فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های راهبردی مسائل اجتماعی ایران - سال هشتم شماره 4 (پیاپی 27، زمستان 1398)
  • سال هشتم شماره 4 (پیاپی 27، زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • مسعود نادریان*، فاطمه پژوهان صفحات 1-16

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی و تحلیل جامعه شناختی عوامل موثر بر گرایش جوانان به مدیریت بدن است. روش پژوهش توصیفی از نوع تحلیلی و ازلحاظ هدف، کاربردی بود که به روش میدانی اجرا شد. جامعه آماری همه دختران و پسران 18-16 سال شهر اصفهان بودند که در 6 ماه اول سال 1397 در 470 باشگاه دولتی و خصوصی فعال در حوزه بدنسازی، پرورش اندام و ایروبیک شرکت کرده بودند که با توجه به وجودنداشتن آمار دقیق از تعداد آنها، براساس جدول کرجسی و مورگان (1970) برای جامعه نامعلوم، تعداد 384 نفر به منزله نمونه پژوهش به روش نمونه گیری دردسترس انتخاب شدند. ابزار اندازه گیری پژوهش پرسش نامه محقق‎ ساخته ای بود که روایی صوری و محتوایی آن ضمن بررسی دقیق متون و ادبیات پژوهش، پس از نظرخواهی از استادان و متخصصان (10 نفر) تایید و پایایی آن با استفاده از آزمون آلفای کرونباخ (86/0) محاسبه شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روش های آمار توصیفی (میانگین، انحراف استاندارد) و روش های آمار استنباطی (ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تحلیل عاملی تاییدی مرتبه دوم) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان دادند مهم ترین عوامل موثر بر گرایش جوانان به مدیریت بدن، به ترتیب شامل فرهنگ عمومی بین جوانان (84/0)، پذیرش اجتماعی و گروه دوستان و همسالان (81/0)، تبلیغات ماهواره ها و رسانه ها (79/0)، گروه های مرجع (72/0)، نارضایتی از بدن (71/0)، عوامل اقتصادی (62/0) و سرمایه فرهنگی (41/0) است.

    کلیدواژگان: جوانان، عوامل جامعه شناختی، مدیریت بدن، اصفهان
  • سیروس قنبری*، جمال عبدالملکی صفحات 17-36

    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش رهبری اخلاقی در وفاداری سازمانی با میانجی گری تعلق خاطر کاری در کارشناسان و کارشناس - مدیران دانشگاه بوعلی سینا به تعداد 477 نفر بود. برای برآورد حجم نمونه از فرمول کوکران استفاده و حجم نمونه 266 نفر تعیین شد و اعضای نمونه با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب شدند. روش پژوهش توصیفی و از نوع مطالعات همبستگی است. از پرسش نامه رهبری اخلاقی براون و همکاران (2005)، تعلق خاطر کاری شافلی و همکاران (2006) و پرسش نامه وفاداری سازمانی محقق ساخته 5سوالی استفاده شد. پایایی و روایی پرسش نامه ها با فن های آلفای کرونباخ و تحلیل عاملی تاییدی بررسی شدند و نتایج بیان کننده پایایی و روایی مطلوب آنهاست. برای تحلیل داده ها از فن های توصیفی (شاخص های مرکزی و پراکندگی) و استنباطی (تحلیل مسیر تاییدی) ازطریق نرم‎ افزار lisrel استفاده شد. نتایج نشان دادند رهبری اخلاقی اثر مستقیم مثبت (26/0) و معنادار بر وفاداری سازمانی در سطح 05/0، تعلق خاطر کاری اثر مستقیم مثبت (53/0) و معنادار بر وفاداری سازمانی در سطح 05/0، رهبری اخلاقی اثر مستقیم مثبت (66/0) و معنادار بر متغیر تعلق خاطر کاری در سطح 05/0 و رهبری اخلاقی با ضریب مسیر غیرمستقیم به واسطه تعلق خاطر کاری (349/0) و مقدار تی (53/5) اثر غیرمستقیم، مثبت و معنادار بر وفاداری سازمانی در سطح 05/0 دارند. رهبری اخلاقی به واسطه تعلق خاطر کاری قادر به تبیین 47% واریانس وفاداری سازمانی است.

    کلیدواژگان: رهبری اخلاقی، تعلق خاطر کاری، وفاداری سازمانی
  • سهیلا حاجی حیدری، علی روحانی* صفحات 37-56

    منطق ذاتی سرمایه داری، حداکثرسازی سود است. این منطق زمانی که بدون نظارت کافی و اعمال محدودیت های دولتی و اخلاقی اعمال شود، پیامدهای متعددی را در عرصه های مختلف به دنبال دارد. در چند سال اخیر حداکثرسازی سود در شرکت های بازاریابی هرمی در ایران با شدت فراوانی انجام می شود. به همین دلیل، هدف این پژوهش افشای مناسبات پنهان و پیامدهای حداکثرسازی سود در شرکت های بازاریابی هرمی است. در این زمینه از روش مردم نگاری انتقادی پنج مرحله ای کارسپیکن (1996) استفاده شد. پژوهشگران ابتدا در رویکردی اتیک محور به مدت یک سال در شرکت های بازاریابی هرمی مشاهده مشارکتی پنهان داشتند و در طول این مدت تحلیل های بازساختی اولیه را انجام دادند؛ سپس مصاحبه های گفتگومحور براساس رویکرد امیک محور از اعضای جداشده از این شبکه ها آغاز شد و تم های اصلی (شامل لگ های گلدکوئستی، لیدر هژمون، آسیمیلاسیون رفتاری انگیزشی، اپوخه تحصیل، اپوخه خانواده، آموزش اقتدارگرایانه، حصار کاری، سودزدایی سیستمی و ریزش اعضا) استخراج شدند؛ درنهایت، دوباره با رویکرد اتیک محور داده های گفتگویی به طور سیستمی تحلیل شدند و رابطه بین عاملیت و ساختار تحلیل شد. نتایج این مراحل نشان دادند این شرکت ها عاملیت کنشگران را مضاعف و آنها را به طور ذهنی به ابرانسان هایی تبدیل می کنند که توانایی تغییر جهان را دارند؛ اما این عاملان مضاعف درنهایت، هنگام رویارویی با ساختارهای اجتماعی، اقتصادی و فرهنگی شکست می خورند و پیامدها و آسیب های فروان و متفاوتی را تجربه می کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: حداکثرسازی سود، مردم نگاری انتقادی، شرکت های هرمی، عاملیت مضاعف
  • یاسر رستگار*، احسان آقابابایی، زهرا راسخی صفحات 57-74

    فیلم های سینمایی از شرایط اجتماعی هر جامعه متاثر هستند و در عین حال، مسائل اجتماعی را بازنمایی می کنند. هدف اصلی مقاله حاضر، مطالعه چگونگی بازنمایی مسائل اجتماعی در سینمای پرمخاطب پس از انقلاب اسلامی ایران است. بدین منظور با به کارگیری روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی، 37 فیلم اجتماعی و پرمخاطب بررسی شده اند. یافته ها نشان می دهند سینمای ایران پس از انقلاب، چهاردهه را پشت سر گذاشته که هر دوره، مسائل اجتماعی مختص به خود را داشته است. دوره اول (دهه شصت) سینمای جنگ است؛ سینمایی که به شدت از فضای نبرد متاثر است و نوعی انکار مسئله اجتماعی در آن وجود دارد. در این دوره، نوعی تقدس گرایی بر سینما حاکم است و مسائل مختلف سیاسی، فرهنگی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی داخلی به حاشیه می روند. در دوره دوم (دهه هفتاد) مسئله زنان، بستر اصلی طرح مسائل اجتماعی است و مسائل جدید زنان، ظهور زنان مدرن، نقش و موقعیت اجتماعی جدید زنان، نابرابری جنسیتی، تابوشکنی زنان و افزایش آگاهی آنان بررسی می شود. دوره سوم (دهه هشتاد) سینمایی است که پروبلماتیک آن، خانواده طبقه متوسط است و مسائل اجتماعی، دامن گیر اعضای خانواده می شود. دوره چهارم (دهه نود) با سینمایی انباشته از مسائل اجتماعی مواجهیم که تعدد و پراکندگی آن در بستری از خشونت بازنمایی شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: مسائل اجتماعی، سینمای ایران، بازنمایی، پروبلماتیک، فیلم
  • سعید رفیع پور*، مریم رحمانی صفحات 75-98

    محتوای اقلام تبلیغاتی نامزدهای انتخابات شوراهای اسلامی شهر، که شهر را در جای شهروند درک کرده اند، پیام های ارتباطی آشکار و پنهانی از چگونگی انجام دادن کارها توسط مدیریت شهری در شهر دارد؛ بنابراین، در این نوشتار کوشیده شده است با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای تلفیقی (کمی و کیفی)، اهداف کلان و مضامین استراتژیک مکنون در محتوای اقلام تبلیغاتی نامزدهای پنجمین دوره انتخابات شورای اسلامی شهر بجنورد از چهار منظر کارت امتیازی متوازن، کشف شود. یافته ها نشان می دهند از 1175 شعار تبلیغاتی، به لحاظ فراوانی به ترتیب، منظر شهروند (64 درصد)، فرایندهای داخلی (68/20 درصد)، مالی (36/9 درصد) و یادگیری و رشد (96/5 درصد)، بیشترین و کمترین مفاهیم موجود در محتوای متنی اقلام تبلیغاتی را به خود اختصاص داده اند. مضامین استراتژیک مکنون در شعارهای تبلیغاتی به ترتیب، «تامین نیازهای فضایی و مکانی شهروندان به طور متعادل و متوازن»، «عدالت در منابع و منافع مالی»، «برنامه اجرایی همسو با شهر و شهروند» و «ارتقای سرمایه های فکری» برحسب چهار منظر شهروند، مالی، فرایندهای داخلی و یادگیری و رشد است.درمجموع، مقدار بیشتر فراوانی داده ها در منظر شهروند (64 درصد) ممکن است ناشی از رفتار انتخاباتی معمول برای جذب نظر رای دهندگان باشد؛ اما همچنین طرح مسئله از منظر مشکل در نسبت با عملکرد شهرداری و شورای شهر نیز است؛ مبنی بر اینکه فرایندهای داخلی، که عملیات اصلی اجرای استراتژی‎های منظرهای شهروند و مالی در آن اتفاق می افتد، به علت همسو نبودن با شهر و شهروندان، نتوانسته اند به الزامات شهر و خواسته‎های شهروندان، پاسخ لازم و کافی بدهند.

    کلیدواژگان: کارت امتیازی متوازن، تحلیل محتوا، انتخابات، شعارهای تبلیغاتی، شورای اسلامی شهر
  • حمید دهقانی*، حدیقه ابراهیمی صفحات 99-122

    خرافات در هر جامعه ای، مقوله ای منفی از ابعاد فرهنگ معنوی آن جامعه محسوب می شود که با پیامدهای آسیب اجتماعی و روانی و به اشکال گوناگون متناسب با زمان و مکان بر اقشار جامعه تاثیر می گذارد؛ بنابراین، پژوهش حاضر با هدف مطالعه تاثیر احساس امنیت اجتماعی و روانی بر گرایش به خرافات در بین دانشجویان دانشگاه اصفهان انجام شده است. چارچوب نظری، مبتنی بر نظریه های کنش غیرمنطقی پارتو، کنش غیرعقلانی و سنتی وبر، احساس امنیت روانی مازلو و امنیت اجتماعی اینگلهارت و جامعه آماری، شامل کلیه دانشجویان دانشگاه اصفهان در سال 1397بوده است. حجم جامعه، 14375و حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران برابر با 375 نفر است که بر این اساس، 400 پرسشنامه توزیع شد. روش نمونه گیری به شیوه سهمیه ای از هر دانشکده است. متخصصان و صاحب نظران با تایید گویه ها، روایی محتوا را تایید کردند. برای اعتبار پژوهش از ضریب پایایی (آلفای کرونباخ) استفاده شده است. ضریب آلفا برای متغیر احساس امنیت روانی (0.771)، متغیر احساس امنیت اجتماعی (0.745) و برای میزان گرایش به خرافات (0.766) است. داده ها با پرسشنامه محقق ساخته، جمع آوری و یافته های مبتنی بر آمار توصیفی و استنباطی با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS تجزیه وتحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان دادند میانگین امنیت روانی، 28.03 و امنیت اجتماعی، 34.56 است که به ترتیب با انحراف معیار 1.7 و 1.44 کمتر از میانگین کل است. میانگین خرافات، 41.21 با انحراف معیار 2.21 بیشتر از میانگین کل به دست آمد. رابطه امنیت روانی با گرایش به خرافات با شدت (0.317-) و رابطه امنیت اجتماعی با خرافات با شدت (0.145-) به صورت مستقیم و منفی تایید شد. رابطه امنیت روانی و اجتماعی با گرایش به خرافات در زنان و مردان، قومیت های مختلف، مقاطع تحصیلی و افراد شاغل و بیکار متفاوت بود که در این میان، زنان، افراد بیکار، مقطع کارشناسی و قوم لر، گرایش بیشتری به خرافات نشان دادند. در تحلیل رگرسیون برای مشخص کردن معادله ای برای پیش بینی خرافات، معادله ای با متغیرهای امنیت روانی، امنیت اجتماعی، جنسیت و وضعیت اشتغال به دست آمد که درنهایت، 22.5 درصد از واریانس متغیر وابسته با این معادله تبیین شد.

    کلیدواژگان: امنیت روانی، امنیت اجتماعی، خرافات، دانشگاه اصفهان، دانشجویان
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  • Masoud Naderian *, Fatemeh Pazhouhan Pages 1-16
    Introduction

    Today, body management and the variables influencing it tend to be one of the most important topics in sociology. The body is not merely a biological and psychological aspect, but rather is a socially constructed phenomenon. The body should be regarded as a pivot that makes it possible for humans to understand the world. It is through the body that the individual assumes the essence of his or her existence according to social and cultural conditions, age, gender, and personality. The development of nutrition, health and sports technologies along with independence of operation, intense consumerism, the importance of youth and the growing interest in young and beautiful bodies have greatly been influenced by the popular culture of new media. These issues have made body a central theme in the social and cultural studies of contemporary society. Media in advertising and virtual space with a variety of advertising patterns, especially in sports clubs, instill a need for beauty and fitness among their target audience, mainly teenagers and young adults.

