فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue: 3, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • Pedram Mirsepehr, Iman Asheghian, Mostafa Hajinasrollah, Seyed Reza Javadi, Ali Reza Bashiri, Mohamad Reza Esmailinejad, Hamid Taghipour *, Seyed Mohamade Mojtahedzade Pages 217-221
    Objective

    A secondary ectopic pregnancy is defined as continuing development of a fetus in the abdominal cavity after rupture of the uterine wall, which may be associated with a history of trauma.

    Methods

    A cat was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of Tehran with history of anorexia and vaginal bleeding. In clinical examination some masses werepalpated in abdominal cavity so the patient wasreferred to radiology and sonography for definite diagnoses. In ultrasonography examination three dead fetuses were detectedoutside the uterus. In US it so appeared that gestational sacs did not cover the fetuses and there was a rupture in cranial part of right uterine horn that made the case highly suspected to ectopic pregnancy caused by trauma.  

    Results

    Therefore the cat was prepared for aseptic surgery and anesthetized with isofulorane. After incision of the lineaalba three fetuses were seen outside the uterus that wereattached to abdominal wall (left and right wall) and mesentery. There was no sign ofgestational sac to cover the fetuses. The three fetuses were bluntly dissected from the attachments and all conspicuous vessels were ligated and the fetuses were removed. Ovariohysterectomy was also performed to prevent recurrence. Recovery was uneventful.

    Keywords: Ectopic pregnancy, Gestational sac, Fetus, Cat
  • Goon Jo Aan *, Mohd Shahril Aszrin Zainudin, Noralisa Abdul Karim, Choor Chee Ken, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah Pages 222-230
    Objective
    Oxidative stress that damages proteins result in aging and age related diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on the expression of proteins in oxidative stress-induced caenohabditis elegans (C.elegans) which has homologous genes to humans.
    Methods
    The worms were treated with TRF prior to, after and continuously in separate groups upon induction of oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide. The expression of proteins were analyzed with 2D-gel electrophoresis and identified with mass spectrophotometry. Results showed that induction of oxidative stress and TRF treatment separately modulated the expression of 11 proteins. Pre-treatment of TRF altered the expression of 5 proteins while post-treatment and a continuous treatment of TRF in oxidative stress-induced worms affected the expression of 9 and 10 proteins respectively.
    Results
    From these differentially expressed proteins, a total of 12 were successfully identified. TRF was found to increase the expression of glutathione-S transferase but decreased the expression of mRNA cap guanine-N7 methyltransferase, inorganic pyro-phosphatase, enoyle-CoA hydratase, vitellogenin 6 precursor, cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinase 4 precursor, triosephosphatase isomerase, tubulin-specific chaperon B and putative D-amino acid oxidase. In conclusion, TRF modulated the expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, proteolysis and biosynthesis of mRNA in C.elegans.
    Keywords: Development of cities, Green space, Promotion of environmental
  • Vahid Najarnezhad*, Siamak Asri Rezaei Pages 231-236
    Objective

    It has been shown that deferasirox can reduce blood and tissues lead content in animal models. In this study the effect of deferasirox alone or combined with glycine as an antioxidant was evaluated in chronic cadmium toxicosis in rat.

    Methods

    Male wistar albino rats were exposed to 200 ppm cadmium in the drinking water for 3 weeks and treated thereafter with deferasirox (140 mg/kg), glycine (1000 mg/kg) and deferasirox (140 mg/kg) + glycine (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavages, twice daily for 7 days. The effect of these treatments on blood, liver, kidney, bone and testis cadmium values and parameters indicative of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity in blood) were investigated.  

    Results

    Deferasirox was found to be effective in reducing cadmium level in blood, liver and kidney and glycine reduced cadmium levels in bone. Individual administration of deferasirox or glycine mitigated the effects of cadmium on some indicative parameters of oxidative stress in blood. But the best results were obtained following co-administration of both drugs.

    Keywords: Cadmium, Oxidative stress, Glycine, Deferasirox, Rat
  • A.O. Adekeye *, C.O. Akintayo, L.A. Enye, O.O. Ogendengbe, A.I. Adeniyi Pages 237-240
    Objective
    This study was to evaluate the effect of Vitamin C on the histology and histochemistry of the prefrontal cortex of ethanol-induced rats.
    Methods
    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. Ethical approval was obtained from the University’s ethical committee. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. Rats in group A= free access to normal saline. Rats in group B= treated with 4.25 ml ethanol. Rats in group C= treated with 100 mg/kg Vit. C. Rats in group D= pre-treated with 100 mg/kg Vit. C followed by 4.25 ml ethanol. Rats in group E=co-treated with 100 mg/kg of Vit. C and 4.25ml ethanol.  Rats in group F=post-treated with 4.25ml ethanol followed by 100 mg/kg Vit.C. 24hrs after the last administration, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation: the fraction of the brain for tissue histochemistry was fixed in formol calcium and later processed for Heamotoxylin and Eosin with Cresyl fast violent staining techniques and the other fraction meant for enzyme and/or marker histochemistry was processed accordingly for some neurochemical indices for oxidative stress.
    Results
    The markers of oxidative stress were statistically increased in the rats in group D, E and F compared with the rats in group B. There is a significant reduction of TBARS when compared with ethanol induced group (group B). The histological profile of the prefrontal cortex of rats in group A and C were preserved while that of the rats in group B displayed distorted cytoarchitecture profile with a marked increase in apoptotic bodies, lateral deviation of neurons and a marked increase in the activities of oxidative markers.
    Keywords: Ethanol, Apoptosis, Oxidative markers, Prefrontal cortex, Neurodegeneration
  • Zohre Zohari Moafi, Arash Chaichi Nosrati *, Omid Lakzaie Azar Pages 241-244
    Objective
    Aflatoxin G1 and G2, are highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi sampling was done according to "CBS" instructions from indoor and outdoor stations.
    Methods
    In HPLC measuring, we first purified our sample of all  Aflatoxins, We used imonoaffinty columns, Finally the device compared average of the results of the samples curve areas with average of the results of standard curve areas and showed the effective material value based on ppb. Geographical distribution of 107 mentioned samples and The frequency of subgenuses  in different regions, The minimum, average and maximum amount of toxins, The average amount of produced toxin in culture medium were determined.
    Results
    In comparison, the average of aflatoxin  G1 and G2with HPLC  method in biomass the highest examined amount is in the range of -0/5 -0/5 ppb which is produced by fungi such as A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus. In biomass, the correlation between aflatoxin  G1 and G2  measured by HPLC  method isn’t any reverse relation and meaningful numeral differences. In culture medium, checking the average value of aflatoxin  G1 and G2which is measured by HPLC method, we can see a correlation and there is a meaningful numeral difference.
    Keywords: pattern, aflatoxin, Aspergillus, Northern iran
  • Amir Hossein Alikhani, Mojtaba Molaie *, Shahin Amiri Pages 244-250
    Anxiety and depression are the most frequently diagnosed psychological diseases showing a high co-morbidity. They have a severe impact on the lives of the persons concerned. The physical, mental and social benefits of exercise have been well-documented. In Iran, mental disorders are one of the largest sources of disease burden. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders
    Keywords: Exercise, mental health, brain
  • Seyede Saeedeh Mosallanejad *, Hadi Tavakkoli, Sajedeh Salandari Pages 251-256
    Objective
    In recent years, amino acids are used in veterinary medicine for many purposes. They injected into hatching eggs to increase chick body weight and performance at hatch, but the adverse effects of amino acids have always been a major concern. There is scant information available about the pathological alterations of amino acids in the chicken embryonated eggs. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathological alterations of triaminohexanoic acid for chicken embryo.
    Methods
    Fertile chicken eggs were divided into two equal treatment groups as follows: phosphate buffered saline-injected group and triaminohexanoic-injected group whose individuals were injected with a triaminohexanoic acid solution at a dosage of 10 mg per Kg egg-weight. Embryos were re-incubated post-treatment and allowed to develop until day 18 after which; they were examined for macroscopic lesions.
    Results
    Results showed that embryos were normal in all treatment groups. Macroscopically, no lesions were also diagnosed in tissues. Based on macroscopic findings, it is concluded that triaminohexanoic acid at above-mentioned concentration is not toxic for the chicken embryo. Therefore, triaminohexanoic acid egg-injection can be used for increasing chick performance at hatch without any adverse effect.
    Keywords: Chicken, embryo, Histopathology, Triaminohexanoic acid
  • Muhammad Haris Lucky *, Saeeda Baig Pages 257-262
    Objective

    The role of vitamin D has soared to a pinnacle in recent years with functions affecting 229 human genes linked to cardiovascular, autoimmune, humoral, pulmonary and neurological diseases. Relationship between obesity and vitamin D has not as yet been fully established. The objective of the study was to determine the possible relationship between Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the risk of obesity.

    Methods

    Total 100 subjects (50 obese and 50 normal) were selected. Oral rinse samples were collected (between 18-45 years of age) after an informed consent. DNA was extracted and PCR was performed using VDR-Fok1 primers. A 256bp amplified products was visualized by Gel Doc Hero Lab software (Germany).

    Results

    The results of VDR-Fok1 gene polymorphism showed that out of 50 obese subjects 40%were normal (FF=20), 54%were Heterozygous (Ff = 27) and 6% were mutated (ff= 3). Out of 50 non-obese subjects 84% were normal (FF= 42), 16% were Heterozygous (Ff= 8) and none were mutated (ff= 0%). The statistical analysis results between the ff genotype and obesity were not significant. The ff genotype of VDR may be associated with obesity. More studies with larger sample size are required to find a stronger correlation.

    Keywords: Vitamin D, Obesity, VDR, Fok1 Polymorphism, PCR-RFLP
  • Sareh Akhavan *, Leila Modiri, Arash Chaychi Nosrati Pages 263-269
    Objective
    Molds produce poisons called mycotoxins,OTA is one of the most relevant mycotoxins which is generally produced by Aspergillus, its presence in food and feed products being regulated in many countries.
    Methods
    From the first May to the last October2011,sampling was done according to"CBS" instructions for indoor and outdoor situations. Isolates were identified and recorded in the laboratory on fungal biomass prepared a sample group and crude cell extracts were prepared in the laboratory and Ochratoxin was produced by fungal isolates in cell extracts was measured by using ELISA.
    Results
    Significance rate is higher than 0.05.Thus the changes in Ochratoxin production don’t depend on various levels of geographic area ,it can be stated that in the Aspergillus species studied in this geographic area,it is expected to observe Ochratoxin production in 2.5-5ppb range.
    Discussion
    According to the fact that maximum limit toxin in food stocks is 5 ppb,it must be greatly noticed into consideration.While it must be taken greatly into attention that some of isolated studied in the area produced the toxin in great amounts (20-25ppb).That may be dangerous for health significance of correlation between the toxin rate and the original province where sampling of studied isolates was performed is 100% for Guilan and Mazandaran and 99% for Golestan provinces.It may be stated that it is not possible to find as specific area with considered field conditions to be the growth area or origin of a given Aspergillus species with a given density of their presence or their dependence to a area or dependence of their classification the section of subgenus groups in the standard rules for classification of Aspergilli.
    Keywords: Ochratoxin, Aspergillus, Toxigenic activity, Biomass, ELISA
  • Maryam Teimouri * Pages 270-274
    Objective
    The growing resistance of different bacteria to antibiotic chemical drugs have become the global issue. This investigation is the first study of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos. The current research was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effects of essential oils and hydroalcoholic extract  extracted from aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos, native species.
    Methods
    The chemical composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the flowering aerial parts of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. was assessed by the GC and GC/MS analysis. Twentynine different compounds, constituting 86.61% of the oil, were recorded, among which the major compounds were α-Pinene (15.5%), Linalool (11.7%), Sandaracopimaradiene (5.9%) and Safranal (8.8%). The invitro antibacterial activity of the extracted essential oil was evaluated against some Gram positive and negative bacteria.  
    Results
    According to the obtained results from the current research, the essential oil of Vaccinium arctostaphylos showed the antibacterial activities against most of the bacteria tested, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumonia, contrasted to Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast to the essential oil, the hydroalcoholic extract of Vaccinium arctostaphylos did not display the antibacterial effects against the mentioned microorganisms.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, essential oil, Secondary Metabolites
  • Hadi Taleshi Ahangari *, Ali Ghanbari, Nasroallah Moradi Kor Pages 275-284
    Objective

    Different categories are available for estimating of radiation dose. Radioisotopes with the same energy and almost the same physical properties have similar effects. Monte Carlo technique is a computerized method based on mathematical simulation of physical processes. The main purpose of this study is to show that beta particles are not able to penetrate deep into the water. also difference between  GATE and MCNP code is not significant.

    Methods

    In this study, a digital form of the cylinder mathematical phantom was constructed and used with GATE and MCNPX to calculate the phantom dose. The voxel-based anthropomorphic Zubal phantom was used to model a typical adult male. The equivalent effective dose derived for the electrons of Er-169, P-32, and Y-90 with GATE and MCNPX. The results were compared to the HOTSPOT data.

    Results

    The GATE and MCNPX difference was negligible. However, difference at this level is acceptable and we can conclude that GATE produces almost similar results as MCNPX. In this study, we tried to set the physical framework, calculate the penetration depth via dosimetry, using the results of the two simulator codes. In the first part, we applied the results of the HotSpot dosimetry software for validation.

    Conclusion

    The GATE and MCNPX difference was negligible.

    Keywords: Monte-Carlo method, Radioisotopes, pharmacology, Beta particles, Radiation dosage, Software validation
  • Mohammad Hatami, Mahnaz Fadayi * Pages 285-290
    Objective
    Malfunction in the intimacy, marital conflict and early maladaptive schemas have always been considered as one of the principal reasons of couples’ divorce. Employment of effective therapies may help in the improvement of couples’ problems and decrease of divorce.
    Methods
    The present research employed a single-subject research design and selected 3 women suing for divorce from among all the couples referred to family court centers. The research tools included Young schema Questionnaire Long form, Marital Conflict Questionnaire, Intimacy in Marriage Questionnaire and Marital Conflict Questionnaire.
    Results
    Results indicated that schema therapy is effective in the increase of intimacy, decrease of conflict and early maladaptive schemas among the women who have sued for divorce.
    Keywords: Schema therapy, Marital conflicts, Intimacy, Divorce
  • Mohammad Ali Zarei *, Mina Poursharifi Pages 291-296
    Objective
    Alpha-glucosidase, as a carbohydratase catalyses the liberation of alpha-glucose from the nonreducing end of some carbohydrates from foods in digestive tract.  Consequently, retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes is one of the therapeutic approaches to decrease the postprandial hyperglycemia. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to natural products like plants, as a reliable source for bioactive compounds.The aim of this study was to find new potent inhibitors for Alpha-glucosidase among plant extracts.
    Methods
    Hexan extracts of 60 plants species were screened for their Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/mL concentration. Acarbose, dissolved in buffer, was used as a positive control. Every experiment was done in triplicate.Descurania Sophia (L.) Webb & Berth, Fumaria vailantii Loisel, Ferula Haussknechti Wolf ex Rech,Haplophyllum acutifolium (DC.)G.Don, Isatis cappadociaca Desv., Eremostachys laevigata Bunge, Silene aucheriana Boiss exhibited more than 60% alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity..
    Results
    Among them, Descurania Sophia, Fumaria vailantii and Ferula haussknechti exhibited significant alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.9 µg/ml, 24.55 µg/ml and 2.71 µg/ml, respectively. Because of its high inhibitory activity and low IC50, Descurania Sophia extract would be interesting for further studies
    Keywords: Alpha-glucosidase, Inhibitor, Plant extract, Hexane, Diabetes Mellitus
  • Mohammad Hadi Jorenush *, Mohsen Rajabi Pages 297-302
    Objective
    Germination is one of the most important stages of plants growth that affected by environmental stresses, especially drought and salinity.
    Methods
    In order to study of Artichoke germination under different levels of salinity and drought, two separate experiments were performed. The four levels of salinity by NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 mM) with three replications and five levels of drought by PEG (0, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) with three replications were used based on completely randomized design.
    Results
    Results showed that drought and salinity stresses reduced significantly germination rate, shoot length, root dry Weight and shoot dry Weight. In salinity condition, there was insignificant difference between treatments for germination percent, but in drought condition, there was significant difference. Moisture range optimum for germination was determined non-stress to 20% PEG concentration. It seemed that among traits, shoot length was more sensitive than others to salinity and drought stresses. It can be concluded that Artichoke can tolerate salinity up to 150 Mm, but in drought conditions it cannot germinate in 25% PEG.
    Keywords: Artichoke, Drought, germination, Salinity
  • Arezou Khaleghi *, Maryam Omidi Najafabadi Pages 303-308
    Objective

    This study is applied of descriptive correlative type run as field study using Billings and Moos (1981) standard methods questionnaires for stress coping and self-efficacy ideas of Sherer et al (1981).

