فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Masoud Khorshidi, Sanaz Jamshidi, Mohammadreza Vafa * Pages 114-115

    Dear editor In a recent issue of the journal, Dastani et al. (2019) evaluate the effects of curcumin on the prevention of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure in patients with unstable angina. Despite the fact that the topic was interesting, there were some defects and we wish to call to your attention important factual issues in this publication. The most critical flaw of the article was the duration of supplement therapy which was about 5 days and the related complications such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, the rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the mortality rate were measured after this duration which we know is too short and it cannot show the complications and supplemental effect properly. It is important to know that heart failure and related complications are mostly chronic conditions and it is not accurate to claim that it is measurable in such a short time. Furthermore researchers didn’t assess blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, alcohol use and smoking in patients which can all change the structure and function of heart and can relate to heart failure (McMurray and Pfeffer, 2005). In the title and keywords part, it is important to point out that which form of curcumin exactly was used in the study nevertheless the author’s only mention the “nanocurcumin” type at the end of abstract. The authors claimed that there isn’t any similar clinical study. Even if there is not any related study, the priority is working on the effect of curcumin on some basic features like lipid profile and hypertension, and then some advanced issues like angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. However we found different researches concentrated on the similar content. One of our significant questions involves the determination of sample size that could be possible by considering previous studies which wasn’t mentioned by the authors ( Rahimi et al., 2016; Rahmani et al., 2016). In method section, Figure 1 shows study participation diagram which wasn’t provided in the correct format. We addressed some studies with accurate participation diagram (Bauer et al., 2015; Trabal et al., 2015). To be specific, the authors mentioned the absorption rate of SinaCurcumin in mice which is 50 times more than conventional powder of curcumin and they referenced two human studies. However there was a failure in reporting the oral absorption of SinaCurcumin in human. Furthermore, the studies that have been referenced didn’t compare the absorption rate of curcumin and nanocurcumin which there is not any justification for prescribing this dose (80 mg) in the study so it may not show proper effect. Furthermore, duration of the intervention in this study was determined without reason and logic and the authors didn’t mention any references.

  • Mostafa Dastani, Asieh Karimani, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour * Pages 116-117

    Dear editor Regarding the duration of supplement therapy in our study which has been published in the Avicenna J Phytomed, 2019; 9(1): 1-9, “The effects of curcumin on the prevention of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure in patients with unstable angina” (Dastani et al., 2019),  some critical flaws has been mentioned. Primarily, we are grateful for the consideration of this article and we also appreciate the suggestions which have been very useful. Here, we will describe the most important point which was missed. The duration of supplement therapy was about 5 days and all the related complications were measured after this time. Acute coronary syndrome is a medical emergency (Switaj et al., 2017) that begins with tearing of atherosclerosis plaque in one of the coronary epicardial arteries and the thrombus placement on the atherosclerosis plaque (Bentzon et al., 2014). Inflammation plays a key role in rupturing the plaque and pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome (Mulvihill et al., 2002). The chances of full vein closure increases when plaques tear off, and eventually an unstable angina can progress to a myocardial infarction (Willerson et al., 1991). All these happenings could be completed in 5 days. By inhibiting inflammation or other responsible factors during this period, the progression of unstable angina towards the myocardial infarction can be prevented. Therefore, the patients with no significant risk factor can find a stable condition within 5 days of hospital admission. Regarding the high role of inflammation during the first days of acute coronary syndromes and stabilization of the patients after that time, the study period of this study was 5 days.

  • Marjan Ajami, Maryam Seyfi, Fatemeh Abdollah Pouri Hosseini, Parisa Naseri, Aynaz Velayati, Fahimeh Mahmoudnia, Maliheh Zahedirad, Majid Hajifaraji * Pages 118-127
    Objective

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a natural and healthyalternative sweetener to sugar and artificial sweeteners, which has become important for human diets and food manufactures. In this study, the effects of stevia or sucralose as tea sweeteners on glycemic and lipid profile of type 2 diabetic patients were investigated.

