فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 6, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 37
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  • Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Sadegh Shahmoradzadeh Fahraji, Hadi Ghasemi Pages 1883-1886
    The poinsettia's species name pulcherrima means "most beautiful" and that it is! Poinsettia's brilliant red floral display held against rich green foliage has made this unlikely species a holiday favorite. Its appealing presentation of the traditional Christmas colors has so endeared poinsettia that it is now second only to the Christmas tree as the most popular holiday plant. Studies have shown that rooting substrate is one of the effective factors at rooting of hard rhizogenetic plant such as poinsettia. The purpose ofthis studyis todetermine an appropriate concentration of salicylic acid (SA) on rooting of poinsettia. Present study showed that there was a great variation in most of the measured characters at P< 0.05 percent level. The obtained results show that salicylic acid treatments have caused the increase of percent of rooting. The use of Salicylic acid caused a positive effect on rooting. The callus percentage was obtained in control and 400 treatments. This study shows that plant growth regulators salicylic acid have a profound influence on rooting of poinsettia.
    Keywords: Cuttings, Poinsettia, Rooting, Salicylic acid
  • Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Mojgan Shahdadneghad Pages 1887-1893

    Effect of gibberellic acid on marigold (Calendula Officinalis L.) was evaluated in a pot culture experiment. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design including 12 treatments and four replications was carried out. Main factor was foliar application stages (first, second and third) and sub factor included different concentrations of GA3 (0, 50, 150 and 250 mg L-1). Results showed that foliar application of GA3 had positive effect on photosynthetic pigments. Effect of different concentrations of GA3 on chlorophyll a was significant (p<0.01). Chlorophyll a content was enhanced by increase in GA3 concentration up to 250 mg L-1 treatment of 250 mg L-1 resulted in production of 7.78 µg/L-1 chlorophyll a, the index which was to some extent dropped in other concentrations. Different concentrations of GA3 had significant effect on chlorophyll b (p<0.01). Chlorophyll b was increased by increase in GA3 concentration up to 250 mg L-1. the highest rate of total chlorophyll content and total pigment in three times of application and one application of 250 mg L-1 was 14.6 and 15.4 µg/L-1 respectively; whereas the lowest chlorophyll and pigment content was observed in one foliar application of control treatment with mean value as 4.67 and 5.5 µg/L-1.

    Keywords: Benzyladenine, Calendula officinalis, Chlorophyll, Carotenoids, Gibberellic acid
  • Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Sadegh Shahmoradzadeh Fahraji, Hadi Ghasemi Pages 1894-1899
    Zinnia elegans, an annual flowering plant of the genus Zinnia, is one of the best known zinnias. Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different growing media on the growth and flowering of Zinnia elegans. Seven different growth media including coconut compost, silt, soil loam, leaf manure, (leaf manure + silt; 2:1), (coconut compost + soil loam; 1:1) and (leaf manure + soil loam + silt; 1:1:1) were used for growing zinnia. The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) giving equal importance to treatments. Number of flowers, length of lateral branches, number of lateral branches, stem diameter, plant height (cm), diameter of flower, vase life (day) and fresh and dry root, shoot and total were determined. The resent study confirms the fact that selection of the appropriate medium of growth for potted flowering plants in this case Zinnia elegans was very important from aesthetic and marketing point of view. The medium must ensure the production of plants of the required quality on cost effective basis. In the present study, leaf manure produced significantly the maximum vase life and diameter of flower  while the maximum vase life and diameter of flower  was obtained with mix (coconut compost + soil loam; 1:1).
    Keywords: media, Vase life, Number of flowers, Zinnia
  • Azadeh Chatrooz, Hamed Nazari, Leila Goudarzi, Mohammad Bkhtiari, Aslan Nazari *, Behzad Abdolah Oghli Pages 1900-1906
    Nursing manpower plays an important role in care quality and health promotion. So any health care organization without an efficient nursing unit is not expected to survive for a long time. This study was conducted to estimate the number of the necessary nursing manpower for the selected hospitals according to the proposed model by the Iran ministry of health.This research is a cross wardal study accomplished inthe selected hospitals of Tehran university of medical sciences (Imam Khomeini and Shariati hospitals) in 2011. Data collection was performed through forms filled in different wards of the mentioned hospitals and the cure assistant office of the university.Based on the findings, in 5 out of 11 wards of Imam Khomeini hospital, and in 13 out of 16 wards of Shariati hospital, number of the nursing personnel was reported lower that the standards. Also, in 6 and 3 wards of Imam Khomeini and Shariati hospitals, respectively, nursing manpower exceeds the proposed standards. In total, Imam Khomeini and Shariati hospitals suffer 63 and 393 nursing manpower shortages in compare to the proposed standards, respectively.According to the results of this study, status of nursing manpower in the studied hospitals both in terms of number and composition is not in accordance with the proposed standards. In order to facilitate and improve the quality of the provided services in each hospital, it is essential to know the required number of nursing manpower. Consequently, utilizing sufficient nursing manpower is the basic and primary step for efficient and effective planning.
    Keywords: Nursing manpower, Ministry of health, Medical education standard, hospital
  • Shiva Rahimi Tanha *, Azim Ghasemnezhad, Valiolah Babaeizad Pages 1907-1921
    Piriformospora indica, a cultivable root colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The fungus has also the ability to colonize the roots of many varieties of plant species. The goal of present study was to clarify the colonization ability of P.indica in artichoke roots and the respond of plant to water stress. Results showed that Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) was strongly colonized by the fungus. The fungus retarded the drought-induced malfunctioning in the photosynthetic pigments. Proline, an osmotic signal adjustment was clearly increased during water stress in colonized plants. Total phenol, flavonoid contents, radical scavenging activities, and photosynthetic pigments were influenced by treatments. Based on the obtained results and observations, it can be concluded that P.indica as an elicitor enhances the plant growth efficiency under sever conditions. Thus, P.indica- colonized Cynara scolymus L., provides a good model system to study root-to-shoot communication in secondary metabolites production.
