فهرست مطالب

  • سال هجدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 67، 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • صفیه پذیره، احمد نظامی*، محمد کافی، مرتضی گلدانی صفحات 1-14

    سیر گیاهی دارویی و سرمادوست است اما در مورد میزان تحمل به سرمای آن اطلاعات چندانی در دسترس نمی باشد. این آزمایش به منظور بررسی میزان تحمل اکوتیپ‎های مختلف این گیاه به تنش یخ‏زدگی، در سال 1391 در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار، اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل چهار اکوتیپ سیر (بجنورد، تربت حیدریه، خواف و نیشابور)، هشت دمای یخ‏زدگی (دمای صفر (شاهد)، 3-، 6-، 9-، 12-، 15-، 18- و 21- درجه سانتی‏گراد) و دو تاریخ کاشت (28 شهریور و 30 مهر) بودند. برای این منظور گیاهان کشت شده در گلدان در فضای آزاد جهت خوسرمایی رشد یافته و سپس به فریزر ترموگرادیان منتقل شدند. سه هفته پس از اعمال دماهای یخ‏زدگی درصد بقاء، دمای کشنده 50 درصد گیاهان براساس درصد بقاء (LT50su)، ارتفاع، سطح برگ، دمای کاهنده 50 درصد سطح برگ (RLAT50)، وزن خشک و دمای کاهنده 50 درصد وزن خشک (RDMT50) تعیین شدند. نتایج نشان داد اثر متقابل تاریخ کاشت، اکوتیپ و دماهای یخ‏زدگی بر درصد بقاء، ارتفاع، سطح برگ و وزن خشک در پایان دوره بازیافت معنی‏دار بود. با وجود این که در کاشت اول تنها دو اکوتیپ بجنورد و تربت حیدریه قادر به تحمل دمای 15- درجه سانتی‏گراد بودند اما در کاشت دوم دو اکوتیپ تربت حیدریه و نیشابور در دمای ذکر شده به ترتیب متحمل 40 و 33 درصد تلفات گیاهی شدند در حالی که اکوتیپ‏های خواف و بجنورد از حداکثر بقاء برخوردار بودند.  LT50suدر اکوتیپ‏های بجنورد و تربت حیدریه در کاشت اول کمتر از کاشت دوم بود، اما در اکوتیپ‏های نیشابور و خواف، گیاهان کاشت دوم نسبت به کاشت اول LT50su کمتری داشتند. سطح برگ اکوتیپ‏های تربت حیدریه، خواف و نیشابور در کاشت دوم نسبت به کاشت اول افزایش بیشتری داشتند، در حالی که اکوتیپ بجنورد در کاشت اول دارای بیشترین سطح برگ بود. در هر دو تاریخ کاشت کمترین RLAT50 و RDMT50 را اکوتیپ بجنورد به خود اختصاص داد، در صورتی که در کاشت اول بیشترین مقدار این دو شاخص در اکوتیپ خواف مشاهده شد. همبستگی بالایی بین  RLAT50و RDMT50 با  LT50su(به ترتیب**98/0r= و **90/0r=) وجود داشت و لذا به نظر می‏رسد که می‏توان از این شاخص‏ها برای ارزیابی تحمل به یخ زدگی سیر استفاده کرد. بررسی تحمل به سرمای سیر در شرایط مزرعه، جهت بررسی همبستگی احتمالی بین نتایج آن با شرایط کنترل شده سودمند خواهد بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ کاشت، خوسرمایی، درصد بقاء، دمای یخ ‏زدگی، سرما
  • موسی ایزدخواه شیشوان*، مهدی تاج بخش شیشوان صفحات 15-29

    به منظور بررسی اثر پرایمینگ و اندازه بذر بر عملکرد زیست توده،کارایی مصرف آب و برخی ویژگی های اکوفیزیولوژیک اکوتیپ های پیاز خوراکی، این پژوهش در دو سال زراعی 1391 و 1392 به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل پرایمینگ در چهار سطح (هیدروپرایمینگ با آب مقطر، اسموپرایمینگ با نیترات پتاسیم، پرایمینگ با استفاده از محلول فولامین2 درصد و شاهد (پرایمینگ نشده)، اندازه بذر در سه سطح (ریز، متوسط و درشت) و اکوتیپ در دو سطح قرمز آذرشهر و زرقان بود. ویژگی های عملکرد زیست توده، کارایی مصرف آب سوخ و زیست توده، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، میزان آب مصرفی، شاخص برداشت، هدایت روزنه ای در مرحله سوخ دهی و پر شدن سوخ، میزان رشد، درجه باردهی، انرژی دریافتی و مقدار انرژی تولیدی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. اثر پرایمینگ و اندازه بذر از نظر تمام ویژگی مورد بررسی از لحاظ آماری تفاوت معنی دار نشان داد. نتایج نشان داد که پرایمینگ بذر موجب بهبود عملکرد زیست توده و ویژگی های اکوفیزیولوژیک گیاه گردید، به طوری که بیشترین میزان عملکرد زیست توده (98/105 تن در هکتار)، کارایی مصرف آب سوخ (98/4 کیلوگرم در متر مکعب)، کارایی مصرف آب زیست توده (30/13 کیلوگرم در متر مکعب)، شاخص برداشت (82 درصد) و محتوای نسبی آب برگ (86 درصد) به پرایمینگ با ماده فولامین تعلق داشت و کمترین آن ها از تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد زیست توده (33/100 تن در هکتار)، کارایی مصرف آب سوخ (88/4 کیلوگرم در متر مکعب)، کارایی مصرف آب زیست توده (30/13 کیلوگرم در متر مکعب)، شاخص برداشت (80 درصد) و محتوای نسبی آب برگ (85 درصد) از بذور درشت و کمترین آن ها از بذر ریز به دست آمد. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان داد پیش تیمار بذر با استفاده از ماده فولامین و بذور درشت در مقایسه با سایر روش های پیش تیمار و اندازه بذر، باعث بهبود ویژگی های پیاز خوراکی گردید، لذا استفاده از پیش تیمار با ماده فولامین و اندازه درشت بذر جهت کاشت پیاز در شرایط مشابه این آزمایش قابل توصیه است.

    کلیدواژگان: اسموپرایمینگ، درجه باردهی، فولامین، میزان رشد
  • خالد عبدالله پور، علیرضا کوچکی*، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، سرور خرم دل صفحات 31-47

    به منظور بررسی اثر نسبت های مختلف کشت بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه دارویی سیاه دانه (L. Nigella sativa) و شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) در سری های افزایشی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با شش تیمار و سه تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 95-1394 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل کشت مخلوط افزایشی 25% سیاه دانه+ 100% شنبلیله، 50% سیاه دانه+ 100% شنبلیله، 75% سیاه دانه+ 100% شنبلیله، 100% سیاه دانه+ 100% شنبلیله و کشت خالص هر دو گونه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تعداد شاخه جانبی در بوته، تعداد کپسول/غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در کپسول/غلاف، عملکرد تک بوته، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیکی برای هر دو گونه به طور معنی داری تحت تاثیر نسبت های کشت مخلوط قرار گرفت. با افزایش نسبت سیاه دانه در کشت مخلوط، عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیکی آن افزایش یافت، به طوری که بیشترین (291 کیلوگرم در هکتار) عملکرد دانه از کشت خالص و کمترین (107 کیلوگرم در هکتار) میزان آن در تیمار 25% سیاه دانه+ 100% شنبلیله حاصل شد. همچنین تیمار کشت خالص شنبلیله دارای بالاترین (655 کیلوگرم در هکتار) عملکرد دانه بود. در کلیه نسبت های مخلوط LER بالاتر از یک بود و تیمار 75% سیاه دانه + 100% شنبلیله با 24/1LER= در بالاترین سطح قرار گرفت که این امر نشان دهنده افزایش کارایی و سودمندی زراعی نسبت های مختلف کشت مخلوط دو گیاه شنبلیله و سیاه دانه نسبت به کشت خالص آن ها است.

    کلیدواژگان: سری های افزایشی، گیاه دارویی، نسبت برابری زمین
  • رقیه مردانی*، کاظم پوستینی، علیرضا عباسی، احمدعلی پوربابایی، القاکننده خارجی، ترشحات بذر، لوتئولین، ژن lacZ صفحات 49-59

    لوتئولین یکی از مهم ترین فلاونوئیدها است که توسط بذرهای در حال جوانه زنی یونجه ترشح می شود. در این مطالعه تاثیر لوتئولین بر بیان ژن گره زایی دو سویه Rhizobium meliloti با استفاده از پلاسمید حامل پروموتور nodA و ژن lacZ از باکتری Escherichia coli و توسط فعالیت آنزیم β-galactosidase مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. لوتئولین بیان ژن nod را به طور معنی داری افزایش داد. سپس تاثیر لوتئولین و ترشحات بذر بر گره زایی و عملکرد یونجه در شرایط تنش شوری و بدون شوری مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. برای این منظور، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی، در سه تکرار و تیمارهای شوری، ارقام یونجه، سویه باکتری و نوع کاربرد القاکننده های خارجی اجرا شد. سطوح شوری شامل: شاهد (بدون شوری) و آب با شوری 15دسی زیمنس بر متر، روش به کارگیری القاکننده ها در سه سطح (پیش تیمار سویه های ریزوبیوم با لوتئولین، استفاده از لوتئولین و ترشحات بذر به طور مستقیم روی سطح بذر و شاهد) دو رقم یونجه (022/G و 019/G) و سویه های باکتری شامل سویه حساس و مقاوم به شوری بود. در شرایط شوری تیمار بذرهای یونجه با القاکننده ها، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه و ارتفاع گیاه را به طور متوسط 30%، تعداد گره را 47% افزایش داد ولی بر غلظت کلروفیل تاثیر معنی داری نداشت. همچنین، شوری موجب افزایش چهار برابری پرولین نسبت به شرایط عادی شد که استفاده از لوتئولین و ترشحات بذر، پرولین را در شرایط شوری به ترتیب 66/1 و 35/1 برابر افزایش داد ولی در شرایط عادی کاربرد القاکننده ها تاثیر معنی داری بر محتوای پرولین نداشت. همچنین، شوری محتوای سدیم برگ (7 برابر) و ریشه (5/8 برابر) را افزایش داد و محتوای پتاسیم این اندام ها را به ترتیب 29% و 24% کاهش داد که کاربرد لوتئولین و ترشحات بذر تا حدی این تغییرات را تعدیل کرد. در این آزمایش، در تمام صفات مورد مطالعه، اختلاف معنی داری بین شاهد و پیش تیمار باکتری ها با لوتئولین مشاهده نشد. به طور کلی، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که لوتئولین و ترشحات بذر می تواند به عنوان القاکننده خارجی در بهبود رشد و گره زایی یونجه در شرایط شور و عادی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: القاکننده خارجی، ترشحات بذر، لوتئولین، ژن lacZ
  • مسعود ترابی، محسن حیدری سلطان آبادی* صفحات 61-70

    در تحقیقی سه ساله (1393-1390) اثرات مصرف تلفیقی عناصر فسفر و ریزمغذی (حاوی آهن، منگنز، مس و روی) بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی بذر و علوفه تولیدی دو اکوتیپ یونجه همدانی و رهنانی، در ایستگاه تحقیقات گلپایگان مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. به این منظور از طرح آماری کرت های خرد شده در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار استفاده گردید که در آن دو اکوتیپ یونجه رهنانی و همدانی به عنوان عامل اصلی و تلفیق میزان مصرف کودهای فسفر در سه سطح صفر، 65 و 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار در دو حالت محلول پاشی و عدم محلول پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی به عنوان عامل فرعی به صورت تیمار مرکب بررسی گردید. بر اساس نتایج، میانگین عملکرد علوفه تر و بذر در اکوتیپ های همدانی و رهنانی بدون اختلاف معنی دار به ترتیب 40/35 و 77/34 تن در هکتار و 498 و 487 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. سال اثر معنی داری بر عملکرد علوفه تر و خشک، میزان بذر تولیدی و وزن هزار دانه داشت به گونه ای که حداقل و حداکثر صفات یاد شده به ترتیب مربوط به سال اول و دوم بود. بیشترین مقدار علوفه تر تولیدی با مقدار 42/45 تن در هکتار، بیشترین میزان بذر تولیدی با مقدار 689 کیلوگرم در هکتار و بیشترین درصد جوانه زنی بذر با میزان 12/95 درصد در تیمار کودی 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار فسفر همراه با محلول پاشی با عناصر ریزمغذی حاصل شد. مقادیر یاد شده در تیمار شاهد (بدون کود فسفر و عدم محلول پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی) دارای حداقل مقدار بود.

    کلیدواژگان: اکوتیپ رهنانی، اکوتیپ همدانی، درصد جوانه زنی، کود، وزن هزار دانه
  • محمد بنایان اول*، کمال حاج محمد نیا قالی باف، فاطمه یعقوبی، زهرا رشیدی، نیوشا ولایی صفحات 71-83

