فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 6, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 4
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  • Ali Muhammad Amin, Mahmud Sani*, Umar Bello Ahmad, Sani Sufiyanu, Hayatu Bashir Shehu, Aliyu Wada Rabiu, Lamido Afiya Kabir Pages 146-152

    This research was aimed at quantifying the extent of spatial variability of some soil fertility constraints under sorghum cropping system along a rainfall gradient to develop appropriate fertilizer recommendation. Sorghum farms were selected through multistage sampling techniques based on rainfall gradients across three States in Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Nigeria. These are Kano, Jigawa and Katsina States. Within the states, twelve communities where sorghum is predominantly grown along Kofa-Zangon Daura transect were selected. From each community, ten sorghum farms were randomly selected using 10 km x 10 km sampling grids. Five quadrants (2m x 2m) were marked diagonally from each farm to collect a composite soil sample. The soil samples were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures and subjected to descriptive statistics and geo-statistical analysis. Results obtained indicated high variability in most soil properties. Potassium presented the highest CV value of 55.3%, while moderate variability was obtained in Available Phosphorous content with a value of 15.4%. The findings also showed that Nugget to Sill ratio of Total Nitrogen, Available Phosphorus was 0% and 14% respectively indicating strong spatial dependency. The trend map also indicated that Soil Organic Carbon, Total Nitrogen, Available Phosphorus and Exchangeable Potassium increased with an increase in rainfall in the study areas. Generally, the soil was poor in major nutrients, we therefore recommend that integrated soil fertility management, and site-specific fertilizer application should be considered for adoption in the study area.

    Keywords: Cropping Systems, Fertility-Constraints, Geo-statistics, Rainfall-Gradients, Sudano-SahelianZone
  • Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha*, Indra Deo, Prabha Shankar Shukla, Dinesh Chandra Baskheti, Anand Kumar Tewari Pages 153-163

    Genetic parameters help to identify the breeding behavior of plants and aids in the selection of elite genotypes for hybridization programs. To determine the nature and type of gene action, to select superior genotypes and best cross combinations, combining ability, heterosis, heritability and five generation mean were estimated based on three susceptible varieties as lines and three resistant genotypes as testers in 2016. The three lines and testers were Pant Basmati-1, Pant Basmati-2, and Pant Basmati-17 and, BBL-180-5-1-4-1, Oryza perennis and improved Pusa Basmati-1 respectively. They were crossed in line x tester mating fashion. The plant progenies were grown up to three seasons to get P1, P2, F1, F2, and F3 to find out five generation mean. The experimental trial showed that all genotypes were significant and showed maximum variations among the traits. The general and specific combining ability values of lines and testers were also significant which prerequisite need for selection of superior genotypes. Maximum heterosis was reported in Pant Basmati-2 x Oryza perennis followed by Pant Basmati-2 x BBL-180-5-1-4-1 and Pant Basmati-1 x Oryza perennis respectively. The Highest heritability was recorded for 100-grain weight and lowest for days to flowering in all crosses. Five generation mean analysis showed epistatic nonallelic gene interactions like dominance and additive x additive gene interactions respectively. The overall results suggested that the selected lines, testers and cross Pant Basmati-2 x Oryza perennis were most appropriate for creating maximum heterosis which showed non-allelic gene interactions.

    Keywords: Combining ability, Five generationMean, Geneticparameters, Heritability, Heterosis
  • Bishnu Prasad Kandel *, Nav Raj Adhikari, Ankur Poudel, Mahendra Prasad Tripathi Pages 164-170

    To access the genetic variability present on hybrid maize genotypes, a research was carried out at Farmers field of Rapti municipality-7 Chitwan, Nepal during the winter season of 2018. Ten hybrid maize genotypes were replicate thricely in a randomized complete block design. Analysis of variance showed that all the studied traits were significantly different except the number of kernel row per ear, ASI, ear aspect, days to physiological maturity and thousand kernel weight which showed the existence of enough genetic potential present for crop improvement Program. Plant height, ear height, number of kernel row, ear aspect, ear length, thousand kernel weight, and grain yield showed moderate to the high genotypic coefficient of variation, