فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Elham Hassan *, Ahmed Abdelgalil, Faisal Torad Pages 1-5
    Ultrasonography is a safe, rapid, and non-invasive diagnostic tool that has been previously used for imaging infants and canine neonatal brains. The purpose of the present study was to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the brain in clinically normal caprine neonates. Ultrasonographic examination was done on 12 day-old goat kids, transverse and sagittal transcranial scans were obtained through the frontal bone. Three image planes were recorded through transverse scans including plane I (level of the caudate nucleus), plane II (level of the rostral diencephalon) and plane III (level of the caudal diencephalon). Parallel post mortem examinations were done for two kids that died a day following examination due to accidental trauma by the dam. Reliable and repeatable ultrasonographic images of the goat kid’s brain were described based on the gross post mortem findings. The head of the caudate nucleus was taken as an anatomical landmark in the plane I where it appeared as a curved hyperechoic structure. In plane II, the longitudinal fissure with its characteristic umbrella-like structure was taken as a landmark, while in plane III, the laterally located hyperechoic hippocampus was taken as a landmark. Normal ultrasonographic examination of the caprine neonatal brain represented the basis for diagnosing congenital brain lesions as well as intracranial hemorrhage.
    Keywords: brain, Goat, neonate, Neuroanatomy, Ultrasound
  • Zahra Bakhtiary, Rasoul Shahrooz *, Abbas Ahmadi, Farhad Soltanalinejad Pages 7-13
    In the present study, we aimed to address the use of ethyl pyruvate (EP) against the harmful effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment. Thirty-nine adult male mice were divided into three groups including control group received normal saline [0.20 mL per day; intraperitoneally (IP)], CP group received CP (15.00 mg kg-1 per week, IP) and CP+EP group received EP (40.00 mg kg-1 per day, IP) along with CP and treated for 35 days. After preparation of paraffin sections and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, the histomorphometric studies were performed on the testicular tissue. Additionally, the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and testosterone level, testis malondialdehyde (MDA) and in vitro fertilization rate were assessed. The results showed an increase in the tubal differentiation index, repopulation index, spermiogenesis index, thickness of testicular capsule, mean distribution of active Sertoli cells, SOD and testosterone levels of the CP+EP group in comparison with the CP group. Moreover, the MDA levels in the CP+EP group were lower than the CP group. An increase occurred in the percentage of fertilization in the CP+EP group compared to the CP group. Results of this study revealed that the EP ameliorates deleterious side effects of CP on testicular histology and in vitro fertility.
    Keywords: Cyclophosphamide, Ethyl pyruvate, In vitro fertilization, Mice, Spermatogenesis
  • Sara Dehyadegari *, Mohammad Mehdi Oloumi, Shahrzad Azizi Pages 15-20
    This study was performed to evaluate the role of electroacupuncture on kidney 1 (Ki1) acupoint to prevent the heart and brain injury following ischemia/reperfusion of both kidneys. 24 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups. In the treatment 1 group, following anesthesia, acupuncture needles were inserted on Ki1 on the palm of both hindlimbs and connected to electroacupuncture unit for a 3.00 Hz direct current, 1 hr before surgery until the end of surgery. In treatment two groups, the electroacupuncture was also performed 48 and 24 hr before the operation, with the same protocol as treatment 1. Control 1 and control 2 groups had the same procedures like the treatment ones, except for acupuncture. Immediately after reperfusion, the samples of brains and hearts were taken and prepared for microscopic examination. Histopathological study of the heart in the control and treatment groups showed the breakage of myofibrils, hyaline necrosis, edema and disorganization of myocytes. The severity of cardiac lesions was decreased in both treatment groups in comparison with the controls. Brain in control and treatment groups showed ischemic necrosis, disorganization of the neurons in the hippocampus, and edema. The severity of lesions was reduced in the treatment groups and showed a significant difference between the control and treatment 1. It could be concluded that electroacupuncture on the Ki1 point could reduce the severity of damages induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion in the remote organs of the heart and brain.
    Keywords: brain, Electroacupuncture, Heart, Ischemia-reperfusion injury, Kidney
  • Ala Alkafajy, Hassan Al Karagoly, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni * Pages 21-26

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represents an important genetic marker for manipulation to improve the health and productivity of cattle. It is closely associated with numerous disease susceptibilities and immune responses. Bovine MHC, also called bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA), is considered as a suitable marker for genetic diversity studies. In cattle, most of the polymorphisms are located in exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3, which encodes the peptide-binding cleft. In this study, the polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3.2 gene in Holstein's calves was studied using high resolution melting curve analysis (HRM). Observed HRM results were compared to PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing techniques. Eight different HRM and seven different RFLP profiles were identified among the population studied. By comparing to sequencing data, HRM could completely discriminate all genotypes (8 profiles), while the RFLP failed to distinguish between the genotypes *1101/*1001 and *1104/*1501. According to the results, the HRM analysis method gave more accurate results than RFLP by differentiating between the BoLA-DRB3.2 genotypes. Due to the Co-dominant nature of the MHC alleles, HRM technique could be used for investigating the polymorphisms of genotypes and their associations with immune responses.