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر سیستم های مختلف خاک‎ورزی و مدیریت بقایای گیاهی بر میزان آب خاک، اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد گندم، آزمایشی مزرعه‎ای در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد طی سال زراعی 97-1396 انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. شیوه های مختلف خاک‎ورزی شامل شیوه متداول خاک‎ورزی و کاهش یافته به عنوان کرت های اصلی و سه مدیریت بقایای گیاهی شامل حفظ صفر، 30 و 60 درصد بقایای گوجه فرنگی به عنوان کرت های فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سیستم خاک ورزی بر میزان آب خاک در عمق 20-0 سانتی متری در دو روز پس از آبیاری چهارم و عمق 40-20 سانتی متری در دو روز پس از آبیاری پنجم، ششم و هفتم، تعداد سنبله در متر مربع، تعداد دانه در سنبله، عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک گندم معنی دار بود و بیشترین مقادیر این صفات از تیمار خاک ورزی کاهش یافته حاصل شد. اما اثر مدیریت بقایای گیاهی بر هیچ یک از صفات مورد مطالعه معنی دار نبود. نتایج اثر متقابل نشان داد تنها میزان آب خاک در عمق 20-0 و 40-20 سانتی متری خاک به ترتیب دو روز پس از آبیاری چهارم و سوم، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه تحت تاثیر سیستم خاک ورزی و مدیریت بقایای گیاهی قرار گرفتند. حداکثر میزان آب خاک (10/22% و 57/17% در عمق 20-0 و 40-20 سانتی متری خاک به ترتیب دو روز پس از آبیاری چهارم و سوم) و وزن هزار دانه (44/38 گرم) در سیستم خاک ورزی کاهش یافته و حفظ 60 درصد بقایای گیاهی به دست آمد و تیمار خاک ورزی کاهش یافته و حفظ 30 درصد بقایای گیاهی بیشترین تعداد دانه در سنبله (90/61) و عملکرد دانه (67/7120 کیلوگرم در هکتار) را به خود اختصاص داد. با توجه به نتایج حاصله اعمال خاک ورزی کاهش یافته و حفظ 30 درصد بقایای گوجه فرنگی جهت حصول به عملکرد بالاتر، مطلوب به نظر می رسد.

    کلیدواژگان: بقایای گوجه فرنگی، خاک‎ورزی حفاظتی، رطوبت خاک، شخم کاهشی
  • قربان خدابین، زین العابدین طهماسبی سروستانی*، امیر حسین شیرانی راد، سید علی محمد مدرس ثانوی، اسماعیل بخشنده صفحات 85-100

    بررسی واکنش ارقام مختلف کلزا به عوامل محیطی یکی از اصول اساسی برنامه ریزی کشور برای حصول حداکثر عملکرد کمی و کیفی است. کم آبی و عدم تغذیه مناسب از جمله عواملی هستند که با تغییر در فرآیندهای فیزیولوژیک گیاه بر عملکرد محصولات زراعی تاثیر می گذارد. به منظور بررسی واکنش 3 رقم کلزا در شرایط قطع آبیاری و محلول پاشی عناصر ریز مغذی، بر خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک، مورفولوژیک و عملکرد، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل اسپیلیت در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل آبیاری در دو سطح آبیاری معمول و قطع آبیاری در مرحله 50% گلدهی، محلول پاشی در چهار سطح با آب، غلظت چهار در هزار سولفات روی، غلظت چهار در هزار سولفات منگنز و محلول پاشی هم زمان سولفات روی و سولفات منگنز با غلظت چهار در هزار در مرحله 50% ساقه دهی و رقم در سه سطح رقم  نیما به عنوان رقم شاهد و لاین های امیدبخش R15 و KS7 بودند. بیشترین میزان عملکرد روغن (1728 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، وزن هزاردانه (21/3 گرم)، عملکرد زیستی (15675 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کارایی مصرف آب (99/0 کیلوگرم در هکتار بر میلی متر) مربوط به اثر اصلی تیمار محلول پاشی هم زمان دو عنصر بود. نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط آبیاری عادی، بیشترین عملکرد دانه (5168 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد روغن (2244 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کارایی مصرف آب در لاین R15 و در شرایط قطع آبیاری در رقم نیما به دست آمد. در شرایط آبیاری کامل، محلول پاشی هم زمان دو عنصر باعث افزایش صفات مورد بررسی شد. اما در شرایط قطع آبیاری تنها ارتفاع بوته و درصد روغن تحت تاثیر محلول پاشی افزایش پیدا کرد. در شرایط آبیاری کامل لاین R15 رقم برتر بود، اما در شرایط قطع آبیاری رقم نیما بیشترین عملکرد و اجزای آن را دارا بود.

    کلیدواژگان: عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد، عناصر ریزمغذی، کارایی مصرف آب
  • فرامرز یقینی، رئوف سید شریفی*، حامد نریمانی صفحات 101-109

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر کاربرد آبیاری تکمیلی و کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد دانه، محتوای کلروفیل و مولفه های پر شدن دانه گندم دیم، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اردبیل طی سال 1395 اجرا شد. عامل های آزمایشی سطوح آبیاری در سه مرحله (شامل عدم آبیاری یا کشت دیم، آبیاری تکمیلی در مراحل تورم غلاف برگ پرچم (بوتینگ) و ظهور سنبله به ترتیب بر مبنای کد 45 و 61 از تقسیم بندیBBCH)، کاربرد کودهای زیستی در چهار سطح (شامل تلقیح بذر با آزوسپریلیوم، کاربرد میکوریزا، کاربرد توام میکوریزا و آزوسپریلیوم و بدون کاربرد کودهای زیستی به عنوان شاهد) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد توام میکوریزا و آزوسپریلیوم و آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله تورم غلاف برگ پرچم (بوتینگ)، محتوای کلروفیل a، b، کلروفیل کل و کاروتنوئید را (به ترتیب 6/76، 26/46، 57/49 و 100 درصد) در مقایسه با عدم کاربرد کودهای زیستی تحت شرایط دیم افزایش داد. همچنین کاربرد توام میکوریزا و آزوسپریلیوم و انجام آبیاری تکمیلی در مرحله تورم غلاف برگ پرچم (بوتینگ)، به ترتیب موجب افزایش 26/15، 35/51، 04/14، 92/35 و 27/35 درصدی در سرعت پر شدن دانه، وزن تک بذر، طول دوره ی پر شدن، دوره موثر پر شدن دانه و عملکرد دانه نسبت به عدم کاربرد کودهای زیستی تحت شرایط دیم شد. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، به نظر می رسد کاربرد آبیاری تکمیلی و کودهای بیولوژیک می تواند به عنوان تعدیل کننده های تنش خشکی در گندم تحت شرایط دیم پیشنهاد شود.