    Keywords: Cynara scolymus L, Globe artichoke, Piriformospora indica, Proline, Radical Scavenging
  • Farid Bejaie, Adel Rezvanivande Fanayi *, Ali Abbaszadeh Pages 1922-1930
    Farming organic vegetable and crops have grown as a market desiring commodity. Weed control in farms has been costly and laborous and it has always been hard to achieve a proper weeding. A few chemicals are commonly applied in organic farming. Thermal weeding with flame burners seems a good solution; however, it has its own drawbacks, such as; damaging the main crops, low performance, being influenced by enviromental changes, high fuel consumption, etc. A two-burner flamer, protected with steal shield was mounted on a self-propelled frame supported with a DC motor to control the speed. Heat was trapped by shield that allowed greater speed. A digital camera was utilized for turning of the flames and saving gas. Field experiments were conducted during May, 10 days after first crop buds were emerged. Various tractor speeds of, 8, 12 and 15 km h-1 were employed. Grasses are harder to control than broad leafed weeds, due to their protected buds, however, system design maximized flames exposure time which resulted in more efficient weed control, especially in grasses. Damage percentages were greater in the slower speed treatments. Compared with proper weeding and highest speed it was found that speeds of 8 to 12 km h-1 would yield an approval result.
    Keywords: Flaming, Burner, Weeds, Gray value, threshold
  • Asra Bagherzade *, Arash Mani, Ali Phiroozabadi, Aliakbar Asadipooya Pages 1931-1936
    Objective
    To compare the emotional structure and coping strategies in patients with psychogenic non epileptic seizures, epilepsy and control group.
    Methods
    Among patients with complaining of epilepsy attacks that referred to clinic of Imam Reza (Peace be upon him) in Shiraz, 30 patients with psychogenic non epileptic seizures and 30 patients with epilepsy were selected .A total of 30 patients were considered as the control group. Data were collected via positive and negative affective scale (PANAS), coping strategies questionnaire. Then, they were evaluated by SPSS descriptive and one way ANOVA.
    Results
    Indicated that the patients with PNES and epileptics rather to control group had higher negative affect and lower positive affect significantly. A significant difference is shown in the structures of emotional test and coping strategies of people with psychogenic non epileptic seizures, epilepsy and control groups.
    Conclusions
    People with epilepsy and psychogenic non epileptic seizures than the control group obtained higher scores on the subscale of negative emotions and positive emotions subscale scores were lower. For the structure of coping strategies patients with psychogenic non epileptic seizures ineffective use of coping strategies so that most of the patients use the withdraw from the everyday stress and steer.
    Keywords: Psychogenic non epileptic seizures, Epilepsy, Emotional structure, Coping strategies
  • S. Hamdipour *, M. Rezazad, M. Alizadeh Pages 1937-1942
    In this research the 2 sub verities of Rhizopus oligosporus was used for production of antioxidative bioactive compounds from whey protein concentrate (WPC) and apple pomace. Total phenolic compounds, free radical scavenging ability by DPPH and antioxidant protection factort were evaluated in 48 determined treatments. Effect of Incubation temperature in three levels 23, 27, 31°C, incubation time at 3,8,13 days, and Apple pomace/WPC ratio at three levels of 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10 were studied. The polyphenol content, percent of DPPH inhabitation and APF of the extracts was found to be in the range of 6.01-11.12 mg GAE/g DW, 65.8%-95.2% and 1-1.55 of samples respectively, depending on the ratio of Apple/WPC, time of incubation, type of fungi and temperature. The highest obtained efficiency was related to Rhizopus oligosporus PTCC NO.5287 and the results showed that the time of incubation had the most effect on measured parameters.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Apple pomace, Rhizopus oligosporus, Whey powder
  • Efat Jafari *, Mostafa Assadi, Gholam Abbas Ghanbarian Pages 1943-1950
    The genus Calendula belongs to tribe Calenduleae, (Asteraceae family). Itmorphologically studied for the ongoing project of the flora of Iran. Based on the herbarium studies and field observation, this genus has been revised. The study was based on fresh material from field as well as herbarium specimens. All specimens existed in the herbarium of Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (TARI), herbarium of Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection (IRAN), herbarium of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUMH), Herbarium of Research center of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Fars, were revised. Description of genus and species with key of determination of species is designed. In this search the number of Calendula taxa increasing 9 and Calendula karakalensis Vass. Is presented as a new record for the flora of Iran also the checklist of accepted species have been prepared.
    Keywords: Calendula, Iran, Revision, species
  • F. Golbabaei Kootenaei, H. Aminirad * Pages 1951-1962
    The term 'membrane bioreactor' expresses a combination of activated sludge and membrane separation processes. The need to processes like sedimentation and disinfection used in common methods is eliminated through MBR systems in a way that membranes are placed into or out of an aeration tank and the vacuumed wastewater created by the suction pump is pulled up from inside the membranes and leaves the Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) inside the aeration tank. MBR allows biological processes to work in a long SRT (20 to 100 days generally) and therefore concentration of the MLSS can increase even higher than 10000 mg/l. 93-99% removal of BOD, COD and 85-97% nitrification performance has been proved by different experiments. Membrane filtration removes biological pollutants, particulate materials and colloid dilution, turbidity, microorganisms, suspension impurities and elements such as iron and manganese. Concerning the advantages of this system, smaller required space due to the omission of sedimentation tank, extra disposable sludge production reduction about 60-75 percent, constant effluent quality and its independence from influent can be mentioned. Membrane fouling and its periodic replacement are the main disadvantages of this system. Membrane bioreactor technology can be used as a technology to treat different types of wastewater and to produce effluent with a good and suitable quality for reusing.