    Material & Methods

    The research method was descriptive-analytical and in terms of its purpose, it was pragmatic. It was implemented by field method. The statistical population of the study was girls and boys aged 16-18 years in Isfahan who participated in 470 public and private clubs active in the field of bodybuilding and aerobics in the first six months of 2018. Due to the lack of accurate statistics of their numbers, based on Kerjesi and Morgan's table for an unknown society, 384 individuals were selected as the research sample by the available sampling method. The research measurement tool consisted of a researcher-made questionnaire whose surface and content validity, after consultation with professors and experts, were verified by a careful examination of its texts and research literature (n = 10 persons). Its reliability was also calculated by Cronbach’s alpha (0.86). Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, exploratory factor analysis, and second-order confirmatory factor analysis) were used to analyze the data.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    Studies show that in today's business community, in most cases, the value given to a person's appearance is greater than the value given to his personality, character, and behavior. Therefore, many young people nurture their body to be exposed to fashion in order to attract attentions because they believe that the body's appearance (being muscular and handsome) is one of the most important factors in making relationships and drawing attentions. Therefore, by raising awareness and insight in the society, especially among the youth, it is necessary to internalize the value of each person in addition to the facial aspects of body and fitness and physical strength in his dignity, modesty, and modes of behavior and character in communicating with others. Therefore, reducing various facets of a person's character to a mere aesthetic beauty cannot be an absolute value. The results showed that the most important factors affecting youth tendency to body management were, respectively, youth culture (0.84), social acceptance and peer group (0.81), satellite and media advertising (0.79), reference groups (0.72), body dissatisfaction (0.71), economic factors (0.62), and cultural capital (0.41). In this regard, it is suggested that sports managers and executives, especially leisure-time sports, be provided with training sessions for coaches and managers of sports clubs in the Ministry of Education, sports federations and subsidiaries such as sports clubs, universities and private sports clubs in order to explain the philosophy and principles of fitness and leisure activities. Moreover, by formulating laws and regulations along with by-laws required to suit the circumstances of society for bodybuilding centers and sports clubs, they elaborate a code of ethics in the field of bodybuilding and take regulatory actions and effective measures in this regard. They also describe the negative effects and consequences of youth make up in the mass media, especially television.

    Keywords: youth, Social Factors, sociological factors, Body management, Isfahan
  • Siroos Ghanbari *, Jamal Abdolmaleki Pages 17-36
    Introduction

    Since the university is an academic and cultural institution as well as the pioneer of cultural, social, and economic changes in every society, ethics has been established as a mission to the major universities in the world. Therefore, university deans will build a network of mutual and transcendent relationships that will improve the performance of employees and organizations by observing the principles of ethical leadership. Ethical leaders will make the work meaningful and create work dependency and engagement for their employees. So, the university employees will feel and abide by observing leaders' ethical behaviors regarding work and organization. The ethical behaviors of the deans are an important factor in the development of their employees' engagement and loyalty to the university. So, in this study, the role of ethical leadership in organizational loyalty is studied with the mediation of the employees’ work engagement as an issue in the field of ethics in the management of the academic human resources.

    Material & Methods

    According to the philosophy of the research, this is a quantitative study. Based on its purpose, it is an applied study using the descriptive-correlational method, especially structural equation modeling (SEM) to collect and analyze the data. The study population consisted of 477 experts and managers of Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, out of them 387 were experts (81%) and 90 were managers (19%). To estimate the sample size, Cochran formula was used. Therefore, the statistical sample size was 266 and they were selected through stratified random sampling

     method:

    Brown's, Trovino, and Harrison's (2005) 10-item Ethical Leadership Questionnaire with three factors (Interpersonal Relationships, Modeling, and Pragmatism); Shafley's (2003)17-item Work Engagement  Questionnaire with three factors (Vitality, Self-sacrifice, and Job Attraction), as well as, a researcher-made organizational loyalty questionnaire were used. The reliability and validity of the questionnaires were assessed by Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data were analyzed using SPSS and LISREL statistical software. Frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation tables were used for data analysis. Pearson correlation coefficient and confirmatory path analysis were used to test the research hypotheses. It should be noted that out of 266 distributed questionnaires, 13 were eliminated due to incompleteness and ambiguous information in the data analysis stage, so 253 questionnaires were analyzed.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The results showed that, ethical leadership has a positive and significant effect (0.26) on organizational loyalty (p≤0/05). Work engagement has a positive and significant effect (0.53) on organizational loyalty (p≤0/05). Ethical leadership with direct path coefficient (0.66) and t value (10.74) have a direct, positive and significant effect on work engagement (p≤0/05). Ethical leadership through indirect path coefficient with work engagement satisfaction (0.349) and t value (5.53) has an indirect, positive and significant effect on organizational loyalty (p≤0/05). Ethical leadership can explain 47% of the variance in organizational loyalty. The ratio of X 2/df indicates that the conceptual model fits well with the assessment model. The value of the RMSEA index indicates the acceptable error value. The values ​​of CFI, GFI and AGFI indicate good fit of the structural model.The result of ethics and ethical leadership at the university is the movement to ethics-oriented university, employees’ attraction to work, and their loyalty to the university. In a university where ethics is of particular importance, ethical leadership is always a matter of concern. At this university, ethical leaders are developed and employees willingly embrace ethical patterns and engage in ethical behavior. They are satisfied and proud of their work. Employees who love and are passionate about their work are loyal to their organization and work and have little desire to leave the organization. They are also loyal to their organization, proud of their university and their work.Ethical leaders act as ethical models for followers. By observing the actions and behaviors of ethical leaders, employees learn their principles and patterns of ethical behavior as well as model and reinforce their ethical behavior in themselves. Deans transform the importance of ethics to their subordinates, this makes employees aware of the importance and value of ethics and enhances their understanding of ethical behavior. Ethical leaders use rewards and punishments to encourage desirable behavior, thereby eliminating or controlling unethical behaviors and reinforcing ethical behaviors.

    Keywords: Ethical Leadership, work engagement, Organizational Loyalty
  • Soheyla Hajiheidari, Ali Ruhani * Pages 37-56
    Introduction

    The world is pace with the processes of globalization. Iran is not apart from this globalizing process and has been involved in many trends, including the phenomenon of pyramid companies (network marketing). This issues a new style of modern business, with its new work in the late of 70s Hijri (or in the early 80s) with companies such as Goldquest and Goldmine in Iran. Their activities created very crucial negative effects to the public, the community and economic body of the country and made a constitutional crisis in the country’s atmosphere. Finally, the discretion of the legal authorities banned their activities in the country. The business, however, is now a few years with a new light in the face by removing the same obstacles in the country with a legal permit. While the country’s current state is worse than the previous decade (80s) in terms of economic difficulties, the sharp recession, the problems of country’s active population and thousands of fundamental problems whose main origins go back to the economy. On the other hand, it is expected that this kind of trade problems and barriers in the past and may be solved to a great extent, but we are witnessing difficulties and obstacles. The high rate of the young population of the country has been mentioned in recent years by the social sciences thinkers. According to the demographic theory of open window of population, Iran is a highly sensitive site in the region as well as inside the country due to its young population, that, if taken in the right direction, it would promote the country and otherwise damage. This high percentages, despite university education, face a demographic inflation of youth by failing to attract the labor market. Based on different studies, they report a high percentage of frustration, depression, and so on. On the other hand, in recent years, we see major changes in the values and attitudes of Iranian youth for different reasons, including the growth and development of communication and technologies. Thus, the characteristics of social context in Iran have different forms of development for boosting networks. The prevalence of globalization and its ideology, the sudden rise of population and unemployment, social networks, and strong local regions (derived from pre modern times) have all contributed to the prevalence of pyramid-based enterprises (network marketing), which have the slogan of acquiring huge fortunes in a short period of time: This study investigates how profit maximization strategies are implemented in pyramid companies and what the consequences of these strategies are.

    Material & Methods

    The paradigm used in this study is critical ethnography and research is done using qualitative methodology. The critical ethnography has been chosen by the 5-scale approach of Carspecken. Sampling is based on purposive and chain sampling. In this direction, after participatory hidden observation and semi structured interviews with the active members in the companies, 16 cancelled individuals were selected from 3 network marketing companies to do deep interviews to achieve theoretical saturation.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The result indicate that pyramid companies are able to attract a large number of people in Iran through the use of credit over a very long period of time. In this way, compliant and reagent credits are key factors that these companies use to obtain their own purposes.Pyramid companies are trying to change the style of business and create a fundamental shift in the field. But, they try to achieve their goals by exploiting the traditional market failures and variables involved in the traditional world.The actors involved in these enterprises are usually from poor levels of the society who have little economic and social power. In particular, class categories include the middle and lower classes which are relatively marginalized in the society and are constantly suppressed by various social, political, and economic forces.In such circumstances, these people usually have a neutral agency. Iran as a polarized society has suffered extensive social damage due to its policy of adjustment and corruption resulting from this issue (Piran, 2004: 24) which has caused to attract a particular context of modern commerce.People on the margins are also influenced by the positive advertisements of this emerging systems, and tend to identify their own identity as a networking one and rebuilt their existing ruined and suppressed identity.It is at this point that agents’ state of mind at modern tribes change (confronting with reality). They have to limit many areas of their lives to gain profits, therefore, separation of family, lack of intimacy with wife, borrowing money and etc. are damages that are imposed on them. This process is moving forward that in the face of structure, the functionality of the actors is weak and defeated, and eventually leads to the withdrawal of the membership from the system.

    Keywords: Profit Maximization, Critical Anthropology, Pyramid Companies, Double Agency
  • Yaser Rastergar *, Ehsan Aqababaee, Zahra Rasekhi Pages 57-74
    Introduction

    Iranian society is full of various social issues. The issues such as poverty, discrimination, inflation, corruption and delinquency, addiction and inefficiency are all part of the constant preoccupations of community members. Among the elites, there are many definitions of social issues. Wright Mills defines the social issue with four characteristics of structural origin, generality, being threating, and structural solution (in Yousefi & Akbari, 2012). Rwomire (2001) considers it to be an undesirable phenomenon that is viewed intolerable by a significant number of the community members and collective action is necessary to correct it. Meanwhile, one of the major areas of social issues is in cinema, and recognizing social issues in the form of image and pictures especially in cinema works can considerably help reduce psychological ambiguities in the field of social issues since “cinema movies are the important cultural source for understanding nature and causes of social deviances” (Soltani Gard Faramarzi, 2016). Review of the related literature suggests that although cinema works have addressed different issues and harms, these works lack a comprehensive and holistic representation of the issues and they have generally pursued different social issues in a scattered manner. Thus, a clear and comprehensive picture of the relationship between Iranian cinema and social issues cannot be achieved. Hence, the present study attempts to analyze comprehensively social issues in the highest-grossing movies of Iranian cinema and pursues the goal of how social issues are portrayed in Iranian cinema after the Islamic Revolution.

    Material & Methods

    In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used as the research method for investigating social issues in cinema. Also, 37 highest-grossing movies of cinema after Iranian Revolution were selected as the sample by using purposive sampling method. It was presumed that all films somehow explicitly or implicitly cover social issues. However, in the selection of the highest-grossing movies, it was emphasized that these types of movies have a common inter-subjectivity among the audience on the most important issues of Iranian society. In addition, some scholars have argued that in order to be able to demonstrate, over a long period, the assessment of cinema based on social changes, the movies should be selected that are acceptable and popular among people (Azad Armaki and Amir, 2013: 111).
     

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The 1980s in Iran began when three years had passed since the victory of the Islamic Revolution and with the onset of the Iran-Iraq war, the society being tensed of the revolution began years of battle. It was natural for social issues to be marginalized and overlooked in the eighties because of the conditions of war in the society. Instead, most of the cinema's emphasis was on sanctifying the war and warriors, the turbulent conditions of the post-revolutionary years, political conflicts and crises, and assassinations have made the issue of security and system maintenance a top priority for the country. Thus, along with the war as the axial problematic issue, the issue of terrorist groups had also become important. The series of these events has led to the absence of the concept of society in cinema in the literal sense. That is why the representation of social issues in cinema was marginalized and the issues were addressed rarely. The 1990s are in line with the process of modernization in Iranian society. In this decade, with the development of higher education and the promotion of women's presence in the public arena stemming from the modernization and reform discourses, women gained better position in the society. Therefore, the cinema of this period, by abandoning traditional roles of women such as housekeeping, emphasized their new roles and represented social issues such as divorce with female problematic. Hence, the taboo of representing women’s issues was broken in this period.  The most prominent feature of the social issues represented in cinema of this decade wass female mediator, femininity, and feminine issues. Therefore, most of the narrated issues were associated with the presence, role, activity, and function of women. According to Sorlen (2000), post-war cinema has adopted a more critical approach, and phenomena that have been neglected during wartime due to the excitement and social cohesion of wartime gained the opportunity of reemergence.In the 2000s, social issues were narrated in the context of family in popular cinema. During this period, social issues were expressed more realistically and explicitly. The most important characteristic of the decade distinguishing it from previous decades was the desacralization of past values ​​of society such as warriors, war, and clergy. Studying the process of value transformation in Iran (Taleban et al., 2010) also pointed to the expected changes during this period. This study recognized the importance of materialistic values ​​from the 1970s to the third decade after the Revolution with increasing expansion, and emphasized that many of the super-materialistic values ​​of the first decade of the revolution have been greatly diminished. On the other hand, it should be noted that the social malfunctions and disorganization of society as a whole can be traced within the family entity. Simply put, the manifestation of social issues was in the family, and the popular cinema of the 2000s has portrayed the critical family along with the society evolution and changes.In 2010s, we face with salient characteristics such as variety and proliferation of social issues, representation of acute and critical issues, the interplay of individual issues with social conditions, the representation of the city, the street, and the generalization of issues. The analysis of the popular movies of this decade indicated that the social issues represented have acquired particular characteristics, and among the four decades studied, the 2010s is the most social decade of cinema, and we are faced with the influx of social issues in the popular cinema.

    Keywords: social issues, Iranian Cinema, Representation, Problematic, film
  • Saeid Rafiepour *, Maryam Rahmani Pages 75-98
    Introduction

    Contents of the campaign items of the Islamic City Council Elections candidates, which have inherently understood the city through the eyes of the citizens, contain explicit and implicit communication messages indicating that how urban issues are administered by the managers. Therefore, this study aims to explore major objectives and strategic themes hidden in the contents of campaign items of the fifth Islamic City Council Elections’ candidates of Bojnord based on four perspectives of balanced scorecard by using both quantitative and qualitative content analysis.

    Material & Methods

    The research method, which is indicative of how the project or the research is carried out, with considering the aim of the present study that seeks discovering the macro-strategic goals as well as the strategic themes as hidden messages in the content of the campaign items of the fifth Islamic City Council Elections of Bojnord, relies on the strategy of integrative (cumulative) content analysis. In terms of importance, the quantitative content analysis method has the top priority and plays the basic role while the qualitative content analysis method plays the complementary and secondary role. First, the macro-strategic goals were identified in four balanced scorecard perspectives and their importance and status are obtained in terms of frequency. Then, in the second phase, the hidden strategic theme which lies in the macro-strategic goals obtained from the first phase of the research, was understood and perceived.The method of data collection was documentary, relying on the textual systems of campaign items, such as brochures, tracts, cards and posters. The statistical population of the research was the campaign items of 194 candidates registered for 9 positions of the fifth Islamic Council of Bojnord. In order to select the statistical sample, the researcher collected the textual advertising campaign items during the final 4 days of the election by walking around the main streets and squares of Bojnord city, where most of the campaigns were held. Since not all 194 candidates of the fifth Islamic City Council Elections of Bojnord have distributed promotional items, the statistical sample consisted of only 54 candidates out of all candidates of the fifth Islamic City Council Elections of Bojnord, who were chosen non-randomly and based on the availability of their campaign items.

     
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The content of the candidates’ campaign items of the election of the fifth Islamic Council of Bojnord includes communication messages on the need to improve the performance of Bojnord Municipality and City Council in four balanced scorecard perspectives by answering four basic questions as follows: 1- What values do we create for citizens? (Customer/Citizen Perspective); 2- How to supply and distribute funds needed to create value for citizens? (Financial perspective); 3. What is the system of carrying out tasks to create value for citizens? (Internal Processes Perspective); and 4- How can we learn and improve in the three perspectives of finance, internal processes, and customer/citizen? (Learning and Growth Perspective).The findings of this study showed that, out of 1175 campaign slogans of 54 candidates of Bojnord City Council, in terms of frequency, citizen perspective (64%), internal processes perspective (20.68%), financial perspective (9.36%), and learning and growth perspective (5.96%), had the highest and lowest concepts in the contextual content of the campaign items, respectively. Thus, 752 concepts under the citizen perspective can be classified into 11 macro-strategic goals, 110 concepts under the financial perspective into 9 macro-strategic goals, 243 concepts under internal processes perspective into 13 macro-strategic goals, and 70 concepts under learning and growth perspective into 5 strategic macro goals.The hidden strategic theme in the citizen perspective is balance and equilibrium in terms of space-location and social characteristics. In other words, in supplying the spatial and local needs of the citizens, balance and equilibrium are principles that give meaning to themselves in relation to the space-location and social characteristics.The hidden strategic theme in the financial perspective is the desirability of income sources in terms of social justice. The criterion of justice in the distribution of funds is equilibrium and balance in its distribution in terms of space. The criterion of justice in financing is also balance and equilibrium of income combination by diversifying income sources and not relying solely on people.The executive plan, in accordance with the city and citizens, is the hidden strategic theme in the context of internal processes perspective. This perspective rejects the usual procedure of city management in the country that relies on specific projects of the mayor and City Council members which are dismissed with the change of management (Municipality and City Council). Citizen involvement in the decision-making and the decision-building process, formulation of the executive planning system in line with the features specified in the urban development plans, and the prospect of the city and Municipality are conditions that pave the way for the alignment of the executive plan with the needs of the city and the citizens, dismiss the specific projects of the mayor and individual members of the City Council, and prevent the members from dividing the city in terms of their ethnic and neighborhood benefits and interests. An aspect that will certainly extend to both the financial and the citizen perspectives, and will bring balance and equilibrium to distribution of resources and benefits.Out of the 38 candidates of the Bojnord City Council election who have focused on learning and growth perspective, the general themes of their goals, plans and slogans are to develop and utilize knowledge resources to improve the performance of the Municipality and City Council. In other words, for about 70 percent of the 54 candidates running for Bojnord City Council election, success in managing the city is dependent on the promotion of the three dimensions of intellectual capital: 1) human capital, 2) structural capital, and 3) relational capital. But, for Bojnord City Council candidates, relational capital is the most important and valuable aspect of intellectual capital to create greater value in the urban management organization. They attribute the successful performance of city management to having useful and applied knowledge among citizens. In their opinion, building a network of interactive relationships with citizens and, consequently, the knowledge gained from them, enhances the understanding of urban management of city and citizens and adapts the performance of urban management to the real needs of the city and its citizens.Even though the citizen-customer perspective includes most of the concepts of the content of the candidates’ campaign items of the fifth Islamic City Council Elections of Bojnord, the internal processes perspective has the most strategic goals. Since the main operations of implementing the financial and customer perspectives strategies take place in the context of internal processes, the greater number of macro-strategic goals in the internal processes perspective may reflect the fact that from the point of view of the candidates of the fifth Islamic City Council Elections of Bojnord, Bojnord’s municipal and Islamic City Council system of affairs are not currently accompanied by financial and customer perspectives. As a result, the outcome of the work done by the city administration (municipality and city council), has not been able to respond enough to citizens' demands and necessities. But, what is the solution to this problem or issue?
    The analysis of the hidden content of the campaign slogans of Bojnord City Council candidates indicates that, for them, the problem of unbalanced distribution of resources and interests in the city which arises from the process of accomplishing tasks, such as imposing the desired projects of the city council and municipality on the city and its citizens, as well as the delimitation of the city by City Council members in terms of ethnic and neighborhood benefits, will be resolved by the popularization of urban management. In other words, the solution to the problem is to apply alteration in urban management by promoting intellectual capital and aligning the system of accomplishing tasks with the city and the citizens.

    Keywords: Balanced scorecard, content analysis, Elections, Campaign Slogans, Islamic City Council
  • Hamid Dehghani *, Hadighe Ebrahimi Pages 99-122
    Introduction

    Superstition as a cultural category in any society is one of the aspects of the spiritual culture of that society that has social damages and psychological consequences. Also, it affects every stratum of society in a variety of ways and forms appropriate to time and place. Although the prevalence of supernaturalism seems to decrease with the increase in the level of literacy and public culture of the society, even modern humans cannot completely reject or actually get rid of superstition. Superstition has its special place in nations, within them there are still some people who are following the superstitions of their previous generations and transferring these superstitions to their next generation. In fact, in the mind of each human there are beliefs that are incompatible with any scientific logic and that their beliefs cannot be understood with any rational justification. But, these beliefs exist and sometimes find functions in life that can change the course of one’s life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of social and psychological security on the tendency toward superstition among Isfahan University students. Research showed that although students were the educated and the future-maker group of the country, superstitious beliefs have always been found among them. The theoretical framework for the research has been based on theories of Pareto’s Irrationality, Weber's Traditional and Irrational Behavior, Maslow's sense of psychological security, and Ingelhart's Social Security. Superstition has become widespread in response to the insecurities of individuals in life. In fact, it is an inevitable attempt to influence the future course of events to make things enjoyable.

    Material & Methods

    The statistical population of the study included all students of Isfahan University in 2018 (1397 AH). The population size was 14375 and the sample size was 375 using Cochran formula, among them 400 questionnaires were distributed. The sampling method was quota sampling from each faculty. In the present study, content validity was based on the endorsement of articles by specialists and experts. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used for assessing reliability. The alpha coefficients for the variables of feeling of psychological security, social security, and the tendency toward superstition were 0.771, 0.745, and 0.766, respectively. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire and the findings were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software. The results showed that the mean of mental security was 28.03 and social security was 34.56 which were 1.7 and 1.44 lower than the total mean, respectively. The mean of superstitions was 41.21 with the standard deviation of 2.21 higher than the mean. The relationship between psychological security with the tendency toward superstition (-0.317) and social security relationship with superstition (-0.145) was directly and negatively confirmed. In regression analysis, in order to determine the equation with which to predict superstitions, we obtained an equation with variables of psychological security, social security, gender and employment status. Finally, 22.5% of the variance of the dependent variable was explained by this equation.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between the variable of feeling of psychological security and social security and tendency toward superstition. In fact, the obtained data supported the main hypothesis of the above research. Namely, those students who had the least sense of economic security, uncertainty about the future, lack of happiness, and other micro-dimensions of psychological security and social security showed the highest tendency for superstition. The relationship of psychological and social security with the tendency for superstition was different for men and women, different ethnicities, educational levels and unemployed persons, with women, unemployed, undergraduates and ethnic Lur being more prone to superstition.

    Keywords: Psychological Security, Social Security, superstitions, University of Isfahan, students