    کلیدواژگان: آزوسپریلیوم، رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی، محدودیت آبی، میکوریزا
  • معصومه مکوندی، عبدالمهدی بخشنده، آیدین خدایی جوقان*، علی مشتطی، محمد رضا مرادی تلاوت صفحات 111-123

    به منظور بررسی اثر هم زیستی قارچ مایکوریزا (Glomus interadices) و کمپوست کود دامی ترکیب شده با زئولیت بر رشد و عملکرد تریتیکاله، آزمایشی مزرعه ای به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار طی سال 97-1396 در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کاربرد قارچ مایکوریزا در دو سطح (تلقیح و عدم تلقیح) و درصد اختلاط زئولیت با کمپوست کود دامی در شش سطح (0، 5، 10، 15، 20 و 25 درصد وزنی کود دامی) بودند. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده در شرایط تلقیح قارچ بیشترین ارتفاع بوته در سطح 10 درصد زئولیت با میانگین 3/124 سانتی متر به دست آمد، در صورتی که در تیمار عدم تلقیح بیشترین ارتفاع بوته در سطح 20 درصد زئولیت با میانگین 6/106 سانتی متر حاصل شد. تعداد سنبله در متر مربع بر اثر کاربرد 20 درصد زئولیت (456) در حدود 36 درصد بیشتر از عدم کاربرد زئولیت (303) بود. در شرایط تلقیح مایکوریزا بیشترین عملکرد دانه (7/3510 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به تیمار کاربرد 10 درصد زئولیت و کمترین عملکرد دانه (6/1579کیلوگرم در هکتار) به تیمار عدم کاربرد زئولیت تعلق گرفت، در حالی که در شرایط عدم کاربرد قارچ مایکوریزا برای افزایش عملکرد دانه به زئولیت بیشتری نیاز بود و با افزایش میزان زئولیت تا 20 درصد عملکرد دانه افزایش یافت. با توجه به نتایج آزمایش حاضر مصرف 10 درصد زئولیت در کمپوست کود دامی به همراه تلقیح با قارچ مایکوریزا، برای افزایش عملکرد دانه تریتیکاله توصیه می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: اجزای عملکرد، قارچ اندوفیت، کود آلی، مواد اصلاح کننده کود
  • حسین آزادواری، معصومه نعیمی*، عبدالطیف قلی زاده، علی نخزری مقدم صفحات 125-137

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر اسید سالیسیلیک بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و اسانس گیاه دارویی سیاهدانه (Nigella sativa L.) تحت شرایط کم آبی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی گنبد کاووس در سال زراعی 97-1396 انجام شد. سطوح مختلف آبیاری در چهار سطح شامل: عدم آبیاری (دیم)، یک بار آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی، یک بار آبیاری در مرحله پر شدن دانه و انجام دو بار آبیاری به ترتیب در زمان گلدهی و پر شدن دانه و عامل اسید سالیسیلیک در سه سطح شامل: عدم مصرف اسید سالیسیلیک (شاهد)، پرایمینگ بذر با اسید سالیسیلیک و محلول پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک به میزان 5/0 میلی مولار در لیتر در نظر گرفته شدند. صفات مورد مطالعه در این آزمایش شامل: ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد کپسول در بوته، تعداد دانه در کپسول، وزن کپسول در بوته، وزن خشک بوته، درصد اسانس، عملکرد اسانس و در نهایت عملکرد دانه در گیاه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات برهمکنش آبیاری و اسید سالیسیلیک بر کلیه صفات مورد ارزیابی به جز درصد اسانس و عملکرد اسانس معنی دار بود و کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک باعث افزایش صفات مورفولوژیکی گردید. بیشترین میزان اسانس (655/0 درصد) و عملکرد اسانس (93/7 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در سطوح مختلف آبیاری به ترتیب مربوط به تیمار آبیاری در مرحله پر شدن دانه و دو بار آبیاری بود. تیمار اسید سالیسیلیک به صورت محلول پاشی بیشترین میزان اسانس و عملکرد اسانس را به خود اختصاص داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (1330 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار محلول پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط دوبار آبیاری و کمترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار عدم مصرف اسید سالیسیلیک به میزان 817 کیلوگرم در هکتار در شرایط دیم به دست آمد. به طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که با مصرف اسید سالیسیلیک به صورت محلول پاشی و دو بار آبیاری می توان به عملکرد مطلوب سیاهدانه دست یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: اسانس، تنش خشکی، پرایمینگ، عملکرد دانه، محلول پاشی
|
  • S Pazireh, A Nezami, M Kafi, M Goldani Pages 1-14
    Introduction

    Garlic is a medicinal and cool season plant, but there is not much information on its level of cold tolerance. Khorasan province is one of the suitable areas for growing garlic. The conventional planting date of garlic in this region takes place between 6 October and 5 December. Available evidences shows that garlic plants have been affected by cold stress due to inappropriate planting date. Some researchers have recommended the use of controlled freezing tests as a suitable approach to assess cold tolerance of plants. In this regard, it is stated that LT50su in wheat had the highest correlation with field survival index when the crown was exposed to cold stress. The present experiment was conducted to study cold tolerance and understanding the most critical growth stages of garlic ecotypes to cold stress under controlled conditions.

    Materials and Methods

    This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on completely randomized design with four replications in Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2012. The experimental factors included two levels of planting date (18 September and 21 October), garlic ecotype in four levels (Bojnurd, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Neyshabur and Khaf) and eight levels of freezing temperature (0, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18 and -21°C). Plants that grown in outside conditions and acclimated to cold temperatures were transferred to the thermogradient freezer to apply cold stress. Survival percentage, Lethal Temperature 50% mortality according to the survival percentage (LT50su), plant height, leaf area, reduced leaf area temperature 50 (RLAT50), dry weight and reduced dry matter temperature 50 (RDMT50) were determined at three weeks after applying the stress.

    Results and Discussion

    In the first planting date, the survival of Bojnurd and Torbat-e Heydarieh ecotypes decreased 20% and 26% at -15 °C compared with zero temperature, respectively, while two other ecotypes disappeared at this temperature. In the second planting date, Khaf and Bojnurd ecotypes had a good survival at -15 °C while Neyshabur and Torbat-e Heydarieh ecotypes disappeared 60 and 67% at this temperature, respectively. Since the growth stage has an effect on cold acclimation and stress tolerance, this response can be due to difference in the growth stage of plants. However, this reaction was different depending on the ecotypes. With changing planting date from September to October, LT50su decreased 9.6 and 6 °C in Khaf and Neysabur ecotypes, and increased 3.9 and 2 °C in Bojnurd and Torbat-e Heydarieh ecotypes, respectively. In the first planting date with decreasing temperature from zero to -18 °C, the maximum and minimum decrease in height (90 and 27%) were observed in Torbat-e Heydarieh and Bojnurd ecotypes, and Neyshabur and Khaf ecotypes disappeared at this temperature. Also, in the second planting date with decreasing temperature from zero to -15 °C, plant height decreased 47, 52 and 30% in Khaf, Torbat-e Heydarieh and Neyshabur ecotypes, respectively. However, plants height of Bojnurd ecotype decreased only 4% under similar conditions. In the first planting date Bojnurd and Torbat-e Heydarieh ecotypes had the lowest decrease in leaf area (about 3 and 17%, respectively) at 12 °C compared with zero temperature, while Khaf and Neyshabur ecotypes assigned to themselves the highest decrease in leaf area (about 85 and 58%, respectively). Also, in the second planting date leaf area of Bojnurd ecotype decreased 18% at -15 °C compared with zero temperature, while in similar conditions Torbat-e Heydarieh, Khaf and Neyshabur ecotypes had 56, 38 and 58% decrease in leaf area, respectively. The lowest decrease in dry matter percentage was observed in Neyshabur (23%) and Bojnurd (22%) ecotypes in the first and second planting date, respectively, following decreasing temperature to -12 °C. Studies have shown that plants with faster growth before the frost were more sensitive to cold temperatures and as a result, damaged more. So, it seems that increasing growth of Khaf and Neyshabur ecotypes and their progress towards more advanced growth stages reduced cold tolerance of these plants in the first planting date.
     

    Conclusions

    Freezing stress decreased survival percentage and recovery of garlic ecotypes. In the first planting date Bojnurd and Torbat-e Heydarieh ecotypes had a better survival percentage and Khaf and Neyshabur ecotypes had lower survival percentage while in the second planting date Khaf and Neyshabur ecotypes had higher survival percentage than Bojnurd and Torbat-e Heydarieh ecotypes. Also, results of LT50su indicated that Bojnurd and Khaf ecotypes had higher freezing tolerance in the first and second planting date, respectively. Different reactions of garlic ecotypes at various stages of stress may be due to their genetic characteristics and geographic origin. In terms of recovery (height, leaf area and dry weight), the plants of the second planting date had more height and dry matter, as well. Based on the RDMT50 and RLAT50, moreover, Bojnurd ecotype in both planting date and Khaf ecotype in the first planting date were recognized as most tolerant and sensitive ecotypes, respectively.

  • M Izadkhah shishvan, M Tajbakhsh shishvan Pages 15-29
    Introduction

    Seed priming is widely used for enhancing seedling performance by improving the rate and uniformity of germination and decreasing seed sensitivity to external factors. Several types of seed priming are commonly used: Hydro-priming, halo-priming, osmo-priming, thermo-priming, solid matrix-priming and bio-priming. Seed size is another factor that can affect seed germination and seedling establishment. Seed size is an important physical indicator of seed quality that affects vegetative growth and is frequently related to yield, market grade factors and harvest efficiency. The effect of seed size on germination and following seedling emergence has been investigated by many researchers in various crop species/ cultivar. In the present study, impacts of different pre-sowing treatments and seed size on biomass yield, water use efficiency and some ecophysiological characteristics of onion ecotypes in an ecological agroecosystem were investigated.

    Materials and Methods

    In order to investigate the effects of different pre-sowing treatments and seed size on biomass yield, water use efficiency and some ecophysiological characteristics of onion ecotypes, a field experiment was conducted in 2012-2013 cropping season at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of East Azarbayjan, Iran. This experiment was a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Experiment treatments included priming at four levels: hydropriming, osmopriming (in %2 KNO3), priming with flamin amino acid (in 2%) and control (without priming). Seed samples of the two cultivars were sieved by slotted screens and placed into three groups of seed diameter size, including small, medium, and large and ecotype at two levels, including Red Azarshahr and Zarghan. Following characteristics such as biomass yield, bulb water use efficiency, biomass water use efficiency, water consumption, relative water content, stomatal conductance in bulbing and bulb filling stage, productivity score, harvest index, growth ratio, bulb production energy value, plant received energy value, bulb production energy value were  measured.

    Results and Discussion

    Results of field experiment showed that seed priming improved the biomass yield and ecophysiological characteristics of onion of both ecotypes. The highest biomass yield (105.98 ton.ha-1), bulb water use efficiency (4.98 kg.m3), biomass water use efficiency (13.30 kg.m3), harvest index (%82) and relative water content (%86) belonged to priming with flamin amino acid, respectively and the lowest were achieved from control plants. Mean comparison indicated that the higher values of biomass yield, bulb water use efficiency, biomass water use efficiency, harvest index and relative water content were obtained from large seed size 100.33 (ton.ha-1), 4.88 and 13.30 kg.m3, 80 and 85 percent, respectively and the lower level were found for small seed size. Based on the results there were significant differences between ecotypes in all studied traits. Moreover, mean comparison showed that the highest amount of biomass yield, bulb water use efficiency, biomass water use efficiency, harvest index and relative water content were obtained from Red Azarshahr ecotype 100.40 (ton.ha-1), 4.80 and 13.15 kg.m3, 81 and 91 percent, respectively and the lowest of it were found to Zarghan.

    Conclusions

    According to the results mentioned above, seed priming treatments improved biomass yield and ecophysiological characteristics as compared to the unprimed. Among different treatments, seed priming with folammin amino acid 2% was more effective than the potassium nitrite 2% and hydropriming. Large seed size significantly increased the biological yield and ecophysiological characteristics. Accordingly, the importance of seed priming and seed grading were obvious in this study, so seed priming with flamin amino acid 2% and large seed size should be used for onion planting in order to ensure high biomass yield, and to improve ecophysiological characteristics of onion. Therefore, priming with flamin amino acid 2% and large seed are recommended for onion cultivation under the same environmental conditions with the experiment.

  • K Abdollahpour, A Koocheki, M Nassiri Mahallati, S Khorramdel Pages 31-47
    Introduction

    Medicinal plants are looked upon not only as a source of affordable health care products but also as a source of income. There is a growing demand for plant-based medicines, health products, essential oils, fragrances, cosmetics and natural aroma chemicals in the markets. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants has several advantages such as higher net returns per unit area, low incidence of pests and diseases, improvement of degraded and marginal soils, longer shelf life of end products and foreign exchange earning potential. Intercropping is a multiple cropping system that has been practiced for many years in various methods in most of the regions. It has played important roles in the redistribution of soil nutritional resources and establishment of soil microbial diversity. Legumes have been intercropped with medicinal plants for many years. Land equivalent ratio (LER) is often used as an indicator to determine the efficiency of intercropping. It is the most common index adopted in intercropping to measure the land productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black seed (Nigella sativa L.) intercropped with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in additive series on their yield and yield components and LER.
     

    Materials and Methods

    An experiment was performed based on a randomized complete block design with six treatments and three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2015-2016. Intercropping ratios were 25% B (black seed) +100% fenugreek (F), 50% B+100% F, 75% B +100% F, 100% B+100% F and their monoculture. Studied traits were the number of branches per plant, the number of follicles per plant, the number of seeds per follicle, 1000- seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index for black seed and the number of branches per plant, the number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per pod, 1000- seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index for fenugreek. LER was calculated as the criterion for intercropping.
    The treatments were run as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using Minitab to determine if significant differences existed among treatments means. Multiple comparison tests were conducted for significant effects using the LSD test.
     

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that the different intercropping ratios of black seed with fenugreek had significant effect on the number of branches per plant, the number of follicles and pods per plant, the number of seeds per follicle/pod, seed yield and biological yield. The highest and the lowest seed yield of black seed were observed for monoculture and 25% black seed+100% fenugreek with 291 and 107 kg.ha-1, respectively. The maximum and the minimum seed yield of fenugreek were related to its monoculture and 100% black seed+100% fenugreek with 655 and 363 kg.ha-1, respectively. When the two plants are grown together, yield advantages occur due to their differences to use resources.
    LER of the black seed/ fenugreek intercropping system ranged from 1.12 to 1.24, and thus land use efficiency was significantly enhanced by this intercropping system. LER was much higher than one in all of the intercropping ratios, indicating the intercropping yield advantage. The maximum LER was calculated for 75% black seed+100% fenugreek with 1.24.
     

    Conclusions

    Fenugreek intercropped with black seed showed a significant increase in yield, yield components and LER. It has been proved that the effects of intercropping by its involvement in improved soil chemical characteristics, increased nitrogen content (nitrogen biological fixation) has greatly contributed to agroecological services. It can be concluded that intercropping of fenugreek with contributed to productivity increases per unit area of black seed.
    Acknowledgement
    This research was funded by Vice Chancellor for Research of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, which is hereby acknowledged.

  • R Mardani, K Poustini, A. R Abbasi, A. A Pourbabaei Pages 49-59
    Introduction

    Luteolin is one of the most important flavonoids, which release from seeds during the first four hours of imbibition. On the other hand, at present, salinity is one of the most important factors in reducing crop production. The results of some studies show that the use of external flavonoids increases expression of nod genes, yield and nodulation in some legumes species under stress conditions. Therefore, this experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of luteolin and alfalfa seed exudates external inducers on the expression of Rhizobium nod gene and the yield and nodulation of alfalfa in normal and salinity condition.

    Materials and Methods

    We studied the effect of luteolin on the induction of nod genes in R. Meliloti carrying a plasmid with a translational fusion between R. Meliloti nodA and lacZ of Escherichia coli, and the expression activity was measured by β-galactosidase activity. Luteolin strongly induced the expression of nod genes inhibitory effects. We further studied the effect of luteolin and Seed exudate on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) yield and nodulation under optimal and salinity condition. One greenhouse was conducted to determine whether the pre-incubation of Rhizobium meliloti with luteolin and application of luteolin and seed exudate directly on to the seed surface can increase alfalfa nodulation and yield. The factorial experiment was arranged based on randomized complete block design, with three replications. Treatments were two cultivars, two bacterial strains (Sensitive and resistant strains), two levels of salt (0 and 15 dS.m-1 of NaCl) and two levels of application of inducers along with control.

    Results and Discussion

    The results from this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of alfalfa seeds with luteolin and seed exudate increase alfalfa nodulation (47%) and yield (30%) significantly under salinity condition that these treats affect on traits more under normal condition. But significant effect was not observed on chlorophyll content. In this experiment a significant difference was not observed between the control and pre-incubation of R. meliloti. Also, salinity increased proline four times compared to normal condition. Luteolin and seed exudates increased proline 1.66 and 1.35 times respectively in salinity condition, but under normal condition they did not have significant effect. Salinity increased the content of sodium in the leaves (7 times) and roots (8.5 times) and decreased the content of potassium 29% and 24% in these organs of the plant, respectively, that, luteolin and seed exudate partially moderated these changes.

    Conclusions

    The results of this experiment indicated that luteolin and seed exudate can be used as exogenous inducers to improve the growth and nodulation of alfalfa under salinity and normal condition. Flavonoid inducers act in low concentration, and their negative effects relate to reduced germination and growth. In general, it seems that the application of flavonoid inducers is more suitable to improve nodulation, but the direct application of them in agriculture should be used only in specified cases and when flavonoids are as a limiting factor.

  • M Torabi, M Heidarisoltanabadi Pages 61-70
    Introduction

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is known as the most valuable forage in the world due to its resistance to drought, the high quality of forage and high adaptability, high shelf life and high protein. Desirable nutrition of alfalfa is one of the key factors in the quantity and quality of seed and forage production. In alfalfa production, optimum nutrition is one of the key factors in the growth and development of the product and has a direct effect on the yield of forage and seed. The provision of phosphorus and micronutrient elements of soil in order to balance the nutrients of soil plays an important role in quantitative and qualitative improvement of the product, and it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive research on alfalfa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of phosphorus and micronutrient fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative yield of alfalfa seed and forage.

    Material and Methods

    In a three-year research (2011-2014), the effects of using phosphorus and micronutrients including iron, manganese, copper and zinc on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of seeds and forage production of alfalfa were studied at Golpayegan Research Station Isfahan province. For this purpose, using a split- plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, the effect of two alfalfa ecotypes (as the main plot) and 6 levels of phosphorus and micronutrient fertilization (as a sub-plot) on the yield of seed and forage production was investigated. The main plots were consisted of alfalfa Hamedani (V1) and Rehnani (V2) and sub plots (sub-treatment) were included phosphorus (P2O5) at three levels: zero (P0), 65 (P65) and 120 (P120) kg.ha-1, and micronutrient elements in two levels of no applied (R0) and micronutrient application as spraying (R1). Parameters were measured, including forage weight, dry forage weight, seed yield, 1000 seed weight and seed vigor percentage. In the first year, there were two cutting for forage and one for seed production, in the second year there were three cutting for forage and one for seed production, and in the third year there were three cutting for forage production and one for seed production.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that there was no significant difference in forage production, seed yield, 1000 seed weight, and percentage of seed vigor between two ecotypes of alfalfa, and the average yield of forage and seed in Hamedi and Rehnani ecotypes was 35.40 and 34.77 ton.ha-1 and 498 and 487 kg.ha-1 respectively. The year had a significant effect on the yield of fresh and dry forage, seed yield and 1000-seed weight. Also, the maximum of these traits were observed in the second year. The effect of the year on vigor seed was not significant. Comparison of means showed that P fertilizer application of 120 kg.ha-1 with micronutrient spraying (P120-R1) had the highest seed production and increased of 105% compared to control treatment. The application of 120 kg.ha-1 phosphorus without micronutrient application was in the next place. The percentage of seed vigor in the treatment of 120 kg.ha-1 P, with the micronutrient application (95.1%) was significantly higher than other treatments.

    Conclusions

    In this three-year research, the study of the use of phosphorus and micronutrients on fresh and dry forage yield and some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of seed produced in two alfalfa ecotypes was carried out. The results showed that the highest amount of forage production with the amount of 42.45 ton.ha-1 and the highest amount of seed produced with the amount of 689 kg.ha-1, belonged to the treatment 120 kg.ha-1 phosphorus with micronutrient spraying.

  • M Bannayan Aval, K Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf, F Yaghoubi, Z Rashidi, N Valaie Pages 71-83
    Introduction

    Soil is one of the most important components of production, food security, self-sufficiency and national economy. Soil of semi-arid regions, which most of Iran's agricultural lands are located in these areas, are poor in terms of organic matter. The soil tillage operations are carried out by means of moldboard plow and removal of plant residue in most of the agricultural systems. This operation, called conventional tillage, requires not only high energy but also damages to soil physical properties and erosion in the long-term. Conventional tillage does not provide good environmental conditions to maintain moisture in the soil due to the impossibility of managing plant residue in the soil surface. In addition this tillage increases the evaporation and losses of soil water content and reduces the soil organic carbon as a result conventional tillage reduces the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil. The objective of this study was investigation of effect of conventional and reduced tillage systems and management of tomato residue on soil water content, yield and yield components of wheat.

    Materials and Methods

    The experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growth season 2017-18. Tillage system (in two levels i.e. conventional and minimum tillage) and tomato residue retention (0, 30 and 60%) were in main plots and sub plots, respectively. The sowing date was 11th November in 2017.Sampling was done at harvest time and included plant height, spike number.m-2, spike length, grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. During the growing season, soil water content in 0-20 and 20-40 cm depth was measured by the soil moisture meter (PMS-714 model) two days after irrigation. Data were analyzed with R software; obtained averages compared with Duncan’s multiple range test at the 5% probability level.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that the effect of tillage system was significant on soil water content in 0-20 cm depth two days after forth irrigation, soil water content in 20-40 cm two days after fifth, sixth and seventh irrigation, spike number.m-2, grain number per spike, grain and biological yield. Maximum of this traits were obtained in reduced tillage due to increased soil nutrition, improved physical condition of the soil and soil water status. However, the effect of management of tomato residue on any of the studied traits was not significant. This could be due to reducing microbial activity, in complete decomposition of plant residues and reducing available nitrogen.
    The interaction effect between tillage system and tomato residue was significant on soil water content in 0-20 and 20-40 cm depth two days after forth and third irrigation, respectively, grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield. Reduced tillage and 60% of tomato residue showed that maximum of soil water content and 1000 grain weight (38.4 g).Maximum of grain number per spike (61.9) and grain yield (7120. 7 kg.ha-1) were obtained in treatment of reduced tillage and 30% of tomato residue.
    Conclusions  
    The results of this study indicate that in order to achieve maximum grain yield and less damage to the physical and chemical properties of soil, the implementation of reduced tillage and maintenance of 30% of tomato residue is recommended in the studied area. In general, due to climate change and water resource constraints in the country, conservation tillage and residue management practices are a good way to maintain resources and sustainability.

  • G Khodabin, Z Tahmasebi, Sarvestani, A. H Shirani Rad, S. A. M Modarres, Sanavy, E Bakhshande Pages 85-100
    Introduction

    Development of new canola (Brassica napus L.) varieties need effective tools to monitor characterizes association in yield and its components. Although, determination of the response of oil seeds cultivars to environmental variables is one of the principal of agriculture planning to achieve maximum qualitative and quantitative yield. Water deficit stress and sufficient nutrition are the most important factors limiting yield production by changing the physiological processes of the plant. Iran is considered as the arid and semi-arid with average rainfall of 250 mm. On the other hand, 33% of agriculture land is devoted to dry cultivation. Water deficit by affecting on vegetative and reproductive growth period and balance between them will change yield and product quality.

    Materials and Methods

    In order to study the responses of three winter canola cultivars to late season drought stress and foliar application of Mn and Zinc sulfate fertilizer on physiological, morphology characteristics and yield, a split factorial experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2017-2018 at the Karaj province. Irrigation in two levels, normal and water holding at flowering stage to next, foliar application in four levels, sprayed with water (control), foliar application with zinc sulfate, foliar application with Mn sulfate, foliar application composition with zinc sulfate and Mn sulfate (each of them was with concentration of four per thousand) both in main plot and three cultivars included Nima (control) and two new lines KS7 and R15 in sob plot. Foliar application was applied during the stem elongation stage. When the 50% of pod appeared total chlorophyll and leaves carbohydrate solution content was measured as index of drought stress damage. Eight traits were measured on 10 random plants per plot. The traits were plant height, number of pods /plant, number of seeds/pod, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biomass yield, oil percentage and oil yield.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed all characteristics significantly were influenced by water holding and foliar application. Interaction of water holding and foliar application was significant in attributes of plant height and oil content. Main effect of cultivar and interaction of water holding and cultivar were significant in all treatment except oil content. Due to water holding increasing in soluble carbohydrates and reducing the concentration of chlorophyll was occurred. The yield components of canola because of irrigation disruption decreased which leads to lower grain and rapeseed oil yield. The results showed that in normal irrigation, the highest seed yield (5168 kg.ha-1) oil yield (2244 kg.ha-1) and water use efficiency (0.99 %) were related to R15 line but in water holding condition the Nima cultivar obtained the highest achievements. In complete irrigation, foliar application of the two micro elements increased the traits studied. Most of the seed oil yield (1728 kg.ha-1), the weight of one thousand seeds (3.21 g), biological yield (15675 kg.ha-1) and water use efficiency were related to the main effect of zinc sulfate and Mn sulfate combination. Spraying plants with zinc sulfate and Mn sulfate improved plant height and increased oil content in drought stress condition in relation to spray by water (control). Among cultivars, Nima cv. had better outperformed relative to KS7 and R15 in normal irrigation. In water holding treatment, two cultivars R15 and Nima narrowly to each other had better outperformed relative to KS7. Non significant interaction effects of foliar application and cultivars for seed and oil yield indicated that all cultivars had similar trend. Drought not only causes dramatic loss of pigments but also leads to disorganization of thylakoid membrane, therefore reduction in chlorophyll contents is expected. The water holding condition in late season may influence plant growth that can be attributed to the lose yield components.

    Conclusions

    Correlation between drought situation and yield components in all cultivars, identify the most suitable indicators for monitoring drought tolerance cultivars. According to these results, R15 can be recommended for semiarid regions due to maximum seed and oil yield among and non stress condition. In water deficit condition R15 can be recommended for semiarid regions due to maximum seed and oil yield among and non stress condition.

  • F Yaghini, H Narimani Pages 101-109
    Introduction

    The yield of wheat in Iran is very low as compared to the other wheat producing countries. One of the most important effective factors is water shortage. Water shortage can damage pigments and plastids, reduce chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, rate and grain filling period. One approach to improve the salt stress problem is the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Mycorrhiza. The PGPR are a group of rhizosphere colonizing bacteria that produce substances to increase the growth of plants, synthesize different phytohormones including auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins, synthesize enzymes that can modulate plant growth and development. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbiosis is considered a valuable component in most agricultural systems due to its role in plant nutrition and soil health. Therefore application of biofertilizers and supplemental irrigation can improve crop yield and water productivity especially during critical crop growth stages.

    Materials and Method

    A factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Agricultural Research Station of Ardabil in 2016. Experimental factors included irrigation levels (no irrigation as rainfed, supplemental irrigation at booting and heading stages or according with 45 and 61 BBCH code, respectively) and four levels of biofertilizers application (inoculation with Azospirilum, Mycorrhizal, Mycorrhizal+Azospirilum, and without application of biofertilizers as control). A two part linear model was used to quantify the grain filling parameters. In this study, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid, grain filling components and yield of wheat were investigated. Grain dry weight and grain number were used to calculate the average grain weight for each sample. Total duration of grain filling was determined for each treatment combination by fitting a bilinear model:Effective grain filling duration (EGFD) was calculated from the below equation:EGFD = highest grain weight (g)/rate of grain filling (g day-1).

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that application of both biofertilizers (Mycorrhiza and Azosprilium) and supplementary irrigation at booting stage increased chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids (76.6, 42.26, 49.57 and 100% respectively) compared with no application of biofertilizers under rainfed condition. Also, both application of Mycorrhizae and Azospirilium and supplemental irrigation at booting stage increased grain filling rate, grain weight, grain filling period, effective grain filling rate and grain yield (15.26, 51.35, 14.04, 35.92 and 35.27% respectively) compared with no application of biofertilizers under rainfed conditions.

    Conclusions

    Based on this study, the application of Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza and supplemental irrigation at booting stage can improve the content of chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, grain filling rate, grain weight, grain filling period, effective grain filling period and grain yield compared with no application of biofertilizers under rainfed conditions. Based on the results, it seems that application of biofertilizers and supplementary irrigation can be suggested as modulators of drought stress in wheat under rainfed conditionss.

  • M Makvandi, A Bakhshandeh, A Khodaei Joghan, A Moshatati, M. R Moradi Telavat Pages 111-123
    Introduction

    One of the basic principles of sustainable agriculture is application of biologic and organic fertilizers in order to reduce chemical inputs consumption and increase soil fertility. Application of manure improves biological activity, physicochemical properties and water holding capacity in soil. Despite these positive effects, increased weed seed bank, outbreak of pests and diseases and accumulation of ammonia in the root of plants are the disadvantages of manure application. Due to the unique attributes of zeolites if they were added at the beginning of composting process can provide ventilatory condition for the activity of aerobic microorganisms and absorbs nutrients, especially nitrogen. Another important solution of improving efficiency of sustainable agriculture ecosystems is use of biofertilizers as the most natural solution to increase biological activity of soil. Symbiosis of plant with mycorrhiza fungi improves nutritional status of plant by increasing water and nutrients absorption. Triticale is a commercial cereal with a vast potential to feed human and animal. This plant can be cultivated in poor soils that are not suitable for wheat production. Finally the aim of this study was to achieve maximum yield of triticale by increasing efficiency of manure compost and simultaneous use of this fertilizer and mycorrhiza.

    Materials and Methods

    The experiment was conducted at Research field of Agricultural sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan during 2017-2018. Experimental design was a factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental factors included mycorrhizal application at two levels (application and non-application of mycorrhiza), and mixing of zeolite to manure in six levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% by weight of zeolite manure). The size of each experimental unit was 2×2 m2 and planting density was 400 plants per m2. Before the sowing, biofertilizer were shaken completely to cover the whole seeds surface after which the seeds were shadow-dried and planted, irrigation was done immediately after seed sowing. Traits included plant height, peduncle length, spike length, spikes per square meter, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were assessed in this experiment.

    Results and Discussion

    Based on the results, the interaction between mycorrhizal inoculation and mixing of zeolite with cattle manure were significant on plant height, peduncle length, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield. The main effect of zeolite and mycorrhiza were significant on spike length, number of grains per spike and biological yield. In inoculation condition the most plant height (124.32 cm) was obtained at the level of 10% zeolite, while in non-inoculation condition the highest plant height (106.62) was obtained at the level of 20% zeolite. The number of spikes per square meter at the level of 20% zeolite (456) was 36% higher than the non-use of zeolite treatment (303). Under inoculation conditions, the highest grain yield (3510.7 kg.ha-1) was belonged to application of 10% zeolite and the lowest grain yield (1579.69 kg.ha-1) was gained from non-application of zeolite treatment. In non-inoculation condition compared to the inoculation treatment, more zeolite was needed to obtain high grain yield and by application of zeolite up to 20 percent gain yield increased.

    Conclusions

    According to results of the present experiment, application of 10% zeolite in manure compost along with mycorrhiza is recommended to increase the yield of triticale. It can be stated that the addition of zeolite to manure and the use of mycorrhiza fungi is a suitable method for achieving high yield in triticale cultivation.

  • Hosein Azadvari, M Naeemi, A Gholizadeh, A Nakhzari Moghadam Pages 125-137
    Introduction

    Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is an annual plant from the buttercup family that has been used in food industry and cosmetic products in addition to its medicinal value. It is well known that abiotic stresses especially drought stress are very restrictive factors for agricultural production around the world. Drought stress affects a vast range of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of plants. Due to the decrease and shortage of agricultural water resources, researchers have conducted various researches to find materials that increase the efficiency of water use and maintenance in plants. One of these compounds is salicylic acid, and this material is naturally present in most plants and affects many physiological activities of the cell. Due to the decrease and shortage of agricultural water resources, researchers have conducted various researches to find materials that increase the efficiency of water use and maintenance in plants. One of these compounds is salicylic acid, and this material is naturally present in most plants and affects many physiological activities of the cell. Salicylic acid is a naturally occurring plant hormone that controls plant growth and induces water deficit tolerance in plants. One of these compounds is salicylic acid, and this material is naturally present in most plants and affects many physiological activities of the cell. Salicylic acid is a naturally occurring plant hormone that controls plant growth and induces water deficit tolerance in plants.

    Materials and Methods

    This study was conducted based on randomized complete design with factorial arrangement of treatment and three replications at research field of Gonbad Kavous University, Iran in 2018 winter and spring. Different irrigation regimes at four levels including no irrigation (dry farming), once irrigation at flowering stage, once irrigation at grain filling stage and twice irrigation at flowering and grain filling stages as well as salicylic acid factor at three levels including no application (control), seed priming (with 0.5 mM concentration), foliar spraying (with 0.5 mM concentration) were studied. After application of the treatments, the necessary sampling was done and the traits such as plant height, number of lateral branches, number of follicle per plant, number of seeds per follicle, weight of follicle per plant, plant dry weight, essential oil content, essential oil yield and, finally, grain yield in the plant were evaluated. Statistical calculations were performed using SAS 9.1 software. The mean of studied traits was also compared by using the least significant difference between the protected LSD at 5% probability level. The required graphs were also drawn using Excel software.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that simple effects of irrigation and salicylic acid on all traits were significant. The effects of irrigation and salicylic acid on all studied traits were also significant, except essential oil percentage and essential oil yield. The use of salicylic acid increased morphological traits. Also, the effects of irrigation and salicylic acid on all studied traits were significant, except essential oil percentage and essential oil yield. The use of salicylic acid increased morphological traits. The highest amount of essential oil and essential oil yield in irrigation levels were related to the irrigation at filling stage (0.65%) and twice irrigation at flowering and grain filling stages (7.93 kg ha-1), respectively. Salicylic acid treatment was the most essential oil and essential oil yield for salting. The highest grain yield (1330 kg ha-1) was obtained in foliar spraying application of salicylic acid under twice irrigated conditions and the lowest grain yield (817 kg ha-1) was obtained in non-application of salicylic acid at dry farming conditions.

    Conclusions

    Salicylic acid is able to reduce the negative effects of drought stress on black cumin plant. In general, the results showed that by using salicylic acid in the form of foliar application and twice irrigation, optimal yield of black cumin was achieved.