فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 1, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 32
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  • Mehdi Hassanshahian * Pages 1-17
    Changes in the microbial community in response to catastrophic oil spills in marine and fresh water environments have been well documented. Molecular methods provide tools for analyzing the entire bacterial community, covering also those bacteria that have not been cultured in the laboratory. In this study, four different microcosms were set up containing sediments collected from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. One from each location was experimentally contaminated with crude oil and the other left for control. PCR-DGGE analyses were used for understanding the effect of crude oil on marine microbial community in the sediments. The results of this research show that after oil pollution biodiversity decrease in contaminated ecosystems in compare to uncontaminated ecosystems as H index was 3.56 in uncontaminated sediments but it was decrease to 2.7 after contamination. Also different ecosystems have resembled in microbial community after contamination. These results confirmed that crude oil induce major shifts in the composition and biodiversity of marine microbial community in the sediments.
    Keywords: Caspian Sea, Community, Contamination, Crude oil, DGGE, Persian Gulf
  • Mehdi Hassanshahian *, Zeinab Bayat, Saeide Saeidi, Yasub Shiri Pages 18-24
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Trachyspermum ammi, essential oil against different kinds of microorganisms by microtiter plate method. All 36 isolates of (12 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 12 E.coli and 12 Staphylococcus aureus) isolated from urine culture of hospitalized patients (Amir Al-Momenin Hospital, Zabol, south-eastern Iran) suffered from urinary tract infections were evaluated. In this study, the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi obtained by hydrodistillation for 2.5-3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The results showed E. coli isolates were resistance to 4 of the antibiotics including ceftazidime (50%) cefixime (41.6%), tetracyclin(75%), erythromycin(58.3%). However k. pneumonia isolates were resistance to 3 of the agent including ceftazidime(33.3%) ,cefixime(58.3%), erythromycin(75%) and S.aureus isolates  were resistance to 6 of the agent including cefixime (33.3%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol(41.66%), penicillin(50%), oxacillin(3.3%), ceftazidime(66.6%) and vancomycin(8.3%)  and the MIC value was also determined against all the tested bacteria. The highest MIC values of essential oil were determined 100ppm against E. coli and highest MIC value for K.pneumoniae was 250ppm. In conclusion, it seems that Trachyspermum ammi essential oil could inhibit the growth of all of the tested bacteria.
    Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Human pathogen, Trachyspermum ammi
  • Ehsan Kazemi * Pages 25-33
    The list of subfamily Catocalinae (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae)of Iran is updated.  Until now, 111 species belonging to 22 genera of this subfamily are recorded. Also, the Iranian records in different provinces are presented.
    Keywords: Anumeta, Catocalinae, Catocala, Clytie, Drasteria, Iran
  • Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Parviz Rahbarian, Afshar Fallah Imani Pages 34-42
    Field trials with Ficus benjamina L.were conducted at the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University Azad Jiroft in 2012 growth seasons. The aim of this work is to study the effect of foliar application with gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyladenine (BA) at 0, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 on the vegetative growth and Photosynthetic pigments of Ficus benjamina plants. The obtained results show, number leaves  was in a plant in applications of 200 mg l-1 GA3 +100 mg l-1 BA, 200 mg l-1 GA3+200 mg l-1 of  BA  and respectively, with average of  133.25 and 130.5  that  they did not  show  a meaniful diference, statically. maximum Length of lateral shoots and Number of shoot/plant was obtained in applications of 200 mg l-1 GA3+200 mg l-1 BA with average of  30.74 cm and 21.75. The  results  show, by increasing concentration of  regulators of  growth, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and shoot/plant, leaf area, Length of lateral shoots, SPAD and Photosynthetic pigments is increased. highest value of chlorophyll  of  a, b was total and sum pigments in level of 200 mg l-1 GA3,100 mg l-1 GA3+200 mg l-1 GA3, 100 mg l-1 GA3+200 mg l-1 GA3 and100 mg l-1 GA3+200 mg l-1 GA3 with average of 10.56, 5.81, 16.39 and 19.59 g l-1.
