فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 12, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Hossin Abbaspour, Halimeh Rezaei * Pages 2850-2859
    Objective
    In order to study the effect of drought stress, salicylic acid (SA) and  jasmonic acid (JA) foliar application on Hill reaction and photosynthetic pigments.
    Methods
    Experiment was done as factorial on the basis of completely randomized design in 4 replications. Irrigation in 3 levels (FC,   FC and  FC), salicylic acid in 2 levels (0 and 0.5 mM) and jasmonic acid in 2 levels (0 and 50 µM).
    Results
    The results indicated that, the effects drought stress, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid on Hill reaction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, β-carotene and Xanthophyll were significant. Drough stress increased the content of β-carotene (1.83  ) and Xanthophyll (2.60 ). The 50 (µM) foliar application of jasmonate  and salicylic acid under normal irrigation condition gained to maximum amounts of Hill reaction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, β-carotene and xanthophyll.  According to the results, exogenous salicylic acid and jasmonic acid application can improve drought tolerance in moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.).
    Keywords: Drought stress, Jasmonic acid, Moldavian dragonhead, Salicylic acid
  • Neda Ozhan, Maryam Hajibabaei * Pages 2860-2866
    Objective
    In order to investigate effects of different concentration of gibberlic acid (GA3), kentin and Putrescinepoly amine, on germination of three cultivars of wheat under salinity stress.
    Methods
    The experiment was carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with four replicates in laboratory of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, department of agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva branch in 2014. The first factor was four levels of salinity including S1: 3.78, S2: 5.95, S3: 10.25 and S4: 12.87 ds/m, the second factor was three cultivar of spring wheat including V1: Tajan, V2: Arg and V3: Pishtaz. The third factor was six level of hormone including H0: control, H1: GA3 150 mg/L, H2: Kentin 150 mg/L, H3: GA3 150 mg/L + Kentin 150 mg/L, H4: Putrescine 2.5 mmol/L, H5: GA3 150 mg/L + Kentin 150 mg/L + Putrescine 2.5 mmol/L. Coleoptile and Cleorhiza length, Cleorhiza number, Coleoptile, Cleorhiza and Seedling Dry Weight, Tissue Water Content (TWC), Germination Percent and Number of Damaged Seeds were measured.
    Results
    Analysis of variance showed that Coleoptile and cleorhiza length, cleorhiza number, seedling dry weight and TWC affected by salinity, hormone and Cultivar at 1% of probability level, but not significant in other properties. In general, results of this experiment showed that application of different treatments of hormone and poly amine had no significant effect on reduction of salinity effect in germination process.
    Keywords: Wheat, germination, Gibberlic, Kentin, putrescine, Salinity
  • Iman Hasanvand *, Mojtaba Rahmati, Shahriar Jafari, Leila Pourhosseini, Niloofar Chamaani, Mojdeh Louni Pages 2867-2873
    Objective
    In soil habitats, mesostigmatic mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) are among the most important predators of smallarthropods and nematodes.
    Methods
    A study was carried out during 2009-2010 to identify theirfauna in Khorramabad county, Western Iran. Soil samples were taken from different regions. Mites were extracted by Berlese-Tullgren funnel and cleared in nesbit fluid. Microscopic slides were prepared using Hoyer's medium. Different species of some families of Mesostigmata were collected. 21 species of 12 families have been identified. Among them, 8 genera and 8 species are the first records for Lorestan province fauna that marked with one asterisk.  
    Results
    In the present study 21 species belong to 19 genera and 12 families were collected and identified of which eight species are new records for Lorestan Province fauna that are marked by an asterisk.
    Keywords: fauna, Edaphic mites, Mesostigmata, Lorestan province, Iran
  • Hadi Tavakkoli *, Sajedeh Salandari Pages 2874-2879
    Objective
    The objective of this study was to investigate the pathological alterations of methionine for chicken embryo.In recent years, amino acids are used in veterinary medicine for many purposes. They injected into hatching eggs to increase chick body weight and performance at hatch, but the adverse effects of amino acids have always been a major concern. There is scant information available about the pathological alterations of amino acids in the chicken embryonated eggs.