    Keywords: BoLA-DRB3.2, genotyping, Holstein, HRM, RFLP
  • Masoumeh Moradi Ozarlou *, Sara Javanmardi, Hossein Tayefi Nasrabadi Pages 27-33

    The present study was aimed to determine the protective effects of Plantago major L (PM) leaf extracts on the testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D)-induced ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Twenty-four mature male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200-220 g, were selected. They were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each: Sham (sham-operated rats; all the surgical steps were performed but T/D was not induced), TDC (control group; T/D was induced and the right testicular torsion of 720° lasting two hours was followed by detorsion), TDP50 (T/D-operated rats received 50.00 mg kg-1 of PM extract daily for seven days intraperitoneally after detorsion) and TDP100 (T/D-operated rats received 100 mg kg-1 of PM extract daily for seven days intraperitoneally after detorsion). After seven days of treatment, the right testicles were collected. Histopathological and biochemical analyses including levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) and peroxidase activities were determined in testicular tissues of the rats. Tissue sections were taken from testis, Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was done, and the slides were examined by a light microscope. The level of MDA was significantly increased in the testes of the TDC group. The CAT activity levels were decreased significantly after I/R. The post-torsion treatment with PM, particularly at 100 mg kg-1, prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation and reduced the CAT activity levels. The PM also prevented I/R-induced cellular damage and histological changes in the testicular tissues. According to the results of the current study, PM leaf extracts had significant positive effects on the testicular T/D-induced I/R injury. The possible mechanism of reduction in biochemical and histological injuries by PM extracts could be due to antioxidant property.

    Keywords: Antioxidant, Ischemia, Reperfusion, Plantago Major, Rat, Testicular torsion
  • Mojtaba Karimi Pour, Abbas Ahmadi *, Masoumeh Zirak Javanmard, Abass Jafari, Maryam Mohebi, Elnaz Hosseinalipour Pages 35-42
    Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is commonly prescribed to treat maternal depression in pregnancy and lactation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to fluoxetine via lactation on testicular tissue, sperm parameters including count, motility, viability, and normal morphology and testicular oxidative stress status in male mice offspring. Ten mice dams were divided into control and experimental groups. The control group received water and the experimental group received fluoxetine (20 mg kg-1) by gavage daily from postnatal days of 0-21. Histology of testis, sperm parameters and oxidative stress in the testicular tissue were analyzed at 80 days after birth in their male offspring (n = 8). Significant reductions in the body and testes weights were observed in animals exposed to fluoxetine. Additionally, fluoxetine exposure significantly reduced all sperm parameters, tubular diameter and epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules as well as Leydig cells number. Significant increases in the testicular malondialdehyde levels and percentage of sperm with chromatin/DNA damage were observed in mice exposed to fluoxetine compared to control. These findings suggest that maternal exposure to fluoxetine during lactation in mice has a negative effect on the testicular tissue of their offspring and impairs the spermatogenesis process which in turn can induce infertility.
    Keywords: Fluoxetine, Mice, Sperm parameter, Testis
  • Ebrahim Ahmadi *, Narges Tahmasebian Ghahfarokhi, Maryam Nafar Sefiddashti, Marzieh Sadeghi, Hosein Hasanpour Pages 43-51

    Most aspects of reproductive function including spermatogenesis, oocyte growth and maturation, early embryonic development, fetal and placental growth, and lactation can be affected by thermal stress. Furthermore, it has been shown that oxidative stress involves in the pathology of thermal stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of thermal stress on the ovine mature epididymal spermatozoa extracted from testes of slaughtered rams in the presence or absence of an antioxidant. Epididymal spermatozoa were incubated at scrotal (32.00 ˚C), normal body (39.00 ˚C), and hyperthermic temperatures (41.00 ˚C) for 4 hr in the presence or absence of 1 mmol L-1 β-mercaptoethanol. The results demonstrated the high sensitivity of ram epididymal spermatozoa to the hyperthermic temperature at in vitro conditions. In comparison with scrotal temperature, quality parameters of spermatozoa were negatively affected by increase in temperature, as such in the spermatozoa incubated at hyperthermic temperature significant decrease was observed in the viability, DNA integrity and in the majority of motility parameters. Moreover, concentration of lipid peroxidation by-products, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, were significantly increased. The findings showed that using antioxidant during incubation period had significant protective effect on the viability and motility of incubated spermatozoa not only at the hyperthermic temperature, but also at the scrotal and normal body temperatures. In conclusion the ovine epididymal spermatozoa were sensitive to in vitro thermal stress and it seems that this sensitivity was partly related to the oxidative stress.