    Keywords: Benzyl adenine (BA), Ficus benjamina, Gibberellic acid (GA3), Leaf area, Photosynthetic pigments
  • Zakaria Sharifian *, Ali Akbar Maghsoudi Mood, Neda Mohamadi Pages 43-50
    In a country like Iran, where soil organic matter is less than 1% and in most cases even less than 0.5 %, Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a permanent and inexpensive source of organic matter. Various experiments have indicated that applications of compost improve plant health, yield and nutritional quality. However, the quality of the compost determines the growth and the development of plants. The purpose of this study was evaluating the effect of different ratio of organic compost from urban waste on the growth of two Ornamental plants, Marigold (Calendula officinalis Monch.) and Daisy (Bellis Perennis L.). Five treatments (potting-mixes) were used, soil (Clay, Silt and sand with 1:1:1 ratios) (as a control),the soil with  25% compost, the soil with  50% compost, the soil with  75% compost and 100% compost. Fresh and dry-weight of shoots and roots, plant height, and chlorophyll content were measured. The results of this study confirm the beneficial treatment to improve the growth parameters is 25% and 50% compost in alendula officinalis and 25%compost in Bellis perennis.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste (MSW), Calendula officinalis Monch, Bellis Perennis L
  • Seyed Mohammad Ali Vakili Shahrbabaki * Pages 51-62
    In order to examine the effect of the quantity of Nitrogen fertilizer and bush density on vegetative and productive function of henna medicinal plant (Lawsonia inermis)  factorial experimentation in the form of block plan was carried in three stages in agriculture research center in south of kerman  province in corp of 2012. The first factor containing Nitrogen fertilizer in 4 levels including 50,100,150,200 kg net Nitrogen fertilizer and the second one as bush density in three level including 110000-160000-210000, bushes were examined. The measured traits included weight of fresh stem, stem, height weight of dried stem and leave, and total dried and fresh weight and all of productive traits including weight of fresh and dried flower, number fruits in bush, number of seeds in a fruit, number of seeds in frui weight of 1000 seeds and function of  seeds. The results indicate that that effect of bush density, nitrogen fertilizer qualities and contrast effect between two factor on weight of fresh and dried leave Statistically was in to concern up to 1%, but nitrogen fertilizer shows no difference in statistical respect on this quality, nitrogen fertilizer effect on all of productive qualities except number of seeds in fruit Was up to 5% fruitless as the main consumption of henna is its leaves. Finally with density of the bush 160000 to 210000 bushes in 1 hectare and consuming 50kg nitrogen fertilizer with function of dried leaves weight up to 3.54, 3.34 tons in one hectare is recommended. Even though consumption of 100kg nitrogen fertilizer in hektar resulting of maximum effect on dried weight.
    Keywords: Lawsonia inermis, Dried leave, Vegetative organ, Productive organ, Seed function
  • Amin Hasani, Ashraf Kariminik *, Khosrow Issazadeh Pages 63-75
    The Streptomycetes are gram positive bacteria with a filamentous form that present in a wide variety of soil including composts, water and plants. The most characteristic of Streptomycetes is the ability to produce secondary metabolites such as antibiotics. They produce over two-thirds of the clinically useful antibiotics of natural origin (e.g., neomycin and chloramphenicol. Another characteristic of Streptomycetes is making of an extensive branching substrate and aerial mycelium.Carbon and nitrogen sources, oxygen, pH, temperature, ions and some precursors can affect production of antibiotics. This review also addresses the different methods to study the antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces sp. Because of increasing microbial resistance to general antibiotics and inability to control infectious disease has given an impetus for continuous search of novel antibioticsall the word.
    Keywords: Streptomyces, soil, pH, Antibiotics
  • Mehdi Hassanshahian *, Mohammad Mehdi Yaghoobi Pages 76-85
    Alcanivorax borkumensis is a marine bacterium that has ability to grow on limited substrates that mainly is alkanes. The ability to use wide range of hydrocarbons is advantage of this bacterium to other marine community bacteria. A. borkumensis have two genetic systems for alkane biodegradation. The First system is alkane hydroxylase (alk-B1and alk-B2) and the second system is  cytochrome P450. Until now there is not any report on cloning of cytochrome P450 gene of A. borkumensis. In this study cytochrome P450 gene from A. borkumensis was cloned. At first P450 gene was cloned in pBluescript plasmid by blunt cloning and insertion was confirmed by colony PCR.  Then P450 gene was cloned in PET-26 expression vector and finally, IPTG induced gene expression in E.coli BL-21 bacterium. It was shown that longer induction time led to more expression level. The recombinant enzyme has difference absorbance in 450 nm that confirmed the activity of this recombinant enzyme.
    Keywords: Alkanes, Biocatalyst, Biodegradation, Cloning, Protein Expression
  • Dawood Mirzabagheri *, Mohadeseh Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Kbarian, Somayeh Derijani, Sahereh Sadradini Pages 86-99
    In this study, Penicillium digitatum, the causes of green mould disease of orange fruits, were isolated from infected fruit in Bam city. Antifungal activity of three different plant essential oils Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Zataria multiflora, Myrtus communis at 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm concentration, have been evaluated. MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and growth inhibition zone diameters analyzed as factorial experiment with 3 replications in a completely randomized design by MSTATc software. Essential oil Zataria multiflora Due to having Thymol and carvacrol as the main component has an important role in the antifungal properties.The essential oil of Myrtus has been shown the weakest antimicrobial effect.
    Keywords: Anti-fungal, Essential oils, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Myrtus communis, Penicillium, Zataria multiflora
  • Sayed Mohammad Hosein Jalaladdini *, Sayed Ali Pourbakhsh Pages 100-104
    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important and infectious Mycoplasmosis. It is caused lots of economic losses for poultry's industry of Iran. The target of this study is comparison of culture and nested PCR techniques to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chicken’s from industrial farms in Kerman province of Iran. 88 isolates received from industrial farms of Kerman province of Iran were measured by culture and nested PCR techniques. Two primers were used to identify Mycoplasma, but two pair’s primer for gallisepticum species. Mycoplasma galisepticum isolation and PCR results on samples from infected chickens received from Kerman province of Iran showed that PCR test was more sensetive than culture and this protocol can use as a remarkable way to diagnose Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in birds. On the other hand, nested PCR is analytical test that its sensitivity showes two pairs of nested primer (the external primers and internal primers) can amplify two rigions of GapA gene and be more sensetive. Many routine tests DNA amplification methods have been developed for diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and used in many in many laboratiries. PCR method based on  the GapA can amplify DNA  from Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The PCR method can that target surface protein gene. Nested gapA PCR is more sensetive test from PCR of GapA gene. This technique is a simple and fast method to detect and isolate infected birds, so it is a way to decrease economic losses in poultry industry. Four genes were recommended to Mycoplasma gallisepticum PCR that GapA gene is one of them that by nested PCR can detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum.
    Keywords: Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Nested PCR, Chicken
  • Malihe Ghalandarnejad, Mohammad Reza Akhgar *, Peyman Rajaei Pages 105-109
    The genus Ixiolirion, belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family, contains about 3 species distributed in center and southwest of Asia and northeast of Africa. The Iranian flora consists of only one bulbous flowering species; Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Herb., with the Persian name of “Khiarak”. In the present work, I. tataricum was collected, during the flowering stage, from the Sarduiyeh area in Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran in April 2012. The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant was extracted using hydrodistillation method and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified in the essential oil, representing 85.2% of the total oil detected. The main constituents were 2-phenylethyl phenylacetate (16.8%), β-selinene (14.8%), bicyclovetivenol (4.8%), thymol (4.3%) and (E)-chalcone (4.3%). Consequently, nonterpenoids (44.2%) were the major group of components in the essential oil of the plant.
    Keywords: Ixiolirion tataricum, Amaryllidaceae, Hydrodistillation, essential oil, 2-phenylethyl phenylacetate
  • Hadi Tavakkoli *, Amin Derakhshanfar, Sajedeh Salandari Pages 110-116
    Nowadays antibiotics are used on a large scale in veterinary and human medicine to cure or prevent diseases. Some antibiotics injected into hatching eggs to eliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of disease. Adverse effects of drugs have always been a major concern. There is scantly information available about the safety and pathological alterations of lincosamide-aminocyclitol compounds in embryo. The objective of this study was to investigate using of various dosages of Linco-spectin solution for in ovo administration in chicken embryo. Fertile chicken eggs were divided into six equal treatment groups as follows: group 1: uninjected group. Group 2: needle-injected group; the needle was inserted into the yolk sac without any injection. Group 3: phosphate buffered saline-injected group; whose individuals were injected with phosphate buffered saline. Groups 4, 5 and 6 whose individuals were injected with linco-spectin solution at a dosage of 10 mg lincomycin and 20 mg spectinomycin or 15 mg lincomycin and 30 mg spectinomycin or 20 mg lincomycin and 40 mg spectinomycin per Kg egg-weight, respectively. Embryos were re-incubated post-treatment and allowed to develop until day 18 after which; they were examined for macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Results showed that embryos were normal in all treatment groups. Microscopically, no lesions were also diagnosed in tissues. Based on macroscopic and microscopic findings, it is concluded that linco-spectin at above-mentioned concentration is not toxic for the chicken embryo. So, linco-spectin egg-injection can be used toeliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of the diseasewithout any adverse effect.
    Keywords: Chicken, egg, embryo, Linco-spectin, pathology
  • Mehdi Hassanshahian *, Zahra Shahi Pages 117-124
    Diarrhea is an important hygienic problem in under development countries. Among pathogenic agents Escherichia coli is the most etiologic agent of diarrhea in children below five years old. Some E. coli strains produce cytotoxins that have cytopathic effect on vero cell and identified as verotoxin. This study performs for resolve frequency of Vero Toxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in Kerman city. Samples include 375 raw milk sample that obtained from city and 122 raw milk samples that collected from cattle farms. VTEC strains were serotype by Entro Pathogenic Esherchia coli (EPEC) antiserum. Verotoxin were measured by using vero cell. The results of this research show that from 375 raw milk samples (75.45 %) that prepared from Kerman city 7 samples (1.85 %) were contaminated and from 122 samples (24.55 %) that prepared from cow growth two samples have contamination with VTEC. Neutralization experiment show that from 9 VTEC strains that isolated from raw milk, 5 strain (55.5%) produce VT1 and 3 strains produce VT2 (33.3 %). Also one strain (11.11 %) produces VT1 and VT2. Degree of contamination within milks that sold in city than milk that prepare from cow growth have not any significant difference (P= 0.613). This study show VTEC have very important in Kerman city but O157:H7 serotype in the Kerman city have low frequency.
