فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/11/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Sylvia Ortega Martínez * Pages 1-15

    Adult neurogenesis, a concept emergent in the late 1990s, is the generation of new neurons in the adult brain. This process occurs thank to cells who have this proliferative feature, named as Neural Stem Cells (NSCs). Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) are primary progenitors who can generate the two neural types (neurons and glia). Classically it was assumed that NSCs are only present in the embryo, but today it is extensively known that are also present in the postnatal and adult brain, although the majority were found in embryo stage. According with Merkle et al. 2006, these cells are characterized by the following features: 1. They come from glial cells, 2. They are related linearly between adult and embryonic cells (since they are transformed from neuroepithelial cells to radial glia, and then they show astroglial cells characteristics), and 3. These cells are divided essentially asymmetrically leading to another intermediate progenitor (IPC) as a parent, and sometimes divided symmetrically, to increase the progeny (Ortega Martinez and Trejo, 2015). Meanwhile, intermediate progenitors (IPCs) are always divided symmetrically to amplify the number of progeny dividing (Merket et al., 2006). These symmetric divisions are an important determinant of the brain size, so those species with larger brains have a larger pool of intermediate progenitors (Marshall et al., 2005). These cells, in adults, are mainly found at the subventricular zone (SVZ), adjacent to the lateral ventricles and at the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, known like subgranular zone (SGZ) the ‘imaginary line’ below granular zone of DG where these cells are found (see Fig. 1). However, there are evidences of the existence of these cells elsewhere in the adult brain, including the cortex (Feliciano et al., 2012) or the hypothalamus (Lee et al., 2012). These precursor cells are quiescent (usually non-dividing) that can be divided into different stimuli. When this happens, there are two possibilities; A) their division generates intermediate progenitor cells (IPC), which then gives rise to neurons; B) whereas if they come from astroglial progenitors, the result will be the generation of glial. The process of formation of neurons through intermediate progenitors is a longer process, as there are different types of intermediate progenitors known as 2a, 2ab, 2b and type 3 according to their stage of development and expressing markers, whereas astroglial progenitors have comparatively a lower proliferative capacity. However, intermediate progenitors send numerous processes before being symmetrically divided, motivated by local sensing factors (Noctor et al., 2004). The NSCs don’t only come from the nervous system but can be derived from embryonic stem cells (ES cells) or reprogrammed fibroblasts (Wernig et al., 2008). Different kinds of neural progenitor/stem cells basis have been established on their characteristics. There are two different populations known like: neural stem cells which show glial characteristics (Radial Glia Cells, RGLs), and intermediate progenitors (IPC). The latter are also divided into other types (2a, 2ab, 2b, 3). The classification of these cells and the markers used to identify them has created much controversy among scientists. However, there is a large consensus that the astrocytic NSC have many features, such as the expression of glial fibrilar acidic protein (GFAP), which has made us change our perception of glia (Merkle et al., 2006). Other studies (Kempermann et al., 2003) support the interpretation that radial astrocytes have a role as primary progenitors.

    Keywords: Hippocampus, Neurogenesis, Memory
  • Dejene Tadesse Banjaw *, Tigist Germen Wolde Pages 16-18
    Objective

    Chamomile is one of the commercial medicinal plants produced in Ethiopia. Besides, it is priority crop in national aromatic and medicinal plants research project in the country. As chamomile production affected by production techniques this activity was conducted to identify the effect of seed storage duration and seedling raising methods on its seedling establishment.

    Methods

    The experiment was conducted during 2015 at rain feed condition at wondogenet agricultural research center, south Ethiopia using randomized complete block design in three replications. Zero months, three month, six month, nine month and twelve month stored seeds were combined with direct sowing, seed bed raised and pot raised seedlings resulting in a total of fifteen treatments. Data on plant height, flower yield per plant, flower yield per hectare, number of flower per plant and average weight of ten flowers were collected and tested statistically.