    Methods
    Fertile chicken eggs were divided into two equal treatment groups as follows: phosphate buffered saline-injected group and methionine-injected group whose individuals were injected with a methionine solution at a dosage of 10 mg per Kg egg-weight. Embryos were re-incubated post-treatment and allowed to develop until day 18 after which; they were examined for macroscopic and microscopic lesions.
    Results
    The germination of inoculated seed was significantly reduced, germ tubes of microconidia penetrated all parts of the thick, complex seed testa, and seed contents were destroyed. Pathogenicity tests indicated that F. solani caused lesions of black soft rot and complete deterioration within 5-7 days (100%). They also attacked Orobanche seeds, arresting their germination and causing maceration of non-germinated and germinated seeds after 5-7 days of incubation. This is the first investigation of the effects of F. solanim on host plant interactions with broomrape in melon.
    Keywords: Chicken, embryo, Histopathology, Methionine
  • Rasool Maleknejad *, Mohammad Sudagar, Arezoo Azimi, Samira Shokrollahi Pages 2880-2883
    Objective
    In this study, the effect of diet food (soybeans, egg yolk and chicken manure) on biomass weight and body composition (the amount of protein, fat, moisture and ash) Chironomid larvae were examined.
    Methods
    For this purpose, 2.5 grams of food per Coconut considered in the period, with three replicates and Chironomid larvae during the period of 15 days in plastic pans were kept in nutrition.
    Results
    The results showed that larval growth Chironomid was significantly influenced by the different diets. Between dietary treatments, larvae fed chicken manure treatment had highest average weight and best body composition (protein and fat) fed the treated egg yolk and no significant difference was found with other dietary treatments (P<0.05). As a result of this study showed that different diets influenced on the larval body weight and body composition. yolk eggs and poultry manure due to easy availability and low cost can be recommended for mass rearing of larvae Chironomid.
    Keywords: Chironomid larvae, Body biochemical, Composition, Biomass
  • Rasool Maleknejad *, Mohammad Sudagar, Mohammad Mazandarani, Seyyed Abbas Hosseini Pages 2884-2890
    Objective
    The orange-red spectrum of  the skin of  electric yellow (Labidochromis caeruleus) is  one  of  the  idealistic and  necessary  schemas sought  by  aquarists  and commercial producers. In this study, the effect of live foods meal on the skin coloration of juvenile electric yellow was examined.
    Methods
    270 fish with an average living body weight was 0.42 ± 0.11 g, and average total length was 3.3 ± 0.35 cm. Their sex was not taken into consideration. . The  fish  were  fed  twice  in  the  morning  and  afternoon  by  3-5 percent of the biomass for 8 weeks. The six different treatments (three replicates/treatment) used in the experiment were used. Skin color was measured in below the dorsal fin of all fish. Measurements were recorded at the end of the feeding trial using a Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR400.
    Results
    At the end of the trial, the carotenoid supplemented diets significantly increased the values of redness (a*), yellowness (b*), and chroma (C*), and decreased the values of lightness (L*) and hue (Hoab) on the tail, body, and head areas (p<0.05). luminosity  (L*)  and  hue (H°ab) were less in fishes fed the diets with live foods and astaxanthin than  in  fishes  fed  the  control  diet  with  no pigment sources (p<0.05). yellowness  (b*),  and  Chroma  (C*)  were  greater in fish  fed  the culex and were  less  in  fish  fed  the control diet(p<0.05). Results  show  that  live foods used in this trial  can  be  used  as  an  alternative natural  carotenoid  source  in  electric yellow  diets.
    Keywords: Culex larvae, Chironomus larvae, Live food, Artemia, Pigment, Yellow fish
  • Zahra Mohammadiamini *, Yaghob Mansori, Hassan Zaki Dizaji Pages 2891-2897
    Objective
    In recent years, farmers have shown great interest to using native drill planter rather than complex planters to grow vegetables.