    Keywords: Escherichia coli, Kerman city, Raw Milk, Verotoxin
  • E. Dirandeh *, A. Rezaei Roodbari, B. Shohreh Pages 125-131
    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two different time of GnRH injection after artificial insemination (A.I) (d 6 and d 12) on reproductive performances of Holstein cows during the warm season.  Cows randomly assigned to treatments 1) No GnRH injection (control, n = 300),2) GnRH injection at day 6 after A.I (G6, n=300) and 3) GnRH injection at day 12 after A.I (G12, n=300). Ultrasonography was used to detect pregnancy and late embryonic/fetal mortality between Days 32 and 60 after AI. Data were analyzed using Proc GLM of SAS. Results showed treatment affected the percentage of cows diagnosed pregnant at 32±1 d and 60±3 d after resynchronized AI. A greater percentage of G6 (25.0%) cows were pregnant at 32 d after resynchronized AI than control cows (19.3 %) and G12 cows (20.0 %). The risk of pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation was affected by treatments and decreased in cows received GnRH injection after AI Compared to control cows. Percentage of cows that showed estrus at 19-24 d after AI was highest in G6 cows and lowest in control cows compared to other treatments. In summary, administration of a GnRH on Day 6 after AI improved reproductive performance in dairy cows.
    Keywords: GnRH, Fertility, Warm season, Holstein cows
  • Mohammad Hakimzadegan *, Mahmoud Khalilzadeh Khosroshahi, Sevil Hasseini Nasab Pages 132-140
    Despite of beneficial effects of antibiotics in treatments of infectious diseases, antibiotic residues in meat, milk, eggs and another products can cause serious side effects for human health. It is clear that, antibiotic residues in food stuff, cause bacterial resistance, allergic reactions, toxicity, carcinogenic effects and change of natural micro flora of intestine in consumers. So, the aim of present study is detection of antibiotic residues contamination rate in chicken eggs. Four-plate test (FPT) is one of the microbiologic methods for detecting antibiotic residues in food stuff, which is based on inhibition zone formation around the sample in four culture media with different pH and test bacteria. For this purpose, 60 samples of chicken eggs obtained randomly from market of Tabriz city. As a result, after different phases of four-plate test, from total 60 samples, 18 (30%) cases are diagnosed to be contaminated to antibiotic residues that 11 (61.11%) cases relevant to Macrolides, 4 (22.22%) cases relevant to Aminoglycosides and in 3 (16.66%) cases contaminated to Tetracycline. But, There isn’t Fluoroquinolones residue in eggs, And the most contamination to antibiotic residues were related to Macrolides groups (P<0.05). Concluding, the antibiotic residue in chicken eggs has to be monitored as routine test due to their side effects on human health.
    Keywords: Antibiotic residue, Chicken eggs, FPT, Tabriz
  • Hosein Amirabdollahian *, Ali Nouri Emamzadeh, Keyvan Keramati Pages 141-145
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding mash versus pellet with different thermal process on blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and broiler performance. 192 (one-day) Cobb broiler chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 4 experimental groups (diets) and 4 replicates of ten chicks each (totally 16 pens). The experimental treatment groups consisted of mash diet (control) and three experimental diets pelleted with temperatures of 72, 82 and 92 ◦C. Results indicated that effects of different temperatures of thermal process had a significant effect on feed intake in 1-42 days period (P<0.05). The process effect was significant on body weight gain between treatment groups only in starter period (P<0.05). Thermal processes of diets improved feed conversion in starter period (P<0.05). In total period, the process of 82 ◦C improved feed conversion in broiler chickens. Percentages of carcass traits including breast, thigh, gizzard and stomach, liver and gallbladder, intestines, heart and digestive system weren’t different among  experimental groups (P>0.05). Effect of the process on serum glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and enzyme concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) wasn’t significant at 49 days (P>0.05).
    Keywords: Thermal process, Pellet, Performance, Broiler
  • N. Mozaffari, H. Hamali *, R. Jafari Pages 146-150
    Postpartum anestrous is one of the most important problems in the dairy industry in the world and especially in Iran. The objective of present study was to compare the efficacy of two hormonal programs for recycling of postpartum anestrous cows. For this reason, 230 Holstein cows from 4 similar dairy herds (with totally 2560 cow and unique management and feeding system) located on the suburb of Tabriz (North-west of Iran) were examined during April 2012 to August2013. These cows showed no visible oestrus signs until the minimum 60 days postpartum. Clinical examinations were performed twice, with a 10 days interval, and blood samples for progesterone analysis were collected simultaneously with every rectal palpation. Based on progesterone values and clinical examinations only cows with lower progesterone levels (P4<2ngr/ml) at both sampling and nonfunctional ovaries (at two consecutive examinations) were randomly allocated into three groups: A, B (n=100) and C (n=30). Cows in group A were administered a combination of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on day 1 and prostaglandin F2alpha on day 8; cows in group B were administered 125 mg of progesterone for 8 days, whereas cows in the control group C were given placebo. Subsequently all cows were examined for signs of estrus and performed artificial insemination on two consecutive estrus following treatment. In groups A & B  the rates of observed oestrus, first service conception rates and second service conception rates were 5%  vs. 68%, 60%  vs. 25% and100% vs. 64.7% respectively. In the group of C, cows were not observed in estrous.  Significant differences were observed between groups in all fields (p≤0.01). Thus based on the current study it can be concluded that for recycling postpartum anoestrus cows, progesterone therapy is the treatment of choice.
    Keywords: Anoestrus, Dairy cows, GnRH, Postpartum, progesterone
  • Sajjad Shaker Koohi *, Safar Nasrollahzadeh Pages 151-160

    Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield per unit. In order to study the effects of different intercropping arrangements on sorghum and mungbean yield and to find the land use advantage in the intercropping system, an experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete block design with seven treatments and three replications at the Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz in 2013. The treatments were as follows: sole cropping of sorghum, sole cropping of mung bean and five intercropping patterns of sorghum: mungbean with replacement ratios ((1:1), (2:1), (3:1), (1:2), (1:3)) respectively. The results showed that the maximum grain yield was obtained from both species in monoculture treatment. The highest intercropping advantage (3.22) was related to treatment (1:3). Also, the highest value of RYT was observed 1.36 in treatment (1:1). Land equivalent ratio (LER) in all evaluated treatments was more than one.Thus, according to economic evaluation indices, sorghum and mungbean intercropping was economically justified in comparison with their sole cropping in Tabriz.

    Keywords: Actual yield loss (AYL), Intercropping, Relative value total (RVT), Relative yield totals (RYT)
  • Shahram Mami *, Abbas Omidi Pages 161-169

    The current study aims to investigate the effectiveness of consciousness training on reducing anxiety and depression of first and second female graders in high school. It used a quasi-experimental research method. Moreover, it utilized cluster randomized sampling; hence, the high schools were randomly selected from the city of Ilam. Beck and Zong anxiety questionnaires were administered among 148 first and second female graders in high school. The students who obtained the scores from 4 to 7 with reference to Beck Depression Inventory were divided into both an experimental (i.e., Depression) group and a control group. Furthermore, the students obtaining the scores of 45 and above on Anxiety Zung Inventory were randomly assigned to both an experimental (i.e., Anxiety) group and a control group. Totally, 43 students were chosen for the two groups. Also, consciousness raising training was applied to 23 students in both experimental groups of Anxiety and Depression. The results of the study show that consciousness raising training can significantly reduce anxiety and depression in high school students. The results, also, entail important implications in promoting students’ mental health treatment. Besides, the treatment of consciousness raising is considered as one of the new therapeutic approaches to modify and control the cognitive processes of students.

    Keywords: Consciousness raising training, Ilam, High schools
  • Nasser Ahmadiasl, Farzam Sheikhzadeh Hesari *, Elham Karimi Sales Pages 170-175
    Reelin is an extracellular matrix neuroprotein which plays important roles during development and maturation of cerebellum. In the postnatal cerebellum, Reelin is synthesized by cerebellar granule cells and secreted to extracellular matrix. This secreted protein modulates adult synaptic function, neurotransmitter release and regulates plasticity. Exercise has beneficial effects on central nervous system. This study investigated the effects of short and long-term training program on Reelin protein levels in the cerebellum. Forty male rats divided into four main groups; test 1 (15 days exercise-trained rats) and test 2 (60 days exercise-trained rats), and control 1 (rats were kept alive for 15 days) and control 2 (rats were kept alive for 60 days). At the end of the training period, Reelin levels in the cerebellum were measured by ELISA assay. Results showed that short and long-term regular exercise had no effect on Reelin protein levels in the cerebellum. Present study showed that regular exercise could not change Reelin protein concentration which mediated plasticity, dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis in the cerebellar neurons. Results of this study could correlate with unaffected plasticity, dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis in the cerebellum under exercise conditions as reported in previous studies.