    Keywords: Antioxidant, DNA damage, Ram epididymal sperm, Thermal stress, Viability
  • Solmaz Khalili Samani, Mohammad Ghorbani *, Jamal Fayazi, Somayeh Sallary Pages 53-57
    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of fenugreek powder (FP) and extract (FE) on performance, egg quality, blood parameters and immune responses of laying hens. One-hundred and fifty Leghorn laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates for eight weeks. Treatments were various levels of FP and FE including zero (control; T1), 1.00% FP (T2), 2.00% FP (T3), 0.10% FE (T4) and 0.20% FE (T5).The results of this experiment showed that feed intake was increased linearly by the inclusion of FP compared to the control group. Supplementation of laying hens diet with 2.00% FP adversely affected feed conversion ratio (FCR). The FCR was decreased by 0.10% inclusion of FE compared to 0.20%. Egg yolk color was the highest when 1% FP added to laying hens diets compared to the other treatments. Serum metabolites and immune responses of laying hens were not affected significantly by fenugreek supplementation. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that using 1.00% FP can improve feed intake by supporting FCR. Inclusion of 1.00% FP in laying hens diet enhanced egg yolk color of laying hens in the second production cycle.
    Keywords: Egg quality, Fenugreek, Laying hens, Growth performance
  • Abbas Ali Ahmadinaghadehi *, Younes Ali Alijoo, Abbas Ali Naserian Pages 59-65
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of warm and cold physical as well as chemical processing methods on the nutritive value of barley grains by gas production technique. The processing methods included milling, steam flaking, extruding and soaking up the grain in water containing 1.00% citric acid, 1.00% propionic acid and 0.01 M sulfuric acid. Two-hundred mg of milling samples were incubated in special 100 mL glasses and the amount of gas produced at different hr was measured. The data were analyzed in a completely randomized design. The results showed that different treatments did not have a significant effect on chemical composition of barley seeds. Other methods of processing compared to the grinding method, significantly reduced the total amount of produced gas. In the 72 hr incubation period, the lowest amount of gas production was in the extruded (245.6 mL per g dry matter) treatment. However, there was no significant difference between the two methods of extruding and flaking. The highest percentage of digestible organic matter was associated with propionic acid (64.90%), while the steam cracking method (58.74%) was the least. Among the processing methods, the highest amounts of methane production, total protozoa population and volatile fatty acid concentration were related to the grinding method and the least amount of extrusion treatment was observed during 24 hr of incubation. Different experimental treatments had a significant effect on ammonia nitrogen condensation and the highest level was observed in milling. According to our results, processing methods such as extrusion and flaking may improve the grain nutritive value.
    Keywords: Extruding, Gas production technique, Incubation, Processing
  • Mandana Salehizadeh, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Seyed Naser Mousavi, Maryam Tajabadi Ebrahimi * Pages 67-75
    The efficacy of probiotics as alternatives to antibiotics has been defined as one of the potential strategies to prevent Salmonella spp. infection in poultry. The purpose of this study was to isolate probiotic native Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with high compatibility to intestinal tract and prevention of Salmonella typhimuriumfrom broiler chicken feces. Thirty-seven samples of chicken feces were collected from seven broiler chicken farms in Northern Iran. The isolates identification was carried out with morphological and biochemical tests. Agar diffusion methods were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium. The primary probiotic characteristics such as resistance to acid and bile and adhesion to Caco-2 cells were studied. Indeed, the ability of LAB isolates to inhibit adhesion of S. typhimurium to Caco-2 cells was evaluated by exclusion, competition and displacement assays. Among 42 isolates, S08, S01 and S06 isolates which showed appropriate probiotics characteristics were selected. Isolates S08 and S01 showed to be able to adhere strongly and also S06 was adhered moderately. In the exclusion assay, the isolates S08, S01 and S06 significantly hampered adhesion of S. typhimurium cell, in the competition assay, the isolates S08, S01 showed significant level of competition activity against S. typhimurium adherence to Caco-2 cells and isolate S08 showed the greatest displacement activity. The 16S rDNA sequence revealed that S08, S01, and S06 isolates were 99.00% similar to Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Pediococcus acidilactici, respectively. The result of this study suggested that LAB isolated from broiler chicken feces could be a remarkable reservoir for identification of probiotic to inhibit the pathogenic bacteria growth.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Broiler chicken, Probiotic
  • Rafael Suazo Cortez, David Itzcoatl Martinez Herrera *, Violeta Trinidad Pardío Sedas, Carlos Ricardo Cruz Vázquez, José Francisco Morales Alvarez, Gabriela Sánchez Viveros, María Elena Galindo Tovar Pages 77-81

