فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Hossein Hosseinifard, Nashmil Ghadimi*, Sara Kaveh, Hossein Shabaninejad, Alaadine Lijassi, Rasoul Azarfarin Pages 1-9
    Introduction

    Cardiac troponin is one of the heart biomarkers,its high levels correlates with ahigh risk of cardiomyocytes damage. This study aimed to compare sevoflurane,isoflurane effect ontroponin levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Methods

    We systematically searched for RCTs which had been published in Cochrane library,PubMed,Web of science,CRD,Scopus,and Google Scholar by the end of February 30th,2019. The quality ofarticles was evaluated with the Cochrane checklist. GRADE was used for quality of evidence for thismeta-analysis. Meta-analysis was done based on random or fixed effect model.

    Results

    Five studies with total of 190 (sevoflurane),191 (isoflurane) patients were included. Theresults showed that pooled mean difference of troponin levels between the two groups was significantat ICU admission time,24 hours after entering. The comparison of troponin level changes betweenthe two groups (baseline,at time ICU) in 24,48 hours after ICU admission was significant.

    Conclusion

    This meta-analysis showed that blood troponin levels were significantly lower at the timeof arrival in ICU with isoflurane,after 24 hours with sevoflurane. Generally,given the small meandifference between isoflurane,sevoflurane,it seems that none of the medications has a negativeeffect on the cardiac troponin level.

    Keywords: Troponin, Sevoflurane, Isoflurane, Cardiac Surgery
  • Latheef Kasala*, Rajasekhar Durgaprasad, Vanajakshamma Velam Pages 10-14
    Introduction

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) presents with wide spectrum and has variable prognosis. Factor V Leiden (FVL) is the most common inherited thrombophilia, with a prevalence of 3%-7% in the general US population, approximately 5% in Whites, 2.2% in Hispanics and 1.2% in Blacks. PTE most commonly originates from venous thrombosis. The occurrence of venous thromboembolism is a culmination of environmental and genetic risk factors. The current study was sought to identify the mutations in exon-10 of FV gene in patients with PTE.

    Methods

    Sixty cases diagnosed with PTE and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Mutation studies in exon-10 of Factor V gene included PCR-DNA sequencing method.

    Results

    Of 60 patients, we found two novel transition type point mutations: c.1538 G>A and c.1601 G>A in exon-10 of Factor V which is responsible for the cleavage site for aPC. These point mutations resulted in single amino acid change in protein sequence at p.Arg513Lys and p.Arg534Gln respectively. These mutations prevent efficient inactivation of Factor V and Factor V remains active which facilitates over production of thrombin leading to generation of excess fibrin and excess coagulation which results in deep vein thrombosis and PTE.

    Conclusion

    We report two novel point mutations (c.1538 G>A and c.1601 G>A) in exon-10 of Factor V gene in Indian patients with PTE.

    Keywords: Pulmonary Thromboembolism, Factor V, Mutations
  • Amal El Sisi, Shaheen Dabour, Aya M Fattouh, Effat Assar, Rasha Naguib, Antoine Fakhry AbdelMassih* Pages 15-19
    Introduction

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common anomaly of the mitral valve. Several studies have shown prevalence of MVP in atrial septal defect (ASD) especially secundum types (II). The aims of this study is to show the potential role of 3D echocardiography in improving the diagnosis of MVP and to depict the relationship between reverse remodeling of the right and left ventricles (RV, LV) and MVP after transcatheter closure of ASD II.

    Methods

    Sixty patients underwent transcatheter closure of ASD II and completed follow up by 2D and 3D echocardiography in Cairo University Children Hospital before the procedure and at 24 hours, 1 and 6 months after the procedure.

    Results

    3D echocardiography was more accurate than 2D echocardiography in detecting MVP frequency in ASD II patients (75% vs. 50%). Maximum statistically significant remodeling was detected by 3D echocardiography 1 month after the procedure (RV: LV ratio by 3D echocardiography 1.9±0.03 24 hours after the procedure vs. 1.6±0.03 1 months after the procedure, P<0.01) while 2D echocardiography was delayed in detecting biventricular reverse remodeling. 3D derived RV: LV ratio was accurate in detecting MVP status with a sensitivity of 88%.

    Conclusion

    MVP in ASD II may be related to Biventricular remodeling; 3D echocardiography is accurate in the detection of reverse remodeling as well as MVP in ASD II patients before and after device closure.

    Keywords: Reverse Remodeling, MVP, ASD II
  • Mohsen Mirzaei, Masoud Mirzaei* Pages 20-26
    Introduction

    Estimation of the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), may lead to prophylactic therapies. This study aims to compare and evaluate the agreement between CVD prediction of Iran Package of Essential Non-communicable Disease (IraPEN) and Framingham risk score (FRS).