    Keywords: Cerebellum, Exercise, Plasticity Reelin
  • Hassan Mosleh *, Asghar Naghiha, Ali Naghi Keshtkaran, Mokhtar Khajavi Pages 176-180
    Oak trees cover a wide range of forests in Iran and most of them are located in Kohgiloye and Boyer-Ahmad province (K.B). The high tannin is one of the anti-nutritional characteristics of acorn for domestic animal. Wide range of gut microorganisms could tolerate tannin and reduce it by producing tannase enzyme. This study was carried out to isolate and identify the tannin resistance bacteria (tannase enzyme producing bacteria) from feces samples of domestic sheep and goat. For this purpose, twenty six feces samples of native sheep and goats were collected through the province. Firstly, samples were diluted and then 0.1 ml of each suspension (dilutions) was cultivated on the tannin-treated brain heart infusion agar media containing tannin and then was incubated at 37 C for 72 hours under anaerobic conditions. The colonies were isolated and identified by biochemical experiments and API (20 STREP) test. The results showed that five strains of Streptococcus pneumonia and 2 strains of Streptococcus bovis having tannin hydrolysis activity.
    Keywords: Isolation, identification, Tannase, Sheep, Goat, Bacteria
  • Zeinab Montazeri *, Nadali Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali Bagheri Pages 181-191
    A study was conducted on genetics of some important agronomic traits (number of productive tillers per hill, plant height (cm), panicle length (cm), number of spikelets per panicle and 100-grain weight) in rice during 2012-13. Two lines were crossed with five testers in line × tester fashion to produce 10 F1 hybrids. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes and crosses. Variances of SCA were higher than the GCA variances for number of productive tillers per hill, panicle length (cm) and 100-grain weight (gr) which indicated predominance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits. P35 tester produced the lowest height among testers, highest number of productive tillers and number of spikelets per panicle among parents and its hybrids produced highest number of productive tillers,  highest panicle length (cm), highest number of spikelets per panicle (Tarom-Jelodar × P35) and lowest height (Danesh × P35)  among hybrids. Also this variety was found to be good general combiner for height (cm) and panicle length (cm). Crosses namely Tarom-Jelodar × Sange-Tarom, Danesh × Jahesh and Danesh × P35 had useful and significant heterosis for all traits. These crosses were identified as promising genotypes for increasing of rice yield in future improvement programs. Thus hybrid varieties have positive potential for rice breeding.
    Keywords: Rice, Line × Tester, Combining Ability, Heterosis, Yield
  • Habibollah Ranjbar *, Mehrdad Mansouri, Mahmood Reza Salar, Afraciab Ala Pages 192-201
    Rapeseed as one the most crops is the basic needs of human feeding in order to produce oil. A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage system, seeding method and rates on yield and its components, as well as, seed oil percentage of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. cv. Hyola-401) during 2011-12 growing season at Rice Research Institute of Iran-Department of Mazandaran (Amol). The study was carried out in a split-split-plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments included three tillage methods (no tillage, minimum tillage, and conventional tillage) as main plots, two seeding methods (hand-sowing and row planter) as sub plots and three seeding rates (6, 9, and 12 kg/ha) as sub sub plots. The results showed that the highest grain yield was obtained by applying minimum tillage method. The seeding methods had no significant effect on seed yield. The mean squares of oil seed percentage and 1000 seed weight in any of applied treatment were no significant, which was suggesting the stability of this trait in relation to applied treatments. Consequently, minimum tillage method by use of row planter and seed rate of 9 kg/ha was suggested for the best result in rice fields of Mazandaran for canola seed.
    Keywords: Canola, tillage, Seeding method, Seed rates, Yield, Oil seed
  • Abdul Aziz *, Imran Ahmad Khan, Musaddique Hussain, Muhammad Asif Raza Pages 202-210
    The methanolic leaf extract of Thuja occidentalis was evaluated for possible sedative activities in mice. Sedative activity was evaluated by using hole cross, open field, thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time and elevated-plus maze (EPM) tests at 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg.  The extract decreased the locomotor activity of mice in hole cross, open field and EPM test and showed the remarkable results as compared to the standard at both mentioned doses. Moreover, the extractsignificantly minimized onset of sleep and maximized the duration of sleeping time when administered with thiopental sodium and statistically it was significant (p < 0.05).
    Keywords: Thuja occidentalis, Sedative, Thiopental sodium
  • Sanaz Kamali, Morad Shaban * Pages 211-215
    Changes in seed dormancy were selected during the domestication of crop plants from wild-plant species, because some features of dormancy that provide ecological advantages presented agronomic disadvantages within a farmed system. Seed dormancy varies widely among seed batches, even for seeds of the same genotype, indicating large environmental influences. For genetic studies, it is essential to obtain such quantitative data on seed material without the effects of variation in environmental conditions, including the maternal growing and seed storage conditions. The genetics of seed dormancy is as predicted on Mather's theory of genetical architecture for a character that has been subject to strong directional selection. Many studies on the genetics of seed dormancy regulation have concluded that dormancy is a quantitative trait controlled by multiple loci that affect different seed tissues, and often different aspects of seed physiology. Therefore, in this study discos on some research on seed dormancy control by genetic.