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in sheep and their products pose a risk to public health. The aim of this study was to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in sheep in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. The study was cross-sectional and it was carried out in thirteen municipalities distributed in three regions of the state of Veracruz. A total of 414 blood samples were collected from four districts of Veracruz state and analyzed for T. gondii antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total seroprevalence was 35.90% (149/414; 95.00% CI = 31.40-40.80). Seroprevalence by the municipality was 10.50% to 85.70% and for the district was 28.80% to 47.80%, respectively. Age, breed and productive status were identified as risk factors associated with T. gondii infection significantly. The infection by T. gondii is widely present in the districts of the Veracruz state with a high seroprevalence and risk factors associated with infection.

    Keywords: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Epidemiology, serology, Sheep, toxoplasmosis
  • Shima Khezrian, Amir Parviz Salati *, Naser Agh, Hossein Pasha Zanoosi Pages 83-88

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) broodstocks with different ratio of plant oils to evaluate the changes in antioxidant defense status in the progenies. In the experimental diets, fish oil was replaced with different combination of plant oils including corn oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil, to gain different levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in the experimental diets. Fish fed eight weeks with experimental diets before reproduction. After spawning, samples were taken on days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 after fertilization. The samples were homogenized, centrifuged and the supernatant was removed for determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Results showed that SOD activity was significantly increased from the first sampling to day 35 in all treatment groups. The CAT activity showed a downward trend, as the highest CAT activity was observed in the eggs immediately after fertilization. The GPX activity declined until day five and then showed an increasing trend. The MDA content did not show significant changes in different groups and at different sampling times. The antioxidant enzymes activity was significantly influenced by the dietary PUFA level in the experimental groups but no change in MDA content was recorded, suggesting that the different percentages of fish oil replacement used in this study could not result in oxidative stress in early life stages of O. mykiss.

    Keywords: antioxidant defense, Diet, Larvae, plant oil, Rainbow trout
  • Asghar Mogheiseh *, Abdollah Derakhshandeh, Sara Heidarifar, Esmaeil Bandariyan Pages 89-92
    The microbial population of the uterus fluctuates during the estrous cycle. Microflora of uterus may affect the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in bitches. The endoscopic samples obtained from the vagina and uterus of 20 female adult mixed‑breed dogs. The uterine lavage samples were prepared for cytology, bacterial (aerobic and anaerobic) and fungal cultures. Uterine tissue samples were evaluated for the presence of E. coli by the polymerase chain reaction. The pure growth of bacteria was observed in seven plates out of the nineteen cultured samples (36.84%) and five Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria were detected. The highest number of isolated bacteria was related to the samples of the diestrus and anestrus stages of the estrous cycle, while the lowest number of bacteria was observed in the samples of the estrous stage. Moreover, Citrobacter spp. was the most frequent group of isolated bacteria. The neutrophils were detected in the cytology of uterine samples. The fungi growth was observed in three uterine samples. Cladosporium and Penicillium isolated from the samples were related to the estrus stage, and yeast was grown in diestrus samples. 16srRNA gene existed in all of the estrous uterine samples in which the bacterial culture was negative. However, the presence of this gene was proven in two samples (33.30%) of negative bacterial culture samples from the diestrus and anestrus stages. In conclusion, the normal bitches’ uteri were infected with various bacteria in estrus, diestrus and anestrus stages of the estrous cycle, and it could coincide with the fungi infection.
    Keywords: Bitch, Citrobacter, Cladosporium, Infection, Uterus
  • Belalmi Nor El Houda *, Sid Nassim, Omar Bennoune, Ouhida Soraya, Marcelo De Las Heras, Caroline Leroux Pages 93-95
    We report the occurrence of lung cancer in a six months old lamb of Ouled Djellal breed from Algeria. The main clinical sign was a considerable amount of whitish foamy fluid discharge from the nostrils when the animal head was lowered and the rear end was lifted. The post-mortem examination revealed the presence of enlarged, heavy and edematous lungs with diffuse or foci areas, reddish or white-gray in color. The gross and histological lesions of the lungs were compatible with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Lung adenocarcinoma in sheep is caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and originated from differentiated alveolar type II cells and non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells. We evidenced the expression of the oncogenic JSRV by immunostaining of lung slides with specific antibodies against the JSRV envelope. The viral proteins were expressed only in the tumor cells from the affected areas. As already described in other countries, JSRV-induced lung adenocarcinoma is present in the sheep population in Algeria.
    Keywords: Algeria, Immunohistochemistry, Pulmonary adenocarcinoma, Retrovirus, Sheep