    Keywords: Membrane bioreactor (MBR), Activated sludge, Membrane fouling, Ultra filtration, Wastewater treatment
  • Effat Karimi Ghahfarrokhi, Amin Ahmadi *, Sajede Gholipour Shahraki, Hamidreza Azizi Pages 1980-1984
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria leuckarti in worker horses and donkeys of Shahrekord and suburb villages, Iran. Study was done on 52 horses and donkeys in January to 2013 in Shahrekord and suburb villages located in South west of Iran. Out of 52 specimens of fecal samples 4(7.6%) were positive for Eimeria leuckarti. The present study is second report of this parasite in Iran. although it has been frequently reported in other countries.These differences were probably linked to geographical variations and various ages.
    Keywords: Eimeria leuckarti, Donkeys, Horses, ShahreKord
  • Roya Vazirian *, Majid Ownegh Pages 1985-1990
    Vegetation deterioration is a main cause of erosion and land degradation. Therefore, land cover reclamation in the effected areas will affect erosion trend. In reclamation projects, the investigation of relationship between the planted species and soils is highly recommended. Atriplex species can sequester carbon into soil, and have an ability to conserve soil and prevent soil erosion, as well. Therefore, they are considered suitable species, particularly their adaptations to arid conditions of Iran. For that reason, especial attention has been paid to planting of these species in the drylands of northern part of Golestan province. This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of planting this species on the status quo of wind and water erosion indices in the area. Therefore, soil samples were taken via the random method. After the measuring of the physiochemical properties of the soil samples in the laboratory, the data were subjected to ANOVA using statistical software SPSS 21. The sufficiency of mean differences were evaluated by T-test at p value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed that Atriplex is capable of significantly enhancing soil aggregate stability and thereby lessening erosion. Thus, this could play a major role in harnessing soil erosion and improving soil conservation measures. Therefore, this plant could effectively reduce soil erosion in the area.
    Keywords: Atriplex, Indicator, Soil erodibility, Ratio of clay, Ratio of modified clay, Mean weighted diameter, vegetation, Drylands, T-test, Golestan
  • Saleh Rasras, Soheil Fallahpour *, Seyed Reza Saeidian, Masud Zeinali, Asieh Aslani Pages 1991-1996
    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most well-known and frequent form of median nerve entrapment, and accounts for 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. Entrapment neuropathies of the ulnar nerve are relatively common with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow more prevalent than ulnar neuropathy at the wrist. The diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is usually confirmed in a relatively straight – forward manner by nerve conduction studies.Electrophysiology studies performed on 63 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome   that  had referred to Golestan hospital, Ahvaz, Iran from 1388-1391 and neuropathies of the ulnar nerve was evaluated in them. Entrapment of the ulnar nerve was seen in 49/2% of patients. This disease was more in men significantly (p=0.001). The mean of motor conduction velocity in both hand was different in ulnar nerve conduction disturbance group importantly (p=0.001). As finding results, Entrapment neuropathies of the ulnar nerve can associate with carpal tunnel syndrome amount. It is better evaluation of the ulnar nerve are performed with carpal tunnel syndrome at the same time to prevent from misdiagnosis and treatment.
    Keywords: Carpal tunnel syndrome, Entrapment neuropathie, Electrophysiology studies, Conduction velocity
  • Nozar Dorostan, Mohammad Reza Boostani, Iraj Nazari, Elham Rajai, Mohammad Bahadoram * Pages 1997-2000
    Cholecystitis presents as acute or chronic. Severity of cholecystitis depends on several factors.  Aim of this study was to evaluate severity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy findings based on gender type. In a retrospective and epidemiological study, a total of 101 patients who were underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were selected from 2001 to 2006 in university affiliated hospitals of Ahwaz, Iran. Among 101 patients were assessed in our study, 41(40.6%) were men and 60(59.4%) were women. Evaluating of patients according to sex revealed that proportion of empyema, gallbladder stones, gangrene, switch to open cholecystectomy, and acute cholecystitis were different statistically and were higher in men than women. But chronic cholecystitis was significantly lower in men than women. As our findings demonstrated, we suggest that men with cholecystitis need rapid surgical intervention to prevent and reduce complications of disease.