    Keywords: Genetic, seed dormancy
  • Javad Salmani Moghanlou, Seyed Ali Asghar Fathi, Gadir Nuri Ganbalani, Jebraeil Razmjou, Masoud Taghizadeh, Abasalt Rostami Ajirlou, Morad Shaban * Pages 216-222
    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is an important insect pest of corn, Zea mays L., crop in Moghan region. In field experiments, the density of eggs and larvae of O.nubilalis and percentage of eggs and larvae parasitisms were studied on four corn hybrids NS704 (commercial cultivar), NS770, NS640 and MV524 (cultivars with high yield). Furthermore, in this study, the predators and parasitoids of the European corn borer were collected and identified on four corn hybrids in an experimental field. The seeds of corn hybrids were planted in an experimental field, approximately 700 m2. This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with four replications. Samplings were conducted from the V6 (six leaf collar) until the R3 (milk) growth stages of corn. On each sample date, five plants/hybrid from each of the four replication were selected randomly and number of eggs (parasitized and non- parasitized) of O. nubilalis per plant was recorded using a 20X hand lens, then the stalkof these plants were dissected and number of larvae, larval mines and parasitized larvae per plant were recorded. The results showed that, the lowest density of eggs, larvae and larval mines were observed on NS704. While, the percentage of eggs and larvae of this month on NS704 were higher than on the other three tested hybrids . Therefore, it was concluded that the NS704 hybrid was less suitable to the European corn borer among the tested corn hybrids and has the potential to be used in the integrated management of O. nubilalis. Furthermore, in this study 12 predators’ species and 2 parasitoid species were collected and identified from experimental field. The predator bug, Orius niger Wolff, and parasitoid wasps, Trichogramma brassicae Bezd and Habrobracon hebetor (Say), had higher abundance rate on four tested hybrids.
    Keywords: Corn hybrids, Natural enemies, Ostrinia nubilalis
  • Afshar Fallah Imani, Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Mozhgan Shahdadneghad Pages 223-229
    Canna indicaL.roots are used for medicinal purpose. A decoction of the root with fermented rice is used in the treatment of gonorrhea and amenorrhea. The seed of canna is extremely hard, and needs to be "scarified" before sowing. The aim of the present investigation is to determine the hardiness problem of the seed. The seed sample was collected from the IARI, New Delhi in 2008. The work consists of Physical purity, standard germination test, seed vigour test. Experimental results has shown that, seed sample recorded the purity of seed (97.55 %) and seed sample showed the maximum germination percentage 95% after three and four hrs, H2SO4 scarification. The maximum root length (34.07 mm), maximum shoot length (23.62 mm) and maximum seedling shoot and root fresh weight (0.23 and 0.24 g) were observed at three, two hrs and control. H2SO4 scarification. The results indicated that H2SO4 scarification increase the germination percentage but it reduce the viability of the seed.
    Keywords: Canna, fresh weight, germination, scarification
  • Parviz Rahbarian, Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Afshar Fallah Imani Pages 230-237
    Field trials with Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel were conducted at the experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University Azad Jiroft in 2012 growth seasons. The aim of this work is to study the effect of foliar application with benzyladenine (BA) at 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg.L-1 and gibberellic acid (GA3) at 0, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 on the vegetative growth constituents of Spathiphyllumplants. Most of the criteria of vegetative growth expressed as number of leaves/plant, leaf area and petiole length and were significantly affected by application of the two factors which were used in this study. All foliar applications of SPAD BA and GA3 separately promoted all the aforementioned characters in this study, as well as chl. a, petiole length, number of leaves/plant, leaf area and spad compared with control plants. The most  number  of  produced leaves  was in a plant  in applications of 400 mg l-1 of  BA, 100 mg l-1 of BA, 400 mg l-1 BA+100 mg l-1 GA3 , 400 mg l-1 BA+mg l-1 of  GA3  and respectively,  with average of 11/33, 11,10/66, 10/66  that  they did not  show a meaniful diference, statically.
    Keywords: Benzyl adenine (BA), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Leaf area, Photosynthetic pigments, Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel
  • Difference Between any Morphological and Physiological Characters of three Sugar Beet Genotypes in Different Irrigation Treatments
    Navid Adibifard *, Farzad Paknejad, S.R. Hassanpour Avanji, M. Shojaei Poor Pages 238-247
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect  of irrigation period on the quality and quantity of yield and some morphological and physiological traits of three multigerm sugar beet genotypes named BP Mashhad, BP Karaj and 191. The experiment was in a split  plot  based on randomized complete block  design , carried out  at Motahari Research station of Sugar beet Seed Research Institute in Kamalabad , Karaj in 2005. The main plots consisted of three irrigation periods, non-stress, medium stress and sever stress (80, 130 and 180 mm evaporation  from  class A pan , respectively) and the sub plots consisted of three genotypes. Irrigation treatments were applied at 6-8 leaf stage. The amount of irrigated water in each treatment was measured by WSC flom. Based on the results, the mean root yield of each treatment was 37.97(non-stress), 17.78(medium stress) and 15.46 (severe stress) ton/ha, and dry root weight of each treatment was 850 (non-stress) , 459(medium stress) and 15.46 (severe stress) g/m2. All the factors used affected yield, leaf area index , dry root and shoot weight in severe stress condition compared to the non-stress condition . The severe  stress condition decreased root yield but increased sugar contents. Drought stress also decreased other measured traits such as root dry weight, total dry weight and leaf area index. Two genotypes BP Mashhad and BP Karaj were evaluated as drought  tolerant  genotypes.