    Methods

    In this research, the census sampling has been done to select the students from Tehran based Science and Research Department of Islamic Azad University Natural Resources and Agricultural Faculty. The study statistical community consists of all graduate students (n=85) in extension and education of agricultural training and rural development fields in Tehran based Science and Research Department of Islamic Azad University Natural Resources and Agricultural Faculty. Regarding the student community being limited in the area of master level extension and education of agricultural training and rural development, all of them have been sampled by census method, out of whom 76 have been accessible. Data statistical analysis performed using computer software SPSS17.

    Results

    The results derived from the independent variables influencing the dependent ones indicate a meaningful positive relationship between problem solving focus and motion focus and self-efficacy. The results extracted from the collective effect of the independent variables on the dependent one by multi regression imply the positive effect of emotion focus on the self-efficacy of students of Tehran Science and Research Department of Islamic Azad University Natural Resources and Agricultural Faculty

    Keywords: Stress, Stress management, self-efficacy, mental health, Islamic Azad University Natural Resources
  • Aynalem Gebre *, Bizuayehu Tesfaye, Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun Pages 309-315
    Objective
    Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) is a perennial root crop that belongs to Araceace family.  It is widely cultivated as a staple food in Africa, Asia and pacific Islands. Despite its importance, there is limited information on many aspects of the crop. In order to obtain data that can support improved and sustainable taro production, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of corm size and plant population density on the growth and corm yield of taro (variety Boloso-1) was investigated during 2007 cropping season.
    Methods
    The experiment consisted of five-corm size (50, 51-100, 101-150, 151-200 and 201-250 g) and five levels of planting densities (15037, 29629, 45454, 60606 and 74074 plants/ha) arranged in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications.
    Results
    The results indicated that corm size had a highly significant (p<0.001) influence  on  plant height, leaf number, shoot number , leaf area index, corm and cormels number/plant, corm and cormels yield/ ha of taro. All the parameters were increased with increased in corm size. Plant population density exert significant influence (p<0.001) on all the studied parameter except on plant height and number of leaf/plant. The interaction effect of corm size and population density was none significant on all the studied parameters. The highest average corm yield/ha (44.07 t/ha) was achieved at a population of 60,606 plants/ ha using seed corms having 51-100 g. These could be recommended for farmers in production area similar with the study site.
    Keywords: Corm size, Ethiopia. Growth, Plant population, Density, Taro, Yield
  • Mohammad Mehdi Esmaili *, Yadullah Nikpour Ghanavati, Kamal Ghanemi Pages 316-320
    Objective
    The objective of this research is to examine PCB compounds in the Persian Gulf in the Southern Pars area.
    Methods
    In the research, 6 stations were sampled: Asalouyeh Port, Kangan Site, Mehr Petro Kima Petrochemical, 4th Refinery in Southern Pasr, Taheri Port and Aria Sasol Polymer. To sample water in the stations determined, one-liter sampling bottles of dark glass were used. In each station, samples were taken on three points. After recording sampling time and place, samples, with no adding any material, were transferred to the laboratory for measurements. PCB compound measurements were made by a GC-MAS apparatus. Limit of detection (LOD) was 71 pg/lit. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare PCB concentrations in water, as well as compare contamination rate in different stations. All above steps were performed by the SPSS software.
    Results
    The results showed that average PCB compounds in Asalouyeh Port, Kangan Site, Mehr Petro Kimia Petrochemical, 4th Refinery in Southern Pars, Taheri Port and Aria Sasol Polymer were 99.3, 105.5, 110, 117, 123 and 130 Ng/L, respectively. Comparison of the six study stations indicated that the station of Aria Sasol Polymer was the most polluted and had the highest contamination.
    Keywords: PCB compounds, Persian Gulf, Southern Pars