    Keywords: Gender, Cholecystitis, laparoscopy
  • Mohammad Makinia Pages 2001-2007
    Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites by strains of Aspergillus (A.parasiticus and A.flavus) are produced. The clinical signs of aflatoxin poisoning include surgery autopsy, histological lesions and also create effects on the production of poultry flocks in experimental and natural occurrence have been reported in broiler chickens worldwide. The main signs of aflatoxin poisoning, loss of appetite, delayed growth, decreased body weight and food intake are reduced. Aim of this article is Study of performance broiler chickens fed of contaminated wheat by aflatoxin and neutralized by ammonia method. Thus, 280 male broiler chickens of Ross breed were randomly divided into 16 cages and feeding of recommended NRC and All of the experimental diets were same, except of wheat that was considered as fallow: Diet 1(control diet): contains Iranian healthy wheat (no aflatoxin), diet 2: contains ammoniated wheat, diet 3: contains wheat contaminated with aflatoxin (1 ppm) and diet 4: contains ammoniated wheat and contaminated with aflatoxin. According to the results increase in body weight in chickens fed the control diet (without aflatoxin) with ammoniated wheat and contaminated with aflatoxin (diet 4) was not significantly different (p<0.05) but body weight on diets contaminated with aflatoxin (diet 3) was significantly reduced (p<0.05). By the results, feed intake in broilers fed diets 3 (1 ppm  aflatoxin) is lower than other groups (p<0.05).While, not significant differences between diets 2, diets 4 and control diet were observed (p<0.05). Lower feed intake and growth rate due to decreased activity of important enzymes in the digestion of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, and impaired and defects in some of the nutrient. Also The results obtained in this study were showed that aflatoxin in broiler diets due to increase relative kidney weight compared with chicks fed the diet has no aflatoxin (p<0.05). Ammoniate of wheat due to reduction and neutralization aflatoxin in wheat and ammoniated wheat that contaminate with aflatoxin has no effect on the relative weight of kidney (p<0.05).
    Keywords: aflatoxin, Wheat, Broiler chicken, Ammoniac
  • Masoud Karimi Goftar *, Narges Alizadeh Rayeni, Nasrollah Moradi kor Pages 2008-2014

    The dimerization constants of Safranine T have been determined by studying the dependence of its absorption spectra on the temperature in the range 30–70 ◦C at different total concentrations of Safranine T (1.03×10−5, 1.44×10−5 and 1.73×10−5 M). The monomer–dimer equilibrium of Safranine T has been determined by applying MCR-ALS method on the absorption spectra. The quantitative analysis of the data of undefined mixtures, was carried out by simultaneous resolution of the overlapping spectral bands in the whole set of absorption spectra. In this work the dimerization constant of Safranine T has been determined by studying the dependence of absorption spectrum on temperature at different total concentrations of dye. The enthalpy and entropy of the dimerization reactions were determined from the dependence of the equilibrium constants on the temperature (van’t Hoff equation). From these results it can be inferred that the driving force of the dimerization is of enthalpic origin.

    Keywords: Aggregation phenomena, Spectroscopic study, MCR-ALS, equilibrium constant
  • Zahra Rangraz *, Ali Asghar Ravasi, Ebrahim Rangraz, Hadi Miri, Mahmoud Sofi Nezhad Pages 2017-2025
    Performance of heart has substantial role in breaking records of sports. Achieving to optimal performance of endurance Training builds upon the consistency in several parts of body specially heart. Type, intensity, term training programs is determining components of providing structural consistency and performance of heart especially in left ventricular. Aim of this research was comparing structure of left ventricular of young Qazvin’s elite male basketball players and non-athletes. Sample of research included 15 athletes were selected randomly with mean age 21.87 years old and 15 non-athletes with mean of 25 year old. We used Echocardiography with two-dimensional and M-mode and measuring Simpson in order to investigate structure of left ventricular. Findings of the research were analyzed by independent samples t test. Results show that in all of variables include (LVPWS, LVPWD, LVM, LVESV, LVEDV, IVS, and IVSD) as indictors of left ventricular is significantly more than non-athletes and it might be due to effect of combined Sports. Thus, we recommend to instructors do echocardiography each year before heavy training programs in order to ensure about healthy heart of athletes and non-pathological heart and combined exercise more aerobic for improving capacity of ventricular, rapid recovery and following Cardio respiratory fitness in basketball training program.
    Keywords: Structure indicators of left ventricular, Basketball players, Non-athletes
  • Khosro Issazadeh *, Shabnam Razban, Mohammad Reza Majid Khoshkholgh Pahlaviani Pages 2026-2030
    Recreational waters should be considered as risks for Enterococcal infections in regions with high utilization and long exposure periods. The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance of Enterococci to selected antibiotics and some heavy metals [Pb+2, Fe+2, Zn+2 and Cr+2]. A total of 75 Enterococcal isolates was obtained from 54 bathing and fishing water samples from 9 bathing and fishing areas in Bandar Abbas (Iran). Enterococcus raffinosus and Enteroccoccus faecium were the most prevalent species. Disk diffusion method was performed to determine the high level resistance to selected antibiotics, and Micro dilution method was used to detect the sensitivities of the strains against different concentrations (0.005-20 mM) of heavy metals.  Antibiotic resistance patterns were observed in isolates. All of the isolates were resistant to Penicillin. Many of them exhibited high resistance to Streptomycin and Kanamycin in 68.08% and 65.96% respectively. The results suggest that recreational waters may contribute to the dissemination of Enterococcal species that exhibit resistance to several antibiotics which are used to treat community-acquired infections.
    Keywords: Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimal bactericidal concentration, Enterococcus, Recreational waters, heavy metals
  • M. Morovat *, O. Dayani, Z. Nasibpour, A. Maddahian, M.R. Mohamadrezakhani Pages 2031-2037
    The aim of present study is investigating effect of treated lemon pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on protein and energy metabolism in goats was fed with this product. In this experiment 8 goats from raini breed were used for 21 days period; 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling, to investigate the effect of processing lemon pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on protein receivement, retention and excretion and also energy metabolism. Goats were put in metabolic cages equipped to separate urine and feces collection system and they were fed with a diet containing lemon pulp and alfalfa with 40:60 proportion in maintenance limit. Collected data were analyzed statistically as a completely randomized design. After processing lemon pulp crude protein was increased whereas crude fat and nitrogen free extract were decreased significantly (P< 0.05). Digestibility of treated lemon pulp´s crude protein was higher but digestibility of treated lemon pulp´s crude fat was lower (P< 0.05). Consumptive nitrogen, feces nitrogen and urinary nitrogen were increased significantly whereas nitrogen retention did not change significantly also creatinin and total urinary protein were increased significantly. But uremic nitrogen and total blood protein did not change. Entirely processing lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast moreover increasing crude protein percent cause to increase digestive coefficient of lemon pulp´s protein.