    Materials and Methods

    A double-blind clinical trial was carried out in 34 type 2 diabetic patients. These patients were assigned into two groups of stevia (n=15) (received 1 cup of 2% stevia extract-sweet tea in three meals) and non-stevia (n=19) (received one tablet of sucralose sweetener) daily for eight weeks. Glycemic response and lipid profile of the participants were assessed. Furthermore, height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of the participants were measured as well as their dietary intakes at the baseline and at the end of the study.

    Results

    Findings showed no significant differences in fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels between the base line and after two hours, in participants. Also, no significant differences in insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and lipid levels were found between the two groups.

    Conclusion

    Results of the current study showed that the highlighted doses of stevia in sweetened tea could be an alternative to sucralose in diabetic patients with no effects on blood glucose, HbA1C, insulin and lipid levels.

    Keywords: Stevia, Sucralose, Type 2 diabetes, Glycemic response, lipid profile
  • Mohammad Sadegh Amiri *, Mohammad Reza Joharchi, Mohabat Nadaf, Yasamin Nasseh Pages 128-142
    Objective

    Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is the largest genus of vascular plants in the world, that comprises an estimated number of 2900 annual and perennial species. The members of this genus have a broad spectrum of usages (e.g. medicine, food, fodder, fuel, ornamental plants, etc.). Here, we present a review of ethnobotanical applications of different species of Astragalus by various ethnic and cultural groupings worldwide, to provide an exhaustive database for future works.

    Materials and Methods

    Literature survey was performed using Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, and Science Direct, and English and non-English reference books dealing with useful properties of the Astragalus species from 1937 to 2018. Consequently, we reviewed a total of 76 publications that supported lucrative information about various uses of this huge genus.

    Results

    Several ethnobotanical uses of 90 Astragalus taxa were documented which were mainly originated from Asian and European countries. The two most frequently mentioned Astragalus treatments, were against urinary and respiratory diseases. The most commonly used part was gum and the most frequently used preparation method was decoction.

    Conclusion

    This review highlights that various Astragalus species have great traditional uses in different ethnobotanical practices throughout the world. However, there is still lack of phytochemical and pharmacological researches on many species of Astragalus and further studies are required to substantiate the therapeutic potential of them which will develop new generation of plant-derived drugs in the near future.

    Keywords: Astragalus, Ethnobotany, Fabaceae, Vascular Plants, World
  • Mohammad Taghi Moradi, Ali Karimi *, Mahmoud Rafieian Kopaei, Mohammad Rabiei Faradonbeh, Hassan Momtaz Pages 143-151
    Objective

    Influenza virus, which is associated with high level of morbidity and mortality, has been recently considered a public health concern; however, the methods of choice to control and treat it are limited. Our previous study showed anti-influenza virus activity of pomegranate peel extract (PPE). In this study, the mechanism through which PPE acts against influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1; PR8) was investigated.

    Materials and Methods

    Ethyl alcohol extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel was prepared, and the action mechanism of PPE in inhibiting influenza replication was studied by time-of-drug-addition assay, virucidal activity, RNA replication, hemagglutination inhibition assay, viral mRNA expression, and western blot analysis.

    Results

    PPE inhibited viral polymerase activity, viral RNA replication, and viral protein expression but could not affect hemagglutination inhibition and virucidal activity. According to time-of-drug-addition assay results, PPE inhibited the virus adsorption and early steps of influenza replication.

    Conclusion

    This study demonstrated that the antiviral effect of PPE on influenza virus is most probably associated with inhibition of viral adsorption and viral RNA transcription.