    Results

    Direct sowing and pot raised methods resulted in lowest and highest value in all parameters respectively. Least and largest values range from 35.37 to 60.08 for plant height, 43.88 to 51.77 for flower yield per plant, 4.87 to 5.74 for flower yield per hectare, 244.99 to 383.71 for number flower per plant and ranges from 1.51 to 1.57 for average 10 flower weight. One year old seedlings resulted in higher mean value for plant height, flower yield per plant, flower yield per hectare and average weight of 10 flowers. Zero month treatment resulted in the least values for flower yield per plant, flower yield per hectare and number of flower per plant parameters. However, even though seedling raising method resulted in very highly significant results in plant height and in number of flower per plant, in all seed storage durations treatments there was none significance results for all testing parameters. Besides, the interaction of seed storage duration and seedling raising method treatments were resulted in none significant result for all testing parameters.

    Keywords: Chamomile, Seed storage, Seedling raising method
  • Nebret Tadesse Btru *, Aynalem Gebere, Hordofa Melkamu, Lule Belistie Pages 19-26
    Objective

    An experiment was conducted at Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center in the production season of 2013/14 and 2014/15 with the objective of identifying the best combination of intra and inter-row spacing for optimum plant population density of stevia.

    Methods

    The experiment was conducted using five intra-row spacing (20cm, 25cm, 30cm, 35cm, and 40cm) and three inter-row spacing (40cm, 50cm and 60cm) with total treatment combination of fifteen that were laid out in factorial RCBD design with three replications. In 2013/14 cropping season the maximum fresh leaf weight (19467kg ha-1), fresh above-ground biomass (25002kg ha-1) and dry leaf weigh (7834kg ha-1) were obtained from the combined pacing of 20cm intra-row and 40cm inter-row spacing. In 2014/15 cropping season, the maximum fresh leaf weight (16470.1 kg ha-1) and (14433.9kg ha-1),  fresh above-ground biomass (27547kg ha-1) and (23619.8kg ha-1)  and dry leaf weight (4773.7 kg ha-1) and (4314.0 kg ha-1) were obtained from 20cm intra-row and 40cm inter-row spacing respectively.

    Results

    Although the study showed that the highest Stevia herbage yield per unit area was recorded from the combined spacing of 20cm intra-row and 40cm inter-row spacing, considering the difficult condition we met during weeding and watering, we, therefore; suggest that the best combined intra-row and inter-row spacing for Stevia is 25cm x 40cm to attain maximum yield under appropriate management conditions at Wondo genet and similar locations.