    Methods
    In this study, we tested a native planter Independent variables were the two types of substrate surface (asphalt and plowed field), three ground speed (3, 5 and 7 kph) and four types of seeds (tomatoes, onions, radishes and lettuce). Dependent variables were the seed’s lateral dispersion coefficient compared to the straight line, seed shedding rate per unit area. effect Percentage of metering device on seed viability, and breakage percentage of seeds after crossing the metering device.
    Results
    The results showed that, the rate of seed shedding per hectare declines in all seeds along with increasing ground speed. However the lateral dispersion coefficient of the straight line planting has increasing trend along with increasing ground speed and the both parameters are lower in asphalt’s substrate surface than the cultivated ground. breakage percentage of seeds and effect Percentage of metering device on the viability of seeds after passing through the planter are also very low. It assume that use of the planter in front of method of hand cultivation reduce some costs such as costs of seed’s purchase.
    Keywords: Planer, vegetables, Ground speed, test, Seed
  • Ghader Najafi *, Fatin Cedden, Hamid Kohram, Abbas Akbari Sharif Pages 2898-2904
    Objective
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate artificial insemination techniques on reproductive performance in Ghezel ewes synchronized with CIDR during breeding season.
    Methods
    All ewes were treated with controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) inserted into the vagina of the ewes for 14 days. All ewes were treated a single intramuscular (IM) dose of PMSG was injected. In this experiment 120 head ewes divided into four subgroups randomly and experimental groups consist of: control 1, ram mating, n=30; control 2, ram mating plus 550 IU PMSG, n=30; group 1, laparoscopical intrauterine insemination plus 550 IU PMSG, n= 30; group 2, cervical insemination plus 550 IU PMSG, n= 30.
    Results
    In this experiment estrus responses were similar in all groups (control 1, 76.7%; control 2, 93%; group 1, 96%; group 2, 100%). There were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) between the treatment groups and the control groups for the estrus response. Pregnancy rates were 70%, 90.0%, 83.3% and 60% in control groups 1, 2 and AI groups 1, 2 respectively. Twinning rates (10% to 34.6%) and litter size (1.10 to 1.35) were significantly different in the treatment groups and the control group 1 (P<0.05). As a result, conception rate in the laparoscopical intrauterine insemination was higher than cervical insemination.
    Keywords: Ghezel ewe, Artificial insemination, techniques, Reproductive, Performance
  • Elahe Yaribeigi *, Seyed Jamal Hosseini, Farhad Lashgarara, Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi, Maryam Omidi Najafabadi Pages 2905-2908

    Entrepreneurship in the world, especially in Western developed countries, the much interest in recent years the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystems and integrating the separation of infrastructure services needed by entrepreneurs and governments innovative citizens, industrialists and entrepreneurs to create. a person apart from the idea of an entrepreneur, long way to run and deliver it to the finally, profitability and growth of the organization. In many cases the idea does not run and stays in the mind. Entrepreneurship ecosystem is composed of the factors in the development of entrepreneurship involved. Macro-economic factors, cultural, social and political willingness and ability to influence the choice of entrepreneurial activity. Hence the to create an entrepreneurial environment, due to factors such as culture, policy, Financial resources, human capital, market and support services as areas entrepreneurship ecosystem is of particular importance.

    Keywords: development, ecosystem, Entrepreneurship
  • Getinet Alemaw *, Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun, Girma Taye, Chalachew Endalamaw Pages 2909-2914
    Objective
    Castor (Ricinuscommunis L.) is an industrial oilseed that belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Castor is believed to be originated in East Africa probably Ethiopia. Although Ethiopia is known as a primary diversity for castor the knowledge on nature and extent of variation of the indigenous germplasm is limited. The present test was conducted to study the nature and extent of variability among Ethiopian castor accessions.
    Methods
    The test was conducted at Melkassa and Arsi Negelle, in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopiaduring the main season of 2013/14. A total of 105 accessions were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data of 12 characters were collected and analyzed statistically. Combined analysis of variance over locations reveled the existence of significant variation among accession in all the traits considered in this study. The interaction between accessions and environment was significant for eight of the 12 traits studied.