    Keywords: Anti-influenza virus, Pomegranate, Punica granatum L, Mechanisms
  • Hadi Tavakkoli, Amin Derakhshanfar *, Javad Moayedi, Ali Poostforoosh Fard Pages 152-160
    Objective
    Extensive research has been done to assess the efficacy of herbs for treating different disorders. Dorema ammoniacum (D. ammoniacum) is used in folk medicines for various goals. The application of herbs in medicine is accompanied by harmful effects. Chick embryo is considered a suitable model for assessing drugs toxicity. The present study aimed to evaluate the changes in vasculature in chick’s extra-embryonic membrane following D. ammoniacum treatment. Alterations in molecular pathways associated with early embryonic angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were also evaluated.
    Materials and Methods
    Fertile chicken (Ross 308) eggs were allocated into three similar groups; sham, control and D. ammoniacum groups; in D. ammoniacum group, eggs were inoculated with plant’s extract at doses of 50 or 100 mg per kg egg-weight.
    Results
    Analysis of the extra-embryonic membrane vasculature revealed that D. ammoniacum extract decreases some vascular parameters such as vessels area, total vessels length, vascular branch and increases lacunarity. This herb’s vascular toxicity was in a dose-dependent manner. Down-regulation of the expression of VEGF-A was also seen in the extract-treated extra-embryonic membrane.
    Conclusion
    Vascular toxicity of D. ammoniacum was confirmed by data presented in this paper. We conclude that alteration of vascular parameters and gene expression might finally lead to embryo malformation due to D. ammoniacum consumption. Therefore, the use of this herb must be limited during the fetal growth period especially at doses higher than 50 mg per kg.
    Keywords: Dorema ammoniacum, Embryo, fetus, Pathology, Angiogenesis, VEGF-A
  • Nasrin Ranjbar, Ramin Saravani *, Zohreh Faezizadeh Pages 161-169
    Objective
    Silymarin is a herbal extract containing flavonolignans, and it has inhibitory effects against the growth of different cancer cell lines by inducing apoptosis. Toll-like receptors are suggested as a novel and attractive target to treat cancer. The current study aimed at examining the mechanism of silymarin-induced apoptosis in Ramos cells and investigating its effects on TLR8 expression.
    Materials and Methods
    The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of silymarin in Ramos cells was determined via MTT viability test while the type of cell death was tested by annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining method. The activity of caspase-3 and expression of TLR8 were measured in a time-dependent manner (in IC50) by colorimetric assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively.
    Results
    The results of MTT showed that IC50 of silymarin in Ramos cells was 100 μg/ml after 48 hr treatment (p<0.01). Flow cytometry by annexin V/PI, showed that silymarin induced early/late apoptosis in this cell line (p
    Conclusion
    The results indicated a new mechanism in the anticancer activity ofToll-like receptor (TLR) signaling after silymarin treatment in Ramos cancer cell line. This plant could be used to develop anticancer agents inhibiting TLRs.
    Keywords: Toll-Like Receptor, TLR8, Gene expression, Silymarin, Apoptosis, Ramos cells
  • Seyed Mousa Alreza Hosseini, Majid Anushiravani, Mohammad Javad Mojahedi, Maryam Hami, Saeid Zibaee, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Ali Taghipour, Zahra Nikakhtar, Hamid Eshraghi, Amir Parviz Tavassoli * Pages 170-180
    Objective

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of camel milk and Tarangabin (manna of Alhagi maurorum) combination therapy in addition to conventional treatments in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). 

    Material and Methods

    Forty-four patients of 15 to 70 years old, with CKD due to hypertension or diabetes, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15–60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, were enrolled in this trial. The patients were randomized to receive either 400 cc of camel milk with 10 cc of Tarangabin syrup orally in two divided daily doses for 3 months plusconventional therapy or conventional therapy alone. The conventional treatment included diabetes medications and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers.

    Results

    The baseline characteristics of patients were similar in the two groups. Serum levels of creatinine (p=0.01), blood levels of urea nitrogen (p=0.0001), triglyceride (p=0.02), and potassium (p=0.05), and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.0001) decreased, while eGFR (p=0.001) improved in intervention group significantly.

    Conclusion

    It seems that the therapeutic protocol used in this study can improve renal function in patients with CKD through regulating glucose and anti-inflammatory, laxative, and immunostimulatory properties.

    Keywords: Camel milk, Tarangabin (Manna of Alhagi. maurorum), Traditional Persian Medicine, Chronic kidney disease (CKD), Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), Randomized controlled trial
  • Shahrzad Amizadeh, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Alireza Khabbazi *, Amir Ghorbanihaghjo, Ali Asghar Ebrahimi, Amir Mansour Vatankhahc, Aida Malek Mahdavi, Mohsen Taghizadeh Pages 181-189
    Objective

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral and genital aphthous ulcers, uveitis and skin lesions. Oxidative stress and inflammation have important role in the pathogenesis of BD. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nigella sativa (NS) oil administration on malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs- CRP) levels in patients with BD.

    Materials and Methods

    In this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial, 96 BD patients were randomly assigned to NS or placebo groups. Study groups received 1000 mg/day NS oil and placebo soft gels for 8 weeks. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-10, hs-CRP, MDA and TAC were measured before and after treatment.

    Results

    Eighty-nine individuals completed the study. Significant decreases in the serum levels of MDA and increases in the serum levels of TAC were found in the NS group. However, differences in the changes of MDA and TAC in the NS and placebo groups were not significant. Pre- and post-intervention changes of TNF-α, IL-10 and hs-CRP levels in the NS group were non-significant.

    Conclusion

    NS 1000 mg per day is probably not effective in reducing the inflammatory and oxidative markers in BD.

    Keywords: Nigella Sativa, Behcet’s disease, IL-10, TNF-α, Oxidative stress
  • Oludele Olanlokun *, Kemi Oloke, Olufunso Olorunsogo Pages 190-201
    Objective

     Extracts of Anchomanes difformis (AD) are used in folkloric medicine to treat several diseases and infections. However, their roles in mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening are not known.

    Material and Methods

     The viability of mitochondria isolated from Wistar rat liver used in this experiment, was assessed by monitoring their swelling amplitude in the absence of calcium and reversal of calcium-induced pore opening by spermine. The effects of methanol extract and fraction of A. difformis (MEAD and MFAD, respectively) on Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition (MMPT) pore opening, ATPase activity, cytochrome c release and ferrous-induced lipid peroxidation were assessed spectrophotometrically. Phytochemical constituents of MEAD and MFAD were assessed using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Results

     The MEAD (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ ml) had no effect on MMPT pore opening in the absence of Ca2+, whereas MFAD at 80 μg/ml had a large amplitude pore opening effect. Both MEAD and MFAD reversed Ca2+‌‌-induced swelling with inhibition values of 18, 21, 24, 23% (for MEAD) and 41, 36, 35, and 26% (for MFAD) at 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml, respectively. MFAD significantly enhanced F1F0 ATPase activity and caused cytochrome c release. Both MEAD and MFAD significantly inhibited ferrous-induced lipid peroxidation by 33.0, 64.0, 66, and 75% (for MEAD) and 24, 25, 30, and 45% (for MFAD), respectively. The GC-MS results revealed the presence of squalene as one of the major constituents of MEAD.

    Conclusion

     These findings suggest that MFAD can be used to induce cell death via mitochondrial permeability transition in isolated rat liver. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by MEAD and MFAD showed that the pore opening effect of the extract and fraction was not mediated via peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane lipids.

    Keywords: Anchomanes difformis, Phytoconstituents Mitochondrial ATPase, Lipid Peroxidation, Cytochrome c, Mitochondrial permeability, Transition pore opening
  • Wachiryah Thong Asa *, Vasakorn Bullangpoti Pages 202-212
    Objective

    The present study investigated possible neuroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of Tiliacora triandra leaf against cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Materials and Methods

    Forty male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were randomly divided into five groups: (1) Sham + 10% Tween 80, (2) bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) + 10% Tween 80, (3) BCCAO + T. triandra 300 mg/kg, (4) BCCAO + T. triandra 600 mg/kg and (5) BCCAO + quercetin 10 mg/kg. Cerebral ischemic-reperfusion (IR) was induced by 30 min of BCCAO followed by 45 min of reperfusion. After IR induction, total brain protein, calcium, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as brain infraction and histopathological changes in vulnerable brain areas, such as the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, were evaluated.

    Results

    The results showed that 2 weeks of pretreatment with T. triandra leaf extract at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg significantly reduced calcium and MDA, but increased GSH and SOD and CAT activities. The extract significantly attenuated brain infarction and neuronal death in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    Conclusion

    We demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of T. triandra leaf extract against cerebral IR injury in mice.

    Keywords: Tiliacora triandra, Ischemic-reperfusion injury, Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, Cerebral cortex, Hippocampus, Lipid Peroxidation