    Keywords: Irrigation, Yield, quality, physiological, morphological characteristics, sugar beet
  • The Study of Most Important Climatic Parameters Influencing on Potato Yield with Climate Change Paradigm (Studied Case, in Kermanshah Province)
    Mehrdad Esfandiari *, Farzad Paknejad, Navid Adibifard, S.R. Hassanpour Avanji Pages 248-252
    Climate change  is one of the most important challenges in recent years. Heavy flood, hot weather, early coldness, most of drought replications, risen of sea water level, pests and plant disease ,reducing of ozone layer thickness, global worming ,and melting ices, are cases that introduced climate change issue in recent decades more. Climate is one of the most important  factors for crop  changing rate and its yield in recent decades .in regard to that potato is one of the most important agricultural crops in country ,and almost is planted in most areas, in this survey we  have  considered to studying temperature impacts and fall raining and its  shifts  as most important parameter influencing on potato yield in Kermanshah province. Because of this reason , cities having acceptable agricultural and climatic statistics are  chosen.(6 cases )and then in regarding to phonological cycles  of potato and agricultural calendar , the climatic parameters are divided to 6 variants. According to different climatic characteristic  in Kermanshah, in GIS environment and using of zonal statistic capacity of this software ,statistical characteristics of production  yield and other variants  are  derived based on classifying climate and finally in SPSS software ,most important climatic parameters influencing on yield and also changes  trend  is measured in all of Kermanshah province .results showed that temperature of ending  winter and early spring  were important parameters influencing on potato yield in most areas  in Kermanshah province. And if these temperature is increased , yield rate of potato is increased  in most areas  in Kermanshah.
    Keywords: Potato, Climatic change, Crop yield, GIS, Kermanshah province
  • The Survey of Ending Season Drought Stress Impact and Different Planting Dates on Grain Yield and Gaining Weigh T Rate and Wheat Filling Period Characteristics in New Bread Wheat Genotypes
    S.R. Hassanpour Avanji *, Farzad Paknejad, M. Shojaei Poor, Mehrdad Esfandiari Pages 253-260
    In order to study planting date impacts and ending season drought stress  on grain yield and  gaining weight  rate  and wheat filling period characteristics in new advanced bread wheat genotypes ,this research  is done by using plan statistical  of spilt plot  in form of complete random blocks basic  plot with 3 replications in both common separated irrigation  and ending season drought  stress tests (stop irrigating in50% pollination phase )  in research institute field  for breeding and  providing seeds and seedling  in Karaj  in 387-1388. Planting date factor  is studied  in 2levels mehr 20th and aban10th  in main plots  and 4 genotypes resisting to bread wheat drought stress including c-85-D7;c-85-D8; c-85-D9; c-85D13 with  Alvand  check value in minor plots in both  tests. the results of variance analysis for measured characteristics in both common irrigation and drought stress tests show that impacts of planting dates ,Genotypes  and planting date interaction  multiplied by genotype on grain yield characteristics ,rate gaining weight and wheat filling period (in both tests) were meaningful at 1% level. According to results of  test average comparisons in both  common irrigation condition and drought stress , showed  that c-85-D9 in both conditions  having most wheat filling speed  and c-85-DB having most wheat filling period and meanwhile both genotypes  had rather good grain yield in both conditions . recent results have showed that different wheat genotypes  have interaction with environmental conditions so that each genotype using  its own special strategies for resisting to stress.
    Keywords: Wheat, planting date, Drought stress, Grain yield, Physiologic characteristics
  • The Efficiency of Growth Factor Bacteria ,Humic Acid ,and Alga Extract in Drought Stress of Sugar Beet
    M. Shojaei Poor *, Farzad Paknejad, Mehrdad Esfandiari, Navid Adibifard Pages 261-268
    To study the impact of growth factor bacteria , humic acid  and alga extract in drought stress condition  a test is established in form of completely random blocks  and spilt plot  in 4 replications  in a field in Mahallat in Arak  province in 1389. Two primary plots including irrigation and stress  and secondary  plots including  growth factor bacteria ,humic acid  and  alga extract, Ascophylum 93. There were significant difference between irrigation , growth factor bacteria , humic acid  and alga extract. The growth factor bacteria  increased   plant vigour  against  drought stress.
    Keywords: sugar beet, Drought stress, Growth factor bacteria, Humic acid, Alga extract, Ascophylum 93