    Keywords: Lemon pulp, Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, Raini goat, Protein metabolism, Energy metabolism
  • Kaveh Limochi *, Farhad Farahvash, Shilan Davodi, Fatemeh Fateminik Pages 2038-2044
    This paper aims at investigating the impacts of different planting methods on the yield and Cluster Charactersin different irrigation conditions on wheat (cultivar of Chamran) in Khuzestan for one year in Shavoor agricultural farm located in 70 km north of Ahvaz which lies in E longitude 48˚:28" and N latitude 31˚:50" as split plots in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The main factor is planting method in two levels of linear and sprinkling, and the subsidiary factor comprises irrigation treatments and dry farming. Variance analysis results revealed that in both factors there is a significant effect in all characteristics is dependent upon genotype, while the interaction of the two factors was significant only on the characteristics of panicle number per square meter and seed number in each panicle. By examining the comparison of grain yield means and other agricultural traits, the highest significant numeric value belongs to linear planting, except for the panicle number per square meter that had completely reverse trends in both treatments. Ultimately it is concluded that besides economic considerations through decreasing the amount of seeds needed and the easier control of weeds, linear planting helps to increase grain yield by accurately adjusting the distance and depth with regard to the proper positioning of seeds through increasing the claw number and other relevant characteristics of performance.
    Keywords: Agricultural traits, cluster, Irrigation, Planting methods, Wheat
  • Shuvasish Roy Choudhury *, Rita Mahanta Pages 2045-2051
    Ammonia is the chief excretory product in fishes. However, non-availability of enough of water in the habitat, may lead to the formation of urea, in fishes. In the present study, the possible role of urea formation to avoid the toxicity of ammonia under water-restricted condition was tested in Channa gachua. Circulatory urea and ammonia were estimated in the blood of the fishes and glutamate dehydrogenase activity was measured in the hepatic tissue. From the present study, it is found that blood ammonia in Channa gachua showed a decreasing trend from 1st to 10th day and blood urea showed a steady increase during the experimental period. The correlation study between the blood ammonia and blood urea concentrations in C. gachua establishes the presence of definite relationship between these two parameters. However, hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase activity showed a fluctuating trend. Presence of high circulatory urea in the experimental fish indicates that ureogenesis may get activated, if the fishes face water-limitation.
    Keywords: Ammonia, Blood, Ureogenesis, Glutamate dehydrogenase
  • Mohsen Ahmadee *, Abas Khashei Siuki, Seyed Reza Hashemi Pages 2051-2060
    The use of recent technologies for the increase of growth indexes and the plants yields is an important aspects and till now many research works for this has been done. One of these efforts is the usage of magnetic water and zeolite for the increase of yield plants. This research work is an study on the effects of magnetic water and zeolite that has been done on frame work of pore random design and by factorial method by 6 treatment and 6 iteration and totally in 36  plot for the Lapidium sativum L. plant in the research greenhouse of agriculture college of Birjand university in Iran. The treatment of water (in the form of common and magnetic water) was selected as the original treatment and zeolite treatment (on the form of calcic, potasic and without zeolite) selected as the secondary. The results showed that the effect of type of water on the dry weight roots, dry weight of stem, the ratio of stems to roots and roots to stems and leafs the 99 percent of confidence limits are meaningful. The variety of zeolite was a meaning full effects about 0.99 percentage of confidence on the growth percentage of plants, the length of leaf, the length leafs tail, the width of leaf, the wet weight of roots, the weight of leaves, the total dry weight of plant, the dry weight of leaves, the height of plant, the ratio of root to leaf and stem, the efficiency of water used in the confidence limits of 99 percents the length of  root and the dry weight of stem within confidence limits of 99 percent and on ration of stem to root in confident limit of 95 percents are meaningful. ..the mutual effects of type of water and zeolite on the length of leaf tail, the dry weight of root and stem, the ratio of stem to root and ratio of root to stem and leaf showed the meaningful effects.
    Keywords: Magnetic water, Calcic zeolite, Potasic zeolite, Lepidium sativum L, Yield, Water use efficiency
  • Mahdi Fallah *, Hassan Vagharfard, Manouchehr Farajzadeh, Ali Nick Kheslat Pages 2061-2066

    Wastewater treatment technology in the cyclic nature of the process that takes a long time. But man tries to rush to their needs with experience and understanding of the natural processes of interaction, and using technology to build their Industrial development is authorized. Sewage treatment reed have been born from the vision of man's increasing need to water daily decreases the natural resources provide. Location of the place is one of the main uses of GIS and GIS Nowadays many ignorant people are familiar with the location. But what is remembered today as the location of the equivalent site selection, the order of analysis that will lead to the best place or places to be for a specific user. Therefore, using multiple and very diverse, the various layers of spatial data according to the criteria considered, together are usually the places where the best places are introduced, and the resulting method. This study is the first layer and standards were prepared from different sources of information, then based on the opinions of experts using analytic hierarchy process weight classes, each benchmark was performed. For network training algorithm of back-propagation and a sigmoidal activation function was used, the results indicate that it is a very high correlation coefficient of the neural network was able to identify suitable areas. Finally, about 104 km Qeshm Island area were suitable for the construction of wastewater treatment plant that requires ground visits is the expert.

    Keywords: Wastewater treatment, Site Selection, ANN, Qeshm Island, GIS
  • Khosro Issazadeh *, Hamidreza Savaheli, Naeem Momeni Pages 2066-2071
    Heavy metal pollution by natural factors is a world-wide phenomenon. Release of large quantities of heavy metals without handling proper processes that could decrease the concentration of such a material is a hassle that makes strains resistant to these heavy metals apart from entering into human food chain. In this research, wastewater of four firms in Guilan province such as Foolad, Risandegi, Chooka and Ganje tannery were analyzed according to standard methods. These methods were included culturing the strains on the specified media such as Luria-Bertani agar and Kings’ B. In the wastewater of these factories, there were kinds of heavy metals such as Chromium, Nickel, Cobalt, Mercury and etc. However existence of these heavy metals is fatal to keep the life progressive, but a kind of creatures like some bacteria could adapt themselves to the condition. Here we mentioned two genera of bacteria, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., which were more renowned in the category of resistance to heavy metals. First of all, we used Nutrient Agar medium in order to distinction of Gram positive bacteria from Gram negative ones. After that, by dilution preparation from sample and inoculation the bacterial suspension into medium, the range of resistance to heavy metal concentration for Bacillus sp. in Luria-Bertani Agar and for Pseudomonas sp. in Kings’ B medium were determined. This estimation was validated by adding salt of heavy metal by the concentration from 0 µg/ml through 100 µg/ml and pH from 5 to 9. Results showed that both of two isolates had the most accumulation rate in pH=7 and concentration of 50 µg/ml heavy metal.
    Keywords: Guilan, Heavy metal resistance, Kings’ B, Wastewater
  • Hamid Adel Mahmoodabad, Saeed Hokmalipoor, Morad Shaban * Pages 2072-2076
    A fiel experiments was laid out in agricultural research farm, city Namin, Ardabil province, Iran in 2013. Experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block with seven treatments and three replication. Foliar spray treatments urea solution at a rate of 1, 2 and 3% (in two stages, the first stage a month after transplanting when they had reached 10 cm in height to 20 days after the first stage and second stage ), soil application of vermicompost fertilizer at a rate of 5, 10 and 15 tons per hectare and control. Results showed that, plant height in 3% foliar urea was obtained. Also, the maximum stem diameter and the lowest foliar treatment with 3% were obtained in the control. However, maximum of fresh weight per cent foliar treatments and the lowest yield was observed in the control treatment. In final results showed that, Maximum leaf area was obtained by treatment with 2% urea foliar spray of 3% was shared with the group. The lowest leaf area in the control area was estimated.
    Keywords: Mint, Urea, vermicompost
  • Nazanin Roshanpour, Mohammad Taghi Darzi *, Mohammadreza Haj Seyed Hadi Pages 2077-2085
    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of plant growth promoter bacteria on biomass and yield of basil. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete blocks design with eight treatments and three replications at research field of Agriculture Company of Ran in Firouzkuh of iran in 2012 . The treatments were [1] Azotobacter chroococcum (A), [2] Azospirillum lipoferum (B), [3] Bacillus circulans (C), [4] A + B, [5] A + C, [6] B + C, [7] A + B + C and [8] control (without fertilizer application). The present results have shown that the highest dry weight of plant, herb fresh yield, herb dry yield and essential oil yield were obtained after applying each three bacteria (A + B + C). The maximum plant height was obtained by using two bacteria (A + B). Generally, the maximum herb dry yield and essential oil yield were obtained with the integrated application of each three bacteria.
    Keywords: Basil, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Yield
  • Morad Shaban * Pages 2086-2090
    Reactive oxygen species cause to release of dormancy in many plants such as sunflower seeds. This study investigated in order to evaluation role of reactive oxygen species germination and lipid proxidation in sunflower seeds. This study was performed in two separate experiments, each in a completely randomized design with factorial design with four replications.  In both experiments, uses from dormant and non dormant seeds of sunflower. It also applies of treatments Methylviologen and Cyanide in dormant seeds which are the producers of reactive oxygen species. Finally, germination lipid proxidation were evaluated as well. The results showed that the main reason for release of sunflower seeds dormancy is production of reactive oxygen species is an acceptable level so that seed germination of dormant seeds which was treated with Methylviologen and Cyanide was more than dormant control seeds and was similar to non dormant seeds. The amount of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in dormant seeds was less than non dormant seeds and seeds treated with Methylviologen and Cyanide.
    Keywords: Lipid peroxidation, Dormancy, reactive oxygen species
  • Sasan Teimouri, Javad Hasanpour *, Ali Akbar Tajali Pages 2091-2103
    An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of Se spraying on yield and growth indices of wheat under drought stress condition, in agriculture and natural resource research center of Tehran province in 2011-12. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design with three replications were used. main plots were three irrigation treatments (normal irrigation, non-irrigation at 50% stem elongation stage and non-irrigation at 50% flowering stage) and sub plots were three levels of Se (Na2o3Se) spraying (pure water, 18 and 36 mg/l Se concentration). The greatest grain yield was belonged to normal irrigation with 6425 kg/ha. It decreased to 5375 kg/ha and 3979 kg/ha for light and severe stress by 16.3% and 38% respectively. Light stress has not a significant effect on LAI and CGR, but it was significant at severe stress treatment. All traits except no. of fertile tiller, plant height and HI influenced by selenium spraying. Grain yield was increased by using selenium but was significant for low level of Se spraying. Se spraying at drought stress conditions had desirable effect on RWC, LAI and CGR and increased them.
    Keywords: Wheat, Drought stress, Se spraying, Growth indices, Yield
  • Hamid Adel Mahmoodabad, Saeed Hokmalipoor, Morad Shaban *, Reza Ashrafi Parchin Pages 2104-2108
    Essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha spicata, was obtained by steam destillation using a Clevenger-type system. These oils were screened for antibacterial and anti-Candida albicans activity using bioautographic method. A fiel experiments was laid out in agricultural research farm, city Namin, Ardabil province, Iran in 2013. Experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block with seven treatments and three replication. Foliar spray treatments urea solution at a rate of 1, 2 and 3% (in two stages, the first stage a month after transplanting when they had reached 10 cm in height to 20 days after the first stage and second stage ), soil application of vermicompost fertilizer at a rate of 5, 10 and 15 tons per hectare and control. Chlorophyll in two phases, one week after the first treatment and harvest samples were measured by chlorophyll meter SPAD manually. Essential oil extracted from the leaves and twigs using 50 g samples of each treated flower with water distillation by Clevenger apparatus was performed. Results showed that the effect of experimental treatments on essential oil and chlorophyll were significant at the one percent level of probability. maximum chlorophyll index foliar urea treatment 3 percent and the lowest was observed in the control. Most essential oils (114.3cc per square meter) in 2% foliar urea treatment and the lowest (36.9cc per square meter) was obtained in control treatment. An increase of over 300% in performance is seen to be essential.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Essential oil, Mint
  • Behzad Babazadeh Darjazi * Pages 2109-2119
    Studies had shown that oxygenated compounds are important in food products. It seems that extraction methods had a profound influence on this factor. The goal of the present study is to investigate on flavor components of Murcott mandarin obtained using cold-press and hydro distillation. In the last week of January 2012, at least 50 mature fruit were collected from many parts of the same trees. Peel components were extracted using cold-press and hydro distillation method. Then all analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range tests. The amount of aldehydes ranged from 0.36% to 0.66%. Between two methods examined, cold-press showed the highest content of aldehydes. As a result of our study, can be concluded that the extraction methods used can influence the quantity of oxygenated compounds present in the oil. The application of Cold-press method can cause a lesser damage to thermal-sensitive molecules, so can be a good technique to recovery of Citrus compounds in large industrial scale.
    Keywords: Cold-Press, Extraction method, Flavor components, Hydro distillation, Peel oil
  • Hossein Mehripour *, Abolfazl Rashidi, Mehdi Zahravi, Asa Ebrahimi Pages 2120-2126
    Genotypic variation is useful to breeders when selecting genotypes to improve particular traits. Inorder to study of genetic diversity 20 genotypes of Hordeum murynum studied in the form of randomized complete block design the experimental field of islamic azad university shahre rey branch with 3 replication in the year 2012. Notes traits was conducted including days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, straw weight, harvest index, grain number per panicle, 10- panicle weight, 100- grain weight, biomass and grain yield. The results of analysis of variance showed that the significant differences were observed among genotypes for all morphological traits, except days to maturity and harvest index. Mean of traits classified using Duncan's multiple range test (p = 0.05). Line of 12-1092 produced the highest Plant height, days to heading, 10- panicle weight straw weight, biomass and grain yield. Correlation coefficients showed the grain yield has a positive at p= 0.05 and significant with biomass (r=0.97), number of nodes on the stem) r=0.72), 10- panicle weight (gr) and plant height. Stepwise regression analysis, grain yield as the dependent variable (Y) and other traits evaluated was considered as an independent variable (X). Results showed that the biomass and grain yield (with biomass) with 93.7% and 98.8% explained the maximum grain yield variation, respectively.
    Keywords: barley, Correlation, Grain yield, Hordeum murynum, Regression
  • Nazanin Roshanpour, Mohammad Taghi Darzi *, Mohammadreza Haj Seyed Hadi Pages 2134-2142
    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of biofertilizers on quantity and quality of essential oil of basil essential oil content, geranial, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and methyl chavicol in essential oil. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete blocks design with eight treatments and three replications at research field of Agriculture Company of Ran in Firouzkuh of iran in 2012 . The treatments were [1] Azotobacter chroococcum (A), [2] Azospirillum lipoferum (B), [3] Bacillus circulans (C), [4] A + B, [5] A + C, [6] B + C, [7] A + B + C and [8] control (without fertilizer application). The present results have shown that the highest essential oil content and the minimum caryophyllene oxide in essential oil were obtained after applying each three bioertilizers (A + B + C). The maximum geranial in essential oil and the minimum caryophyllene in essential oil were obtained by using two biofertilizers (A + C). Also, the highest methyl chavicol in essential oil was obtained after applying two biofertilizers (B + C).
    Keywords: Basil, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, essential oil
  • Masoud Haghighi *, Mostafa Sharif Rohani, Maysam Samadi, Maysam Tavoli, Maryam Eslami, Rahmat Yusefi Pages 2143-2154
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Aloe vera extract (AE) on the immunity responses and hematological parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry to develop alternative drug to chemotherapeutics and antibiotics in aquaculture. 1200 rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fry weighing 2±0.2 gram were randomly allocated into two treatment groups including: 1) placebo-treated group (control), 2) Aloe vera extract-treated group, each of three replicates. The fishes were hand-fed once a day with diet medicated AE or placebo at a rate of 1% of feed weight in the first feeding for 8 weeks. At the end of every two weeks 24 hrs after feeding, some of hematological and immunological parameters were analyzed. The results showed that serum total protein, albumin and globulin, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity and serum lysozyme activity vary among the two treatment groups which were found to be higher in AE-treated group (p<0.05). However there were no significant differences in hematological parameters between two groups. It was concluded that supplementation of AE at a rate of 1% registered higher immunological responses in compared to placebo group. Therefore, supplementation of AE in fish diets would enhance the nonspecific immunity responses and would be use particularly at time of outbreaks.
    Keywords: Herbal immunostimulant, Medicinal plants, Aloe vera, Fish
  • Bahman Fazeli Nasab *, Ziba Fooladvand Pages 2155-2161

    Mastic (Chatlanqosh or turpentine) is a valuable tree species in most parts of the country, particularly around the southern slopes of the Alborz and Zagros mountain range distributed. Wild Mastic tree is mainly due to the adaptability and hard rocky ground tree and needless to excessive irrigation, it doesn't usually crop. It is the mountain range of the plant, giving it less water. The soil around the tree is bitter (toxic), and to solve this problem, the plant always grows along with it (or the gardens grow), to eliminate the bitter soil. These economical production of resin (turpentine) and its use in the production of pharmaceuticals and health care, nutrition and forage production in fruit and foliage, In addition to its role in protecting the environment and preventing soil erosion, climate stylized regional groundwater supply and Important wildlife habitats as shelter and home to its high resistance and tolerance to drought and other unfavorable environmental conditions is of value and importance. A prerequisite for any improvement in the knowledge of such a comprehensive report of the status of forest genetic diversity of plant populations is this research is the result of a comprehensive study of botany, taxonomy, distribution and status of its medicinal properties and may help to breeders in order to have enough information on how to select the plant.

    Keywords: Pistachio, Mastic (Chatlanqosh), Medicinal Properties, Taxonomy
  • Sara Raeisi *, Javad Sharifi Rad, Majid Sharifi Rad, Hamideh Zakariaei Pages 2162-2172
    The heavy metals concentrations including Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) in water and sediments in Gorgan Bay and their accumulation in Rutilus frisii kutum, Acipenser persicus, Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Cyprinus carpio organs (gills, muscle, kidney and liver) were investigated. There was substantial increase in concentration of heavy metals ingoing from the water to the sediment samples. In water and sediments, The concentration of heavy metal was in the order Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu. Fish sampleswere collected from Gorgan bay and analyzed for heavy metal content of liver, muscle, kidney and gills tissues. The maximum and minimum of heavy metals concentration were recorded in liver and muscle, respectively. The order of heavy metals concentration in different organs of fish samples was liver > gills > kidney > muscle and the order of heavy metals level in muscle, gills, kidney and liver was Pb>Cd>Zn>Cu. According to the results, heavy metal concentrations in fish species tissues were well within the limits set by the FAO/WHO recommendations and showed that the fish from investigated region are safety for consumers.
    Keywords: Rutilus frisii kutum, Acipenser persicus, Rutilus rutilus caspicus, Cyprinus carpio, Heavy metal, Sediment, water
  • Mehrdad Yadegari *, Seyedeh Zeinab Peighambarzadeh Pages 2173-2177
    Determination of normal gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time are useful in detecting gastrointestinal motility disorders and partial obstructions of the pylorus or small intestine. This study was conducted to evaluate iodixanol as a contrast agent in the gastrointestinal tract in New Zealand White rabbit. Twelve clinically healthy adult rabbits were prepared and kept for two weeks prior to study. Blood tests were performed 10 days prior to the study. After eighteen hour fasting, plain lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were obtained. One thousand mg iodine per kilogram body weight of iodixanol was administered orally to the rabbits. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were taken at zero, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after administration of contrast media and then in 30 minutes intervals  until eight hours after swallowing , and then at nine, 10, 12and 24 hours. Blood tests were performed 5 days after the study. Contrast medium was noted in the small intestine immediately after administration in two of the twelve (16.66%) rabbits. Early gastric emptying time was started at 8.17±5.45 minutes. Delay gastric emptying time was started at 317.50±36.93 minutes. Early small intestine transit time was started at 59.00±15.54 minutes. Delay small intestine transit time was started at 476.00±37.14 minutes. Because of coprophagia there was some evidence of contrast media in stomach in twenty forth hour radiographs. It is concluded that this iodixanol gave a diagnostic opacification of upper gastrointestinal tract in rabbit.
    Keywords: Iodixanol, Gastrointestinal, contrast, Rabbit
  • Assessment of Abarkouh Region to Construct Solar Sites
    Alireza Dehghanpour Farashah *, Amir Hossein Halabian, M. Fallahpour Pages 2178-2190
    In recent decades, due to increasing prices of fossil fuels and environmental pollution resulting from the increased energy demand, researches on renewable energy sources have attracted lots of researcher’s attention. Limited investing sources and environmental issues are important factors effecting electricity generation sector. Minimizing costs and environmental damages are issues being considered by specialists. Seriousness of environmental protection issue and electricity energy security is two main factors causing more emphasized attention on the process of solar power generating electricity. Iran, due to the special geographic position located on radiation belts is a semi-arid country with a warm climate. Therefore, most parts of the country especially central region always benefit clear and sunny sky. For this reason, the study of the construction and deployment of solar sites in this region of the country can make achieving clean energy and sure for residents of these regions. This study uses geographical information systems, general radiation forecasting model, daily sunny hours, and received radiated energy per each month to find regions with more than 7.7 hours sun radiation of more than 5.3 kwh/m²/d suitable for solar sites construction.
    Keywords: Solar sites, Solar Energy, General radiation, GIS, Abarkouh