemies such as ladybug, earwig and Carabid beetles. The experiment was carried out on weed-infested established alfalfa farms for the two consecutive growing seasons i.e. spring and summer during 2014–2015. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with eight treatments and four replications. The results showed that heavy doses application of Imazethapyrhas badly affected lady beetle, earwig and carabid beetle population, until one week after spraying. Severe losses were observed as Incrementally with high doses of Imazethapyr; therefore, it is important not to exceed the recommended, standard dose (0.5 L/ha).
    Keywords: Imazethapyr herbicide, Alfalfa, lady beetles, earwigs, carabid beetles
  • Mohammad Abootaleb, Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari *, Nazila Arbab Soleimani, Nassim Ghorbanmehr, Mohammad Reza Yazdian Pages 58-66
    Background
    Microorganisms attach to various surfaces and they have manufactured biofilms by production polysaccharides like PSL in P.aeruginosa. synthesis of this kind of polysaccharide has done by PSL gene cluster. The aim of this study is consideration biofilm formation which is one of the major cause antibiotic resistance
    Methods
    In this study, 100 P. aeruginosa were isolated with bacteriological and biochemical methods and pslA gene detection with PCR in all of the P. aeruginosa isolated from patients Then biofilm formation checked with microtiter plate method and it showed with SEM. Finally, expression of main attachment gene pslA in 6 strains could make moderate and strong biofilm were investigated by real-time PCR assay.
    Results
    In this study, 100 P. aeruginosa were isolated that these strains showed High rates of MDR. The presence pslA gene in all of the pseudomonas isolated from patients was proven. Microtiter plate method showed 24 (24%) strains could make biofilm Among 100 strains that showed with SEM. The pslA expression in strains which making moderate and strong biofilms are more than other strains
    Conclusions
    Hence, for bacterial biofilm treatment is recommended: Before antibiotics are prescribed, biofilm formation by bacteria should be investigated.
    Keywords: P. aeruginosa, microtiter plate, biofilm, Real time PCR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
  • Mohammad Abootaleb *, Narjes Mohammadi Bandari, Nazila Arbab Soleimani Pages 67-74
    Background
    Camel milk is the most important of dairy foods. Its contains amino acids, vitamins, probiotics properties and a potential source for isolation of probiotic Lactobacillus strains. This study is aimed to identify and isolate the bacteria special Lactic Acid Bacteria in the camel milk based on the molecule methods.
    Methods
    All samples were collected from camel milk in Semnan province of Iran. Initially, they were cultivated in MRS Agar. Plates were incubated by 37 °C for 48 hours. Bacteria identification was done according to interior transcription of the area 16 SrRNA. The products of PCR were successfully determined and were analyzed. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed by using Clustal Omega.
    Results
    The observed bacteria were gram-positive, catalase-negative rods or cocci and vancomycin-resistant. Following that they identified as E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus by analytical results ribosomal DNA sequencing with 100% similarity. Also, a phylogenetic tree is proven the species relatedness of the Enterococcus spp.
    Conclusions
    These findings showed that supporting 16S rRNA sequences is a reasonable technique for identifying Lactobacillus strains. Also, isolated bacteria are a strong candidate for using in food and pharmaceutical industry.
    Keywords: E.casseliflavus, E.gallinarum, Enterococcus, Probiotic, 16S rRNA
  • Narjes Mohammadi Bandari, Hossein Keyvani *, Mohsen Zargar, Malihe Talebi, Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari Pages 75-85
    Background
    The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), has been recently reported worldwide. Therefore, there is an indispensable need for precise and rapid detection of these carbapenemases.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to propose an accurate and rapid method for detecting K. pneumoniae carbapenemase genes from clinical samples, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and to evaluate the expression of these genes in the presence of β-lactam antibiotic by real-time PCR assay.
    Methods
    One hundred and eighty-one K. pneumoniae strains were collected from patients presenting to Firoozgar Hospital of Tehran, Iran. The strains were tested using the disk diffusion method, the modified Hodge test (MHT), and E-test minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Next, reverse transcription-PCR method was applied for the identification of bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-48 genes. Finally, expression of genes was measured by real-time PCR assay in the presence and absence of β-lactam antibiotic.
    Results
    Phenotypic testing also showed a high level of antibiotic resistance, while the genotypic methods indicated the presence and expression of carbapenemase genes.
    Conclusions
    The findings suggest revisions in the current antibiotic therapy protocols, considering the high expression level of resistant carbapenemases to K. pneumoniae strains.
    Keywords: bla OXA-23, bla OXA-48, E-test, MHT, Real-time PCR
  • Sahar Azizi *, Rodabe Behzadi Andohjerdi, Hamidreza Mohajerani Pages 86-91
    Introduction

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder that affects many people each year. Many people suffer from diabetes and obesity. The effects of renoprotective vitamin D and its analogues in chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the rs731236 and rs2228570 polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor gene (GDR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Material & Method:

    In this case-control study, 120 patients with type 2 diabetes and 120 healthy controls (control group) referred to Amiralmomenin Arak Hospital were investigated. After collecting clinical data and performing Laboratory tests, DNA samples were extracted from blood samples by phenol chloroform method, and polymorphisms in specimens were examined by specific genotypes. Data were analyzed by SPSS22 software.

    Results

    There was no correlation between Taq1 and Fok1 polymorphisms with both healthy and healthy patients. Although the frequency of CT genotype was higher in both groups, this difference was not significant (P-Value > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    No evidence was found that VDR gene polymorphisms play a role in the risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Iranian subjects. Further studies in prospective cohort studies should be performed to determine the genome-wide association to evaluate the direct effect of these polymorphisms on type 2 diabetes.

    Keywords: type 2 diabetes_Obesity_Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR)_Genotype_Polymorphism
  • Rasoul Fakhari *, Ahmad Tobeh, Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim, Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Hossein Karbalaei Khiavi Pages 92-99
    In order to investigate the effect of weed control with common herbicides on yield and components of soybean yield (Glycin max L.) in the second crop, two experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Moghan during 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. The treatments consisted of Ethalfluralin, Imazethapyr, Trifluralin, Metribuzin, Bentazone and Alacolor herbicides with and without weed control. The results showed that the number of pods per plant, biological yield, grain yield and soybean protein percentage were statistically significant, but for chlorophyll index, 1000 seed weight and oil percent grain, the difference was not statistically significant. The highest number of pods per plant (333.92), biological yield (1221 g.plant-1) and grain yield (2792 kg.ha-1) were obtained from hand weeding. The results of the analysis of variance showed that the treatments had a significant difference in terms of the percentage of the effect of herbicide, density and total weed dry weight. The results showed that one month after spraying, the Trifluralin and Ethalfluralin herbicides had the highest effect on the weed control and two months after spraying, the rest of the treatments also showed their effect and all herbicide treatments were in one group. In this study, all weed control treatments significantly reduced the density and dry weight of weeds than without control, but their effect was less than hand weeding. The highest grain yield (1896 kg.ha-1) and the highest biological yield (784.9 kg.ha-1) were observed from Ethalfluralin herbicide
    Keywords: Ethalfluralin, imazethapyr, Protein grain percent, Grain yield