    Results
    The accessions showed a wide range of variation on days to first flowering (52-148), days to second flowering (65-161), days to first maturity (118-217), days to second maturity (142-237), inflorescence length (13-74 cm), node length (2-32 cm),  number of nodes/plant (5-26), number of inflorescence/plant (1-26), plant height (89-356), number of branches/plant (1-9), number of capsules/plant (10-350), hundred seed weight (21-99 g),number of seeds/plant (30-990). Overall highest value of heritability, genetic coefficient of variability and genetic advance as percent of the mean was recorded for number of nodes/plant, number of capsules/plant and 100 seed weight.
    Keywords: Castor, Ethiopia, Ricinuscommunis L, Variability
  • Mehdi Taghizadeghan *, Majid Norouzi, Saeid Aharizad Pages 2915-2919
    Objective
    Wheat is the most important crop in Iran. Self sufficiency in wheat production is one of the economic and food safety policies in the country. In spite of the efforts which have been made in this area, the mean of wheat yield in Iran is less than its world average.
    Methods
    In order to identifying of the high yielding wheat lines with optimal characteristics and to determine the traits which could be used as the selection index for increasing of grain yield, 40 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Norstar and Zagros cultivars were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications.
    Results
    Significant differences were observed among the lines for all of studied traits, except the spike weight, flag leaf area and the straw yield. Higher genetic diversity was observed among the inbred lines with respect to the kernel per spike, the number of spikes, the biomass and the straw yield. The Peduncle weight, second internode weight, number of kernels per spike per spike, number of the spikes and 1000 kernel weight traits showed a high degree of heritability. The highest genetic gain was estimated for the peduncle weight, the second internode weight and number of kernel per spike. Correlation, stepwise regression and path analyses revealed the number of kernels per spike and the number of spikes in plot had highest direct effects on grain yield. The analyses were carried out using WARD algorithm and standardized data. Cluster analysis based on all traits assigned the lines into groups.
    Keywords: Agronomic traits, Genetic diversity, Grain yield, Recombinant inbred, line
  • Ghoudarz Khajehpour *, Vahid Jam’Eizadeh, Nematollah Khajehpour Pages 2920-2924
    Objective
    In order to study the effect of different concentrations of IBA hormone on rooting of olive cuttings in spring and winter of 2012-2013 in a greenhouse in Jiroft, Iran.
    Methods
    a split-plot experiment was conducted on the basis of a Randomized Complete Block Design in which hardwood cuttings of one-year-old olive plants cv. Manzanilla with the diameter of 0.7-1 cm were used. The main plot was devoted to cutting seasons at two levels of spring (late-May) and winter (late-January) and the sub-plot was devoted to IBA (indulebutyric acid) hormone treatment at five levels of 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm.
    Results
    It was found that 3000 ppm IBA increased the number of roots, the percentage of rooted cuttings, branch length, and root:shoot fresh weight. In traits such as root length and root dry weight, the highest effect was observed under the treatment with 4000 ppm IBA. But, control treatment had the lowest effect on the traits of rooting in olive cuttings. Cuttings planted in spring showed the highest effect on their evaluated traits (by 10-15%) with a significant difference with those planted in winter. The interaction between hormone and planting time was significant only for root fresh weight.
    Keywords: IBA hormone, Olive, Manzanilla, Cutting, root
  • Mosayeb Baghaie *, Mohamad Chizari Pages 2925-2933
    Objective
    The main purpose of this research is review of principles, concepts, problems and solutions of soil ethic.
    Methods
    In this research by descriptive method and Delphi technique was used for identifying soil ethical concepts, soil ethical principles, problems and difficulties of soil ethics in Iran and al around the world and suggestions for improvement of soil ethics in Iran. The population of this research are consist of panel of faculty members of Agricultural Research Center of Isfahan and faculty members of Industrial and Payamenoor Universities of Isfahan and managers of agricultural education and extension of Agricultural Organization of Isfahan (n=35) and was studied by census method.