    Keywords: Stevia, Inter-row, Intra- row, Spacing, Plant population
  • Basazinew Degu Gebremedin *, Bizuayehu Tesfaye Asfaw Pages 27-34
    Objective
    A field experiment was conducted to assess the optimum inter- and intra-row spacing on growth, yield and yield component of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in 2014/15 cropping season at Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center experimental site (at Wondo Genet station).
    Methods
    Two inter-row spacings (60 and 90 cm) and three intra-row spacings (30, 60 and 90 cm) were evaluated using two varieties, WG-Hibiscus-Jamaica and WG-Hibiscus-Sudan on a plot size of 3.6 m length x 4.2 m width. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement with 12 treatments in three replications. SAS (version 9) software was used to compute the analysis of variance.
    Results
    The results revealed that varieties differed markedly in most of the studied parameters. Of the two varieties tested, variety WG-Hibiscus-Jamaican showed greater plant height, number of branches per plant, number of leaves/plant, leaf area, leaf area index, days to 50 % flowering, days to 95 % maturity, number of capsules/plant, fresh calyx yield/plant, dry calyx yield/plant, seed yield/plant, total number of capsules/ha, total fresh calyx yield/ha, total dry calyx yield/ha and total seed yield/ha. In contrast, variety WG-Hibiscus-Sudan matures earlier and had heavier 1000 seed weight than variety WG-Hibiscus-Jamaican. Number of capsules/plant, fresh and dry calyx yield/plant were influenced by interaction effects of variety; inter- and intra-row spacing. Moreover, fresh and dry calyx yield/plant, total fresh and dry calyx yield/ha were influenced by interaction effects of variety, inter- and intra-row spacing.
    Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa L, Inter-row spacing, Intra-row spacing, Fresh calyx yield, Dry calyx yield
  • Bethlehem Melese *, Nigussie Dechassa Pages 35-40
    Objective
    A field experiment was conducted in order to study the effect of phosphorus and manure application on agronomic performance and seed yield of groundnut.
    Methods
    Factorial combination of two groundnut varieties (‘Werer 962’ and ‘Oldhale’), Three rates of phosphorus (0, 90 and 180 kg P2O5 ha-1) and three rates of manure (0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1) were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replication.
    Results
    The combined application of 180 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 10 ton manure ha-1 resulted in the highest number of pods per plant and seed yield. The increase in number of pods per plant and seed yield at the highest combined application rates of the two fertilizers were 40 and 60%, compared to the control of the two fertilizers. Generally, the present study has shown that the integrated use of manure (10 ton ha-1) and inorganic phosphorus (180 kg P2O5 ha-1) fertilizer resulted in highest seed yield of groundnut compared to the application of either fertilizer alone.
    Keywords: Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L), Manure, Phosphorus, Seed yield
  • Ade Komariah *_Roberto A Tatara_Del A Bustami Pages 41-47
    Objective
    The level of dental and oral hygiene on elementary school age children is very low, so it can be increasing the incidence of dental and oral diseases which caused by various microorganisms. Mouthwash can keeping dental and oral hygiene, but many commercial mouthwash is still used alcohol as their ingredients, which can be giving side effects, therefore, we still needed used alternative mouthwash, which made from nano chitosan and nano calcium, derived from nature Xylotrupes Gideon.
    Methods
    This is a experimental study with pre and post test control group design using total plate count method. Total is  27 subjects, aged 9 years. Processing data is done by statistical test Chi Square, and one way ANOVA with software of SPSS 23.
    Results
    Results showed that serum concentration of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with the fluid from three follicles size categories (Small, Medium and large follicles in CL+ and CL- ovaries). The differences between follicle size categories in CL- ovaries were only significant for concentrations of glucose and triglyceride. The FF concentration of glucose and cholesterol in same follicle size categories (Small, Medium and large follicles in CL+ and CL- ovaries) were significant (P ≤ 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Measurement results the quantity of bacteria suggested that decreased of bacteria colonies before and after gargle, on negative control  30%-73%, positive control 33%-100%, the 250ppm concentration is 95% -100%, 500ppm and 750 ppm concentration is 100%. Nanoparticles of chitosan and calcium-based  mouthwash formulation from X. gideon has the ability to reduce oral bacterial colonies quantity among elementary school age children. More high concentrations of mouthwash formulations which are used more low quantity of oral bacteria colonies.
    Keywords: Mouthwash, Nano chitosan, Nano calcium, Bacterial quantity
  • Ranbeer Kumar Singh, Farhan Usmani, Syed Shahzadul Haque *, Md. Tanweeruddin, Baban Kumar Singh Pages 48-51
    Objective

    Meningitis is life-threatening condition and examination of the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may not give a precise diagnosis and prognosis of different types of meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is still a very common problem especially in many developing countries. The aims of study are to estimate the importance and significance of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), protein and sugar in CSF of different types of meningitis.

    Methods

    A total of 160 cases, aged between 1 month and 60 years, including patients with bacterial meningitis (n=50), pyogenic meningitis (n=46), viral meningitis (n=24) and a control group (n=40), were  analyzed on the basis of data from the initial clinical examinations.

    Results

    Significant increase in LDH level (P<0.001) were observed in the test group when compared to the control group. The LDH activity was significantly elevated in the CSF and serum (p < 0.001) in cases of pyogenic (PM) as well as tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Bacterial meningitis is more common than non bacterial meningitis.  The enzymatic activity of LDH although significantly raised in PM compared to TBM but there was no cutoff level to differentiate them. The LDH level did rise quite significantly in pyogenic meningitis.

    Keywords: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Meningitis