    Methods

    All 40-79 years old participants in the Yazd Health Study who did not have a history of CVD were included. The 10-years risk of CVD was estimated by the laboratory (IraPEN), nonlaboratory WHO-EMR B and FRS. The risk was classified into low, moderate and high-risk groups. Cohen’s weighted kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between tools. To assess discrepancies McNemar’s χ2 test for paired data was used. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

    Results

    In total, 2103 participant was included and the risk scores were calculated. Of them, 26.5% were stratified as high risk by FRS, compared with 6.1% by IraPEN. A slight agreement (37.9%) was observed (kappa 0.17, P<0.0001), in other words. This discrepancy between IraPEN vs. FRS was seen in both sexes (P<0.0001), although in women the agreement ratio was higher (52.1% vs. 21.3%). The discrepancy between FRS and IraPEN in categorizing people at risk of CVD was 55.5%, (P<0.0001) but this was not significant between IraPEN and non-laboratory WHO-EMR-B (World Health Organization - Eastern Mediterranean Regional-B group countries) score (P<0.523; discrepancies, 5.8%).

    Conclusion

    Our study shows a slight agreement between various CVD risk scores. Thus, reviewing the IraPEN and using alternative tools for the low-risk group should be considered by decision-makers. It is important to use a more reliable score for nation-wide risk assessment.

    Keywords: Risk Assessment, Cardiovascular Diseases, Framingham Risk Score, Iran
  • Sima Ghorabi, Alireza Esteghamati, Kamal Azam, Elnaz Daneshzad, Omid Sadeghi, Asma Salari Moghaddam, Leila Azadbakht, Kurosh Djafarian* Pages 27-34
    Introduction

    Limited data are available on the association of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) withmetabolic syndrome (MetS),its components. The present study was conducted to investigate theassociation of DII with MetS,its components among Iranian adults.

    Methods

    A total of 404 subjects,aged 18 years or older,were included in the current cross-sectionalstudy. We used a validated,reliable 147-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietaryintakes. Fasting blood sample was obtained to quantify glycemic indicators,lipid profile. MetS wasdefined based on the guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment PanelIII (ATP III).

    Results

    Mean age of study participants was 38.20±9.55 years. No significant association wasfound between DII,odds of MetS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92,95% CI: 0.48-1.76). In terms of MetScomponents,a significant positive association was seen between DII scores,reduced levels of highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR: 2.29,95% CI: 1.32-3.97),such that after controlling forenergy intake,demographic variables,BMI,participants in the highest category of DII had 2.71times greater odds for having reduced levels of HDL-C (OR: 2.71,95% CIs: 1.34,5.47). There was noother significant association between other components of MetS,DII scores either before or afteradjusting for confounding variables.

    Conclusion

    We observed no significant association between DII,odds of MetS. However,higherscore of DII was associated with lower levels of HDL.

    Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Dietary Inflammatory Index, Diet, Inflammation
  • Mina Mamipour, Mohammadreza Yousefi, Alireza Dehnad, Yousef Faridvand, Reza Zarezadeh, Majid Khaksar, Ayda Pouyafar, Reza Rahbarghazi* Pages 35-42
    Introduction

    Cardiovascular system is highly sensitive to LPS-induced oxidative damage. This study aimed to show the inhibitory effect of bacterial lipase on LPS-induced cardiomyoblasts toxicity.

    Methods

    Rat cardiomyoblasts H9C2 were classified into Control, LPS (cells received 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/ mL LPS) and LPS+ Lipase groups. In LPS+Lipase group, different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide were pre-incubated with 5 mg/mL bacterial lipase at 37˚C overnight prior to cell treatment. After 72 hours, cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. The expression of key genes related to toll-like receptor signaling pathways was assessed by real-time PCR assay. Percentage of fatty acids was evaluated in each group using gas chromatography assay. The levels of NO was also measured using the Griess reaction.

    Results

    Data showed H9C2 cells viability was decreased after exposure to LPS in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Incubation of LPS with lipase increased cell survival rate and closed to near-tocontrol levels (P<0.05). Lipase had the potential to blunt the increased expression of IRAK and NF-κB in cells after exposure to the LPS. Compared to the LPS group, lipase attenuated the increased level of NO-induced by LPS (P<0.05). Gas chromatography analysis showed the reduction of saturated fatty acids in cells from LPS group while the activity of lipase prohibited impact of LPS on cell fatty acid composition. LPS decreased the ability of cardiomyoblasts to form colonies. Incubation of LPS with lipase enhanced clonogenic capacity.

    Conclusion

    Reduction in lipopolysaccharide-induced cytotoxicity is possibly related to lipase activity and reduction of modified lipopolysaccharide with toll-like receptor.