    Results
    According to results The most important soil ethical problem in all around the world is soil and water pollution, The most important problem of soil ethics in Iran is overuse of chemical inputs in agriculture, Water and soil's pollution by factories and etc., misuse of soil and water, lack of attention to the production of healthy and organic products and etc, The most important soil ethical principles are: Changes in attitudes and knowledge of producers in protecting soil resources, Use of organic and biological inputs and paying attention to the environment and finally According to the results, changing farmer's behaviors to give value for soil, increasing technical knowledge and producer's skills for optimal use of water and soil, emphasizing on religious issues about soil and etc. are the best suggestions for solving the soil problems.
    Keywords: Soil ethics, Soil conservation, Soil erosion
  • Mahdi Zare *, Korosh Ordookhani, Abouzar Emadi, Arash Azarpanah Pages 2934-2939
    Objective
    Soil salinity is one of the major worldwide environmental constraints affecting agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions. Lack of proper management of water and soil resources lead to increase soil salinity and reduce soil fertility. On the other hand, it seems simple and cheap method of measuring soil salinity is necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in some salt-affected soils of Marvdasht plain, Fars, Iran.
    Methods
    To this purpose, fifty soil samples were randomly taken from surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-20) cm from different fields of experimental site.
    Results
    The statistical results of the study indicated that to predict soil ESP based on soil SAR the linear regression model ESP=0.941+1.119SAR with R2 =0.806 can be recommended.
    Keywords: ESP, SAR, Soil Salinity
  • Dina Sezavar, Mohadeseh Miri * Pages 2940-2948
    Objective
    In this article, a numerical study is conducted on mixing of two fluids in the liquid phase with two different concentrations of a chemical species in the electro-osmotic flow.
    Methods
    The base liquid is an electrolyte which flows in a two-dimensional micro-channel having electrically charged walls. Lorentz electric force, which is used as stimulating flow factor, is created by applying an external electric field on the electric double layer (EDL) aroused by adjacency of electrolyte and charged wall.
    Results
    To ensure the convergence of the results obtained from the computer program, equations are solved iteratively until the residual amount after solving each equation is less than machine error and independence of results from the number and location of network nodes is verified for an experimental flow. To increase the mixing efficiency, some square and triangle shaped obstacles are embedded on the micro channel wall. Herein, the fundamental principles for passive mixing as well as the effect of frequency and height of the barriers on mixing efficiency are studied. The obtained results from numerical solving of electro-osmotic flow in micro-channel are compared with the theoretical results and a very good agreement is observed.
    Keywords: Electro-osmotic, Passive micro-mixer, Barrier-embedded
  • Fatemeh Madadian Chaleshtory *, Naser Honarjoo, Ahmad Jalalian Pages 2949-2952
    Objective
    Soil organic carbon has been the most important soil quality measurement factors and has intense relation with soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics. Organic matter and its components are important factors of soil aggregates constitution and stability and play significant role in its structure. So, this research has been done for achieving this purpose.
    Methods
    This area is arounding saman _ one of the charmahalobakhtiari counties in distance 20_30 km northeast. In this study, from 127 point in 3 land uses of fruit garden, degraded range, and dry farming, soil sampling of surface depth 0_30 cm was done. The soil samples were analyzed chemically and physically. Also ,soil organic carbon supply, mean weight diameter, particle organic carbon in macro and micro soil aggregates and total particle organic carbon were measured. For considering lands username type effect on soil characteristics and organic carbon physical distribution in case study area, variance analysis by SAS software and comparing averages by dancon method were done.
    Results
    Comparing soil characteristics in 3 land uses of garden, degraded range and dry farming showed that land uses changed on pH, lime and soil bulk density have not been affect significantly but have affected on total soil organic carbon, soil nitrogen, EC, soil organic carbon supply, mean weight diameter, particle organic carbon in macro and micro soil aggregates and total particle organic carbon. In garden land use, most total organic carbon rates, total nitrogen rate, soil organic carbon supply, mean weight diameter, particle organic carbon in macro and micro soil aggregates and total particle organic carbon has been observed. Increasing MWD in garden land use is related to high rate of organic material in this soil.
    Keywords: Land use, POC, POC (mic), POC (mac)