فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 4, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Kenia Silva*, Stephanie Belga, Ana Rabelo, Elen Gandra, Fernanda Santos, Izabela Magalhães Neto, Bruna França, Rayssa Guimarães, Letícia Silva, Lidia Almeida Pages 145-152

    Social inequalities are public health issues that require the development of professional competence in the training of nurses through highlighting actions based on equality. The present study aimed to assess the teaching strategies to approach social inequalities in nursing training. The publications in the past 10 years in Portuguese, English, and Spanish were reviewed and indexed in five databases. In total, 426 papers were found, and 16 were selected and grouped based on similarities or the adopted teaching strategies. The selected studies were mostly conducted in the United States at the undergraduate level, presenting predominantly low evidential levels. Punctual interventions were observed as the proposition of elective disciplines and adoption of counseling and innovative and structuring guidelines with the potential to reach the discussion of inequalities. In addition, service learning has been identified as a potent strategy to address social disparities by enabling the development of active reflection for experiential learning. Virtual and classroom simulations and theoretical classes have also been employed to provide training on the social inequalities associated with clinical education. Although the analyzed strategies have specificities, their combined use could further enhance the commitment of nursing education to surpass inequalities.

    Keywords: Inequalities, Nursing, Education
  • Amir Hossein Baghaie*, Aminollah Aghilizefreei Pages 153-159
    Background

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PGPR and AMF on the changes in sorghum phytoremediation efficiency in the soil amended with lead (Pb)-polluted cow manure.

    Methods

    Treatments consisted of applying two rates of Pb [0 (Pb0) and 800 (Pb800) mg/kg] polluted cow manure [0 (C0) and 30 (C30) t/ha], two levels of AMF [without    (AMF-) and with (AMF+)] and PGPR (without (PGPR-) and with (PGPR+) inoculation. Pseudomonas sp. R9 was considered as a PGPR bacteria. The plant used in this experiment was sorghum. Plant Pb concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Results

    The highest plant Pb concentration belonged to the cultivated plant in the soil treated with 30 t/ha Pb-polluted cow manure, while the lowest that was observed in the soil without amending cow manure in the absence of PGPR or AMF. The presence of AMF significantly increased the Pb translocation value and sorghum phytoremediation efficiency by 8% and 13.4%, respectively.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, the inoculated plant with PGPR and AMF had positive effects on increasing Pb phytoremediation efficiency that, which is notable in environmental studies. However, the effects of soil chemical properties on Pb phytoremediation efficiency cannot be overlooked.

    Keywords: Lead, Phytoremediation, Pollution, Environmental studies
  • Marziyeh Rezaei, Morteza Khomeiri, Maryam Ebrahimi, Sonia Kiani, Mojtaba Raeisi* Pages 160-164
    Background

    Milk is an essential human nutrient, and the monitoring of its sanitation is vital during transportation and storage. The present study aimed to assess bacteriological contamination with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes in the raw milk samples of the dairy farms in Golestan province, Iran.

    Methods

    In total, 100 samples were collected from dairy farms in hot and cold seasons. The frequency of E. coli and L. monocytogenes was determined using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Results

    The biochemical tests indicated that 28% and 27% of the samples were contaminated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes based on the culture-dependent methods, respectively. In addition, 35 and 40 samples were contaminated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes based on PCR, respectively. PCR had higher sensitivity compared to the biochemical tests (P ˂ 0.05). E. coli and L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly higher in traditional dairy farms than industrial dairy farms (P ˂ 0.05). However, seasonal sampling and geographical region had no significant effects on the contamination load.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, E. coli and L. monocytogenes were highly frequent in the raw milks samples. However, the microbial loads had no significant differences in hot seasons and traditional dairy farms.

    Keywords: Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Raw milk, Polymerase chain reaction, Biochemical test
  • Ahmad Mirzaei, Mostafa Shahmohammadi, Fazel Rajabi, Rasoul Mirzaei, Abdolsattar Zare, Ehsan Bakhshi, Reza Kalantari* Pages 165-171
    Background

    Workload is defined as the amount of work assigned to employees. The imbalance of efforts and rewards may cause occupational stress. The present study aimed to assess the impact of workload-related factors on the effort-reward imbalance in various working groups at a gas refinery complex.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 274 employees in five working groups in 2018. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, NASA TLX, need for recovery scale, and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22.

    Results

    In total, 97 participants (34.3%) had the ERI score of more than one, and the imbalance was higher in the service workers. The ERI score was significantly correlated with the mental workload in the staff (P = 0.034) and engineering personnel (P = 0.045). A significant association was observed between the need for recovery and ERI score in the staff, engineering personnel, and middle managers (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The ERI score reduced with the reduction of workload-related factors through improving the workplace conditions, hiring sufficient employees, and proper rewards. Therefore, special attention must be paid to the needs of various working groups in order to enhance their working conditions.

    Keywords: Employees, Effort-reward imbalance, Need for recovery, Mental workload, Work characteristics
  • Mehrdad Inanloo, Gholamreza Sadeghi* Pages 172-176
    Background

    Chemical industries and facilities pose the risk of potential hazards in case of accidents, which lead to injuries and financial losses due to the spread of materials in the surroundings of the accident. These materials often have harmful properties (e.g., toxicity or flammability), and their release could cause secondary accidents (e.g., fire, poisoning, and explosion). The present study aimed to assess the effects of toxic sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a suffocation unit.

    Methods

    A possible scenario of SO2 emission was selected using the matrix presented by the researchers. Afterwards, the hazard and operability study method was used to analyze the conditions. The modeling and evaluation of the outcomes of the selected scenario for SO2 gas emission from the gas pipeline were carried out using the PHAST7.11 software.

    Results

    The worst scenario was observed in the employees within the approximate distance of 10 meters and height of two meters from the gas leakage (100 mm leakage diameter) and gas diffusion angled from horizontal impingement.

    Conclusion

    About 1.84 seconds after the leakage of toxic SO2 (distance: 10 meters, height: 1.39 m), the concentration was approximately 39,339 ppm, which was the worst scenario in August, with the possible mortality risk of 49%.

    Keywords: Consequences evaluation, SO2 gas, Process industry, PHAST software
  • Mehdi Shamsaie Mehrgan*, Seyed Pezhman Hosseini Shekarabi, Bahareh Hassanzadeh, Seyed Hadi Seyed Alhosseini Pages 177-182
    Background

    The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water, bottom sediments, and tissues of sampled fish from Mellat artificial lake in Iran.

    Methods

    Two stations were selected to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations, including the IRIB qanat (S1) and middle part of the lake (S2). The measurements were performed in triplicate via flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Results

    In water, the highest levels of Pb (5.33 mg/l) and Cd (0.650 mg/l) were observed in the sampled sediments from S2 in autumn and winter, respectively (P < 0.05). Seasonal analysis revealed that the highest and lowest Pb concentrations were in the fish muscles in summer (8.107 mg/kg) and spring (0.487 mg/kg), respectively, while the fish liver showed the maximum (3.982 mg/kg) and minimum Pb concentrations (0.690 mg/kg) in autumn and winter, respectively. The Pb concentration in the fish muscle and liver was above the standard limits for human consumption. However, the Cd level in the fish muscle in spring was below the standard limits, which gradually increased and exceeded the standard limits.

    Conclusion

    Precautions are required to avoid the contamination of Mellat Lake with heavy metal-based sources due to the discharge of pollutants.

    Keywords: Mellat lake, Cadmium, Lead, Heavy metals, Sediment
  • Mohsen Moghadami, Masoud Sheybani, Abbas Reziaean Zadeh, Tayebeh Rakhshani* Pages 183-187
    Background

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of thalassemia minor and sickle hemoglobin in marriage applicants referring to the Genetic Diseases Counseling Center of Kazeroun Health Center over 2014-2018.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kazeroun, Iran. The statistical population included all couples referring to the marriage counseling centers in Kazeroun for pre-marriage tests during 2014-2018. In this study, the registration data associated with the health records of the couples seeking marriage counseling were used.

    Results

    Over the years under scrutiny, 31114 applicants (15557 couples) referred to the health counseling center for marriage tests under the supervision of the health network. Among the marriage applicants, the highest prevalence of beta-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia, anemia, sickle cell hemoglobin, and hemoglobinopathy was reported in 2014 (0.07), 2018 (0.15), 2014 (0.66), 2018 (0.9), and 2014 (0.05), respectively.

    Conclusion

    The results of the present study showed that the prevalence of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia in Kazeroun over the study years was similar to that in other parts of Iran over the same years.

    Keywords: Prevalence, Thalassemia, Sickle cell anemia, Marriage applicants
  • Majid Maani, Mir Mozaffar Fallahchai*, Fatemeh Shariati Pages 188-194
    Background

    Phytoremediation is a method in which plants are used to absorb pollutants. Heavy metals, through competition with nutrients elements, have a significant effect on their distribution in the plant.

    Methods

    In this study, seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.50, 100 and 150 ppm) of cadmium nitrate during a growing period in a completely random design with three replications. Then the value of cadmium uptake was measured by atomic absorption device in different organs of c.aronia and j. polycarpos (root, stem and leaf).

    Results

    The obtained results of the analysis of variance showed traits such as stem length, basal diameter, and root length were significantly affected by cadmium metal      (P < 0.01).It was also observed that cadmium accumulation in the root and aerial parts of the plant increased with increasing cadmium concentration, and cadmium accumulation in the root tissues was higher in all treatments than aerial parts. In addition, heavy metals reduced the concentration of all nutrientelements in leaves and stems of seedlings.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, Seedlings of c.aronia and j. polycarpos can be suggested as stabilizing varieties for remediation of Cadmium polluted soils. It is worth to note that j. polycarpos, in comparison with c.aronia, is better absorbent of Cadmium.

    Keywords: Cadmium, Crataegus aronia, Juniperus polycarpos, Nutrients, Phytoremediation