    Keywords: Rat Cardiomyocytes, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipase, Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, Cell Cytotoxicity
  • Arash Khorrami, Mojtaba Ziaee*, Maryam Rameshrad, Ailar Nakhlband, Nasrin Maleki, Dizaji, Alireza Garjani* Pages 43-50
    Introduction

    The present study examined the effects of high cholesterol and high oxidized-cholesterol diets on the myocardial expression of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine in rats.

    Methods

    Male Wistar rats were allocated into 6 groups and fed with a normal diet, cholesterol, and oxidized-cholesterol rich diets with or without isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. TLR4 and MyD 88 expression and levels tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured in the heart and serum.

    Results

    Oxidized cholesterol-fed animals had higher serum levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (263±13 ng/dL) than the cholesterol-fed animals (98±8 ng/dL; P<0.001). A high level of oxidized-LDL caused fibrotic cell formation and enhanced neutrophil infiltration in the absence of MI. Both cholesterol and oxidized-cholesterol upregulated TLR4 mRNA expression and increased TNF-α and IL-6 production in the hearts of rats with MI. In rats fed with oxidized-cholesterol the serum and myocardial levels of TNF-α (653±42 pg/mL, 1375±121 pg/100 mg, respectively) were higher than MI group (358±24 pg/mL, P<0.001 and 885±56 pg/100 mg, P<0.01). A significant correlation was seen between TLR4 expression and infarct size.

    Conclusion

    These findings suggest that cardiac TLR4 is preferentially upregulated by oxidized cholesterol in rats. Oxidized cholesterol may have a critical role in cardiac toxicity in the absence of pathological conditions.

    Keywords: Oxidized Cholesterol, Toll-Like Receptor 4, Inflammation, Myocardial Infarction, Cytokine, Rats
  • Ata Firouzi, Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh, Ansari, Naser Mohammadhadi*, Mohammad Mehdi Peighambari, Ali Zahedmehr, Bahram Mohebbi, Reza Kiani, Hamid Reza Sanati, Farshad Shakerian, Alireza Rashidinejad, Behshid Ghadrdoost, Raana Asghari, Simin Shokrollahi Yancheshmeh Pages 51-55
    Introduction

    The risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) as a common and important complication of coronary procedures may be influenced by the vascular access site. We compared the risks of CIN in diagnostic or interventional coronary management between patients treated via the transradial access (TRA) and those treated via the transfemoral access (TFA).

    Methods

    Patients undergoing invasive coronary catheterization or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled. We excluded patients with congenital or structural heart disease and those with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. Based on the vascular access site used for invasive coronary catheterization, the patients were divided into 2 study groups: the TFA and the TRA. CIN was defined as an absolute (≥0.5 mg/dL) or relative (>25%) increase in the baseline serum creatinine level within 48 hours following cardiac catheterization or PCI.

    Results

    Overall, 410 patients (mean age=61.3±10.8 years) underwent diagnostic or interventional coronary management: 258 were treated via the TFA approach and 152 via the TRA approach. The patients treated via the TFA had a significantly higher incidence of postprocedural CIN (15.1% vs 6.6%; P=0.01). The multivariate analysis showed that the TFA was the independent predictor of CIN (OR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.11 to 5.10, and P=0.027). Moreover, the BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) and Mehran scores were the other independent predictors of CIN in our study.

    Conclusion

    The risk of CIN was lower with the TRA, and the TFA was the independent predictor of CIN after the diagnostic or interventional coronary management.

    Keywords: Contrast-Induced Nephropathy, Transfemoral Access, Transradial Access, Percutaneous CoronaryIntervention
  • Samad Ghaffari, Nashmil Parvizian, Leili Pourafkari, Ahmad Separham, Reza Hajizadeh, Nader D Nader*, Elnaz Javanshir, Nariman Sepehrvand, Arezou Tajlil, Babak Nasiri Pages 56-62
    Introduction

    Given the role of platelets in thrombus formation, markers of platelet activation may be able to predict outcomes in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).

    Methods

    In a prospective cohort study, 492 patients with acute PTE were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for platelet indices including mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and platelet-lymphocyte-ratio (PLR), as well as for the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) risk score. The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Major adverse cardiopulmonary events (MACPE, composite of mortality, thrombolysis, mechanical ventilation and surgical embolectomy during index hospitalization) and all-cause death during follow-up were secondary endpoints.

    Results

    MPV, PDW and PLR were 9.9±1.0 fl, 13.5±6.1%, and 14.7±14.5, respectively, in the total cohort. Whilst MPV was higher in those with adverse events (10.1±1.0 vs 9.9±1.0 fl; P=0.019), PDW and PLR were not different between two groups. MPV with a cut-off point of 9.85 fl had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 50% in predicting in-hospital mortality, but it had lower performance in predicting MACPE (Area under the curve: AUC 0.58; 95%CI 0.52-0.63) or long-term mortality (AUC 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.61). The AUC for all these three markers were lower than the AUC calculated for the simplified PESI score (0.80; 0.71-0.88).

    Conclusion

    Platelet indices had only fair-to-good predictive performance in predicting in-hospital all-cause death. Established PTE risk scoring models such as simplified PESI outperform these indices in predicting adverse outcomes.

    Keywords: Pulmonary Thromboembolism, Platelet, Mean Platelet Volume, Platelet Distribution Width, Mortaity
  • Soraya Siabani, Patricia M Davidson, Maryam Babakhani, Nahid Salehi, Yousef Rahmani, Farid Najafi, Hossein Karim, Ali Soroush, Behrooz Hamzeh, Mojtaba Amiri, Hossein Siabani* Pages 63-68
    Introduction

    This study aimed to evaluate the in-hospital mortality of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), according to gender and other likely risk factors.

    Methods

    This study reports on data relating to 1,484 consecutive patients with STEMI registered from June 2016 to May 2018 in the Western Iran STEMI Registry. Data were collected using a standardized case report developed by the European Observational Registry Program (EORP). The relationship between in-hospital mortality and potential predicting variables was assessed multivariable logistic regression. Differences between groups in mortality rates were compared using chi-square tests and independent t-tests.

    Results

    Out of the 1484 patients, 311(21%) were female. Women were different from men in terms of age (65.8 vs. 59), prevalence of hypertension (HTN) (63.7% vs. 35.4%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (37.7% vs. 16.2%), hypercholesterolemia (36.7% vs. 18.5%) and the history of previous congestive heart failure (CHF) (6.6% vs. 3.0%). Smoking was more prevalent among men (55.9% vs. 13.2%). Although the in-hospital mortality rate was higher in women (11.6% vs. 5.5%), after adjusting for other risk factors, female sex was not an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality. Multivariable analysis identified that age and higher Killip class (≥II) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality rate.

    Conclusion

    In-hospital mortality after STEMI in women was higher than men. However, the role of sex as an independent predictor of mortality disappeared in regression analysis. The gender based difference in in-hospital mortality after STEMI may be related to the poorer cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile of the women.

    Keywords: Myocardial Infarction, ardial InfarctionSex, Mortality, Registry, Cohort
  • Abolhassan Shakeri Bavil, Sina Zarrintan* Pages 69-72
    Introduction

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism and type of upper limb arterial trauma in Iranian population.

    Methods

    Fifty-one patients with upper limb trauma were evaluated over a 4-year period with conventional angiography at the Tabriz Imam Hospital, Iran.

    Results

    Twenty-four patients (19 men, 5 women with a mean age of 27.5±11.8 years) had arterial injuries. Blunt trauma was more frequent than penetrating trauma (87.5%). The most cause of trauma was traffic accidents and the brachial artery was the most frequently affected artery. In 87.5% cases associated bone injuries were observed.

    Conclusion

    Patients with blunt upper limb injuries must be evaluated for vascular integrity timely, especially in traffic accidents because vascular injuries after traffic accidents need to be referred to vascular centers. The results of this article are of potential use and clinical importance because precise diagnosis of vascular insults are essential to restore injured extremities.

    Keywords: Artery, Orthopedic, Trauma, Upper Limb, Angiography
  • Lucas Simonetto Faganello*, Mauricio Pimentel, Ana Paula Arbo Magalhães, Leandro Ioschpe Zimerman Pages 73-74

    We report a case of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during head-up tilt testing (HUTT). A 54-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department after four episodes of syncope. Treadmill test and electrophysiological study were normal. During passive HUTT, the patient had inferolateral ST elevation. Coronary angiography showed two severe lesions in the right coronary artery and circumflex artery

    Keywords: Syncope, Head-up Tilt Testing (HUTT), ST Elevation MyocardialInfarction
  • Farveh Vakilian, Akbar Kamali*, Ali Azari, Hoorak Poorzand, Amir Kamali, Somayeh Vakili Ahrari Roodi Pages 75-77

    Hydatidosis commonly affect the liver and lungs but in rare cases, it can involve heart tissue. A 42-year-old man from urban areas of Khorasan Razavi province, northeastern Iran, was referred to the cardiac clinic with palpitation, and atypical chest pain in 2018. Large pericardial effusion, reduced left ventricle systolic function was found. A cystic-like lesion was also seen in inter-ventricular septum in echocardiography and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Urgent cardiac surgery was done because of echocardiographic evidence of tamponade. Although the serologic analysis was negative for hydatidosis, surgical excision of cyst and the subsequent histopathological findings revealed a hydatid cyst. In endemic areas, hydatidosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic-like lesions, even if the serological analysis is negative.

    Keywords: Cardiac Cyst, Interventricular Septum, Myopericarditis, Hydatid Disease, Surgery