فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 10, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • Zahra Heidari, Mohammad Javad Nazari Deljou * Pages 2627-2631
    Objective
    The inoculation of substrates with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is one of the most important effective strategies applied and one of the aims of sustainable agriculture.
    Methods
    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of AMF inoculation (0, 2.5, and 5 W/W) on morpho-physiological traits such as flower and root dry weight, water-use efficiency and antioxidant capacity, based on the completely randomized design with three replications.
    Results
    The results showed that AMF has a significant and positive effect on the studied traits compared to the control. Moreover, the highest flower and root dry weight were achieved in 5% AMF. Water use efficiency, antioxidant capacity and total phenol content were 1.5, 1.1 and 1.3 times higher in 5% treatment compared to the control (without AMF), respectively. The results showed the significant and positive symbiosis between Glomus mosseae and zinnia bedding plants, which led to improvement of flowers quality.
    Keywords: Biomass, Total phenol, antioxidant capacity, Mycorrhizal symbiosis, Zinnia
  • Mojtaba Ziaeemehr *, Fatemeh Panahi Pages 2632-2636
    Objective
    The agricultural sector is one of the most important and the most basic of productive and economic sectors in each country, and support  of this sector is a very important issue in many countries around the world, that one of the principles supporting the agriculture sector is offering to appropriate and inclusive services to agricultural manufacturers and actors. In this regard, the main objective  of  this  study was to evaluation of  Farmers' attitude  towards  agricultural  services of  Private sector.
    Methods
    The agricultural sector is one of the most important and the most basic of productive and economic sectors in each country, and support  of this sector is a very important issue in many countries around the world, that one of the principles supporting the agriculture sector is offering to appropriate and inclusive services to agricultural manufacturers and actors. In this regard, the main objective  of  this  study was to evaluation of  Farmers' attitude  towards  agricultural  services of  Private sector.
    Results
    In this  regard, the  results  showed  that  the attitude’s level of most studied farmers to agricultural services of private sector was at a high level .
    Keywords: Attitude, Agricultural services, Farmer, Private sector
  • Neda Ozhan, Maryam Hajibabaei * Pages 2637-2643
    Objective

    In order to investigate effects of different concentration of gibberlic acid and poly amines on germination and early growth of Pishtaz cultivar under salinity stress.

    Methods

    The experiment was carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with four replicates in laboratory of agronomy and plant breeding of agricultural department, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva Branch in 2014. The first factor was salinity with four levels (S1:3.78, S2: 5.95, S3: 10.25 and S4: 12.87 ds/m) and the second factor was six level of hormones including H0: control, H1:GA3 (100mg/litr)، H2:GA3 (150mg/litr)، H3:GA3 (200mg/litr)، H4: Putrescine (2.5m/mol)، H5: Spermidine (5m/mol) and H6: GA3(100mg/litr) + Spermidine (5m/mol). coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza number, coleoptile and cleorhiza dry weight, germination percent and number of damaged seeds were measured.

    Results

    Analysis of variance showed significant difference among salinity and hormone levels for coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza number at 1% of probability level and no difference for the rest properties. It was concluded that following increasing salinity, application of different levels of GA3 had no significant effect on germination process of Pishtaz cultivar.

    Keywords: Wheat, Gibberlic, putrescine, Spermidine, Pishtaz
  • Nasrollah Aslinezhad *, Ahmad Pahlavanravi, Nasrollah Basirani, Mahdiye Ebrahimi, Rasoul Kharazmi Pages 2644-2650
    Objective

    More than 75 percent of Iran is located in arid and semi-arid then land degradation and desertification are one of the crises ecological. We require a proper understanding of causes and processes of desertification to control the huge phenomenon on the global and regional situation. Because southeast of Iran located in arid land then assessment of desertification is very importance for planning of project.

    Methods

    In this study, using GIS techniques to assess desertification with IMDPA model in 27.020 Ha of Chah-hashm Plain.

    Results

    Result show vegetation criteria (2.97) is more effective than climate criteria (2.68) and other hand aridity index (3.92) is most effective index and continuing drought (1.6) index is less effective index in this area. Result indicated intensity of desertification is in high class with 2.82 numerical value. In this area some limitations such as lack of rainfall, high temperatures, high evaporation, the instability and sensitivity to soil erosion is a natural limits of the area and cannot be control but with improved irrigation methods, education and extension service for the optimization use of agricultural land can be move to improve the situation and to assist in slowing desertification

    Keywords: Assessment, land degradation, Desertification, IMDPA, Chah-hashm Plain
  • Negar Hafezi *, Mohammad Javad Sheikhdavoodi, Seyed Majid Sajadiye, Mohammad Esmail Khorasani Ferdavani Pages 2651-2658
    Objective
    The main objective pursued in this paper is to investigate the energy consumption for drying of potato slices using vacuum-infrared drying method.
    Methods
    Drying of potato slices with the thicknesses of 1, 2 and 3 mm were conducted at vacuum levels of zero (without vacuum), 20, 80 and 140 mm [Hg], infrared radiation at power levels of 100, 150 and 200 W in the three repetition.
    Results
    The results show that with the slice thickness decreases, acts of vacuum and increasing lamp power, energy consumption be reduced. Maximum of energy consumption occurred in a vacuum of 140 mm Hg, but in general it can be stated that by applying vacuum, energy consumption is reduced due to the shortening of the drying time. Data analysis showed that use of vacuum in conjunction with infrared radiation drying increased energy consumption in comparison to merely infrared drying. In the combined vacuum-infrared process, drying time and consequently energy consumption decreased in comparison to the merely infrared drying. The maximum thermal utilization efficiency (31.01%) and minimum energy requirements (5.3 kWh/kg H2O) was calculated for drying of potato slices computed at infrared power of 150 W without vacuum at thickness of 1 mm. The minimum thermal utilization efficiency (2.13%) and maximum energy requirements (185.14 kWh/kg H2O) for drying of potato slices was achieved at infrared radiation power of 100 W with vacuum level of 80 mm [Hg] at thickness of 2 mm.
    Keywords: Potato, Drying, Vacuum, Infrared radiation, energy consumption
  • M. Haghgou Tabalvandani, A. Yadollahi *, D. Atashkar, M. Eftekhari Pages 2659-2662
    Objective
    In vitro propagation of AZ x M9 new apple rootstock resulted of breeding program of vegetative apple rootstock in Iran was investigated.
    Methods
    Nodal explants were inoculated in Murashige and SKoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzylaminon purine (BAP) (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mg/l) alone or with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.1 mg/l). We examined the effect of different concentrations of iron sequestrene (Fe-EDDHA) and thiamin vitamin in ½ MS and Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) media supplemented with indol-3-butric acid (IBA) (1 mg/l) on rooting of attained plantlets.
    Results
    According to our results, 0.4 BAP + 0.1 NAA treatment in MS medium was the best component which resulted in the highest proliferation rate (6.73). As well, we estimated the highest root number in ½ MS + 0.15 g/l Fe-EDDHA + 2.4 g/l thiamin.
    Keywords: Iranian, Hybrid rootstock, In vitro culture, Shoot regeneration, Rooting
  • Ahmad Reza Dehghani Tafti *, Iraj Alahdadi, Farzad Nadjafi, Mohammad Hosein Kianmehr, Mohsen Bagheri, Golam Ali Akbari, Javad Sharifi Rad Pages 2663-2677
    Objective

    In this study investigated effects of different amounts of pelleted manure with urea and micro elements on yield and seed quality of medicinal plants, pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca).

    Methods

    The animal manure and urea as pellet with four levels (150 Kg urea, 50 Kg urea + 3.5 ton animal manure, 100 (Kg) urea+ 1.5 ton animal manure and 150 (Kg) urea+1.5 ton animal manure) located in main plots and microelements with three levels (1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm) including a combination of iron, zinc, manganese and boron were located in subplots. Results showed that the highest number of female flowers,  fruit yield, number of seeds per fruit, 1000 seed weight and seed yield was observed in using of 150 (Kg) urea + 1.5 ton manure pellet Increasing of nitrogen levels increased plant growth parameters, yield components and seed yield in pumpkin.

    Results

    There was no significant difference between pelleted manures in seed oil percentage and seed protein but the highest oil yield was obtained in the treatment of 150 (kg) urea + 1.5 ton manure pellet which is related to higher seed yield in this treatment. The highest amounts of mentioned parameters are obtained in concentration of 2000 ppm of microelements except of seed protein which is observed in a concentration of 3000 ppm. At whole among of these fertilizer treatments, 1.5 ton animal manure + 150 (Kg) Urea as pellet with 2000 ppm of microelements is much recommended for maximum qualitative and quantitative properties in pumpkin.

    Keywords: Pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo var.styriaca, urea, Micro elements, Seed quality
  • Mitra Mohammadi *, Seyedeh Zahra Qari, Fatemeh Sadat Najafi Moghaddam, Mojtaba Azarli, Saida Sirat Nik, Fatemeh Yousefi Pages 2678-2685
    Objective
    The world is currently facing with various problems including water and soil pollution as well as a major threat to the health of the citizens due to the advancement at human civilization, technology development, pesticides and chemical fertilizers application, the increasing exploitation of natural resources by the agricultural sector and the increasing usage of fossil energy. Therefore, the aim of this study is evaluation of citizens’ attitude towards water and soil pollution and the measurement of their different approach regarding to this environmental issue.
    Methods
    Using the quantitative research method and questionnaires, this research sampled 150 people living in Khayyam and Tabarsi areas as well as 70 farmers from the outskirts of Mashhad (Jagharq, Ferdow,Torghabeh) to assess public awareness about the contamination of water and soil.
    Results
    The results of this study show that most of farmers have little knowledge about soil contamination while residents of Khayam and Tabarsi areas have considerable information about status of their water. Moreover, most of the studied people believe that education and culture can be an effective method for water conservation and quality improvement which can act more effectively compared to fine and other methods.  It also was found that education and communication with information sources and communication have effective role in farmer’s attitude towards agriculture innovation such as organic farming. This shows the importance of education and agricultural extension system as the trustee training in the field of agriculture.
    Keywords: Environmental pollution, water pollution, Soil pollution, citizens, Attitude, education
  • Nwoke Kyrian Uchenna *, Konyefom Godswill Nweze, Ifedi Izuchukwu Charles Pages 2686-2690
    Objective
    In this study aimed at evaluating the antifertility effect of the methanolic extract of Abelmoschus esculentus (okro) fruit using albino wistar rat.
    Methods
    Fifty adult male rats weighing 200g to 300g were weighed and divided into five groups of five rats each. Group1 served as the control and were given water and normal rat chaw while groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 served as the test groups and were orally administered with (250, 500, 750 and 1000)mg/kg of okro extract respectively after three weeks of acclimatization. Following six weeks of extract administration, the rats were reweighed and sacrificed. Semen was collected from their caudal epididymis for sperm analysis and their testes were weighed and processed for histological studies.
    Results
    Results from the test groups showed a significant (p≤0.05) reduction in the testicular weight and a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the body weight of the rats when compared with the control group. There was also a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in sperm count and sperm motility with a corresponding increase in the percentage number of abnormal sperm cells The histology of the testes showed degenerating testicular tissues. From the result, we therefore conclude that consistent consumption of okro may be destructive to the testes and as such, could impair male fertility.
    Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus, Gossypol, Hormone, infertility, Testes
  • Mandana Saniei * Pages 2691-2695
    Objective
    In addition to issues such as environment, transportation, safely and urban planning, one of the most important factors  having increasingly influence on urban organizing factors is urban management.
    Methods
    There are so many issues in cities that for its solving, urban management factor is necessary. complexity and  extensiveness of urban issue and its  development and growth, led to making city management difficult. in last two decade, information technology  or information and communication technology terms as a emergent and strength phenomenon , has found its world status and it already expected in cultural, economical, social, and political structures and also in traditional basics of societies management, occur basic reforms and introduced new system of management. developing of information and communication technology  led to many informs  in different ranges  including  city emergent, city hall, and electronic citizen.
    Results
    In this research, in addition to explaining information and communication technology conceptions and urban management, it is stated that how technology functions can help urban managers in designing , planning  and managing of metropolises.
    Keywords: technology, Urban Management, development
  • Seyyed Meisam Hosseini *, Marjan Dianat Pages 2696-2703
    Objective
    Importance of management of gardens weeds is an issue that unfortunately has less been investigated by weeds researchers of country. One of the most important restrictive agents of cultivated surface and producing crops of Citrus orchards are weeds.
    Methods
    To achieve this purpose, a research was performed in plot of Valencia orange trees of citrus fruits of Dezful in 2013. This project was done in the form of randomized complete block with 16 treatments in 3 repetitions. The treatments were mechanical control, Weedmaster herbicide, glyphosate herbicide, vigna unguiculata, vigna radiate, panicum miliaceum L., sorghum bicolor (L) moench, vigna unguiculata+ Weedmaster , vigna radiate+ Weedmaster, panicum miliaceum L.+ Weedmaster, sorghum bicolor (L) moench+ Weedmaster, vigna unguiculata+ glyphosate, vigna radiate+ glyphosate, panicum miliaceum L.+ glyphosate, sorghum bicolor (L) moench+ glyphosate and wetness (uncontrolled).
    Results
    Results showed that sorghum bicolor (L) moench and it’s combining with glyphosate and Weedmaster have the highest height, leaf area, and dry weight, and panicum miliaceum L. and its combining with glyphosate and Weedmaster herbicides have the highest density of covering crops. Weeds had the least leaf area in treatments of sorghum bicolor (L) moench, sorghum bicolor (L) moench+ Weedmaster and panicum miliaceum L., panicum miliaceum L.+ Weedmaster, and the least productive dry weight of weeds was in treatments of sorghum bicolor (L) moench, sorghum bicolor (L) moench+ Weedmaster and panicum miliaceum L., panicum miliaceum L.+ Weedmaster, and panicum miliaceum L.+ glyphosate. Also, the highest Index CCW belonged to treatments of sorghum bicolor (L) moench+ Weedmaster.
    Keywords: weed, Glyphosate, Covering Crops, Citrus orchards, Weedmaster
  • Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun *, Desta Fikadu Egata, Tewodros Lulseged, Wondu Bekele Yosef, Seferu Tadesse Pages 2704-2711
    Objective
    Evaluation activity was conducted using three spearmint genotypes (WG-SPM-Engl, SPM-Fran and SPM-EAS) and one standard check (WGSM-03) at Wondo Genet, Awassa, Debre Zeit and Allagae during 2012 and 2013 for two years.
    Methods
    The treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design with four replications. Data on leaf to stem ratio, leaf yield/ha, Essential oil content and essential oil yield were collected and statistically tested. The combined analysis of variance over the testing locations and years indicated the existence of significant variation among spearmint genotypes for all the characters considered in this study.
    Results
    The respective leaf to stem ratio, leaf yield/ha, essential oil content and essential oil yield of the tested genotypes ranged from 1.29 to 2.2, 10.82 to 13.45 t, 0.16 to 0.5% and 18.13 to 67.99 kg, respectively. The highest leaf to stem ratio (2.2) was demonstrated by WG-SPM-Engl and the lowest (1.29) by WG-SPM-Fran. The highest leaf yield/ha was demonstrated by WG-SPM-Fran followed by WG-SPM-Engl; while the lowest value for these agronomic characters were produced by WG-SM03. Compared with WGSM 03, WG-SPM-Fran demonstrated a respective percent increase value of 47.05 and 81.45% on essential oil content and essential oil yield. The overall highest value for essential oil content (0.39%) was recorded at Allagae followed by Wondo Genet (0.35%) and Hawassa (0.34%); while the least value was recorded at Debre Zeit (0.31%). Averaged over the testing locations, the highest essential oil yield/ha (48.29 kg) was recorded at Hawassa and the lowest at Wondo Genet (34.85 kg). Compared with second testing year, a respective percent increase value of 12.12 and 23.18% on essential oil content and essential oil yield was demonstrated in first testing year.
    Keywords: essential oil, Ethiopia, Spearmint
  • S. Mohammadi, Kh. Piri * Pages 2712-2715
    Objective
    In order to use natural compounds in controlling plant pests and diseases, many researchers in recent years have studied the antifungal effects of essential oils and plant extracts.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal effects of Echium khuzestanium and marubbium anisodan extracts.
    Methods
    After extraction and preparation of different concentrarion from extracts, antifungal effect on 4 plant fungi was stadied by disc diffusion method. chemical composition of plants was checked by GC/MS.
    Results
    According to the results, 86 kinds of chemical compounds found in M.anisodan extract. Furfural, steroids, vitamin B and flavonoids are the main compounds of M.anisodan. 46 kinds of chemical compounds found in methanol extract of E.khuzestanium. there are mucilage, fatty acids, flavonoid and diterpenes in flower of E.khuzestanium.
    Keywords: Plant extract, Plant fungi, GC, MS, Echium khuzestanium, Marrubium anisodan
  • R. S. Kumaravel *, S. F. Maleeka Begum, B. Elayarajah, R. Rajesh Pages 2716-2724
    Objective
    Intravascular catheter-associated infection has been increasing hospitalization in post-surgery patients mainly due to microbial colonization of the catheter surface and formation of a superficial biofilm layer. The present study is aimed in developing an effective antibacterial device which can prevent colonization of organisms by modification of catheter.
    Methods
    In the present study, the antibacterial activities of intravascular catheters are impregnated with third generation broad spectrum antibiotic cefixime under in vitro conditions. To enhance sustained drug release from the catheter surface, a carrier polyvinyl alcohol was added as a second layer. Biofilm forming abilities for the test cultures were initially determined using a standard Exit-site challenge test viz., Borosilicate tube assay and Microtitre plate assay .These test were performed to evaluate the biofilm production using biofilm index.
    Results
    Qualitative and quantitative antibacterial activity tests were performed in modified catheters. It was observed that modified catheters could potentiality prevent the growth of test organisms. During the in vitro conditions it was observed that the growth and survival all the four high biofilm producers viz., Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the moderate biofilm producer, Proteus mirabilis were prevented when exposed to drug-carrier coated catheters. These in vitro results suggest that the antibacterial drug-carrier coated catheters can potentially be used to combat catheter colonization and catheter-associated infections.
    Keywords: Intravascular catheter, Cefixime, Polyvinyl alcohol, Catheter-associated infections, biofilm
  • Einollah Rouhi Moghaddam * Pages 2725-2730
    Objective
    Ecosystems with mixed species compared to the ones with pure compositions provide a broader range of options in the fields of biodiversity, conservation, protection and restoration. Nearly all forest plantations are established as monocultures, but research has shown that there are potential advantages to be gained by using carefully designed species mixtures in place of monocultures. This paper reviews recent studies that compare stand development and productivity of mixed and pure plantations.
    Results
    Higher stand-level productivity in mixtures has been found with species interactions. These mixtures can also improve economic return through greater individual-tree growth rates and provision of multiple commercial or subsistence products. More complex plantation mixtures of several species have been used for ecological restoration of degraded lands; these large numbers of species of different successional stages are combined to reduce the need for a series of sequential plantings. Future research needs to examine many more tree species across a wider range of sites.
    Keywords: Stand level, productivity, plantation, Species mixture
  • Khalil Amoozadeh, Einollah Rouhi Moghaddam *, Ahmad Pahlavanravi Pages 2731-2734
    Objective
    The aim of this study is to provide a management plan for the Sykan watershed of Darre shahr city located in Ilam province using GIS in land use planning.
    Methods
    For land using of Sykan watershed of Ilam province with about 9 hectares area, map of classes, elevation, percent slope, geographical aspects, soil characteristics, vegetation density and the final map units were combined using binary and the final map of environmental units was achieved. As a result, 89 environmental units or micro ecosystems were detected. For these micro ecosystems, evaluation of ecological capacity performed in agricultural land, rangeland, forestry, tourism holticulture, animal husbandry, aquatic aquaculture, urban development rural and environmental conservation land use classes and was combined with the social and economic needs of the region. As a result, the classification of land use and land use priorities can be qualitative method of comparative ecological, land use map of the Sykan watershed of Darreh shahr city was prepared.
    Results
    The result show that 43.61% of area was allocated for forestry, 29.96 % for agriculture, 14.31 % for tourism, 6.77 % for pastural, 2.46 % for conservation of environment, 2.05 % for animal husbandry and 0.84 % for aquatic aquaculture. Thus, this area is promoted from 3 to 8 land uses.
    Keywords: Environmental units, Ecological capacity, Sykan, Ilam
  • Zeinab Moinoddini * Pages 2735-2742
    Objective
    Water scarcity is a growing global problem and increasing population pressures, living standards and the growing demand for environmental quality have evoked all the governments to represent better solutions about water resources management. In addition, there are growing political ties for reducing water use in agriculture that follow enough environmental benefits and increase the welfare of other water consumers.
    Methods
    In addition, there are growing political ties for reducing water use in agriculture that follow enough environmental benefits and increase the welfare of other water consumers. This further increases the economic analysis to check the behavior of farmers using mathematical programming techniques and has been followed the application of Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) especially.
    Results
    Applied policies include increased 5, 10, 20 and 30 percent in water irrigation prices and reduced 10, 15, 25 and 30 percent in the amount of available irrigation water policies. Farmer's response to these policies showed that increased costs and reduced available irrigation water are effective in accepting deficit irrigation.
    Keywords: Water price policy, Quota, Positive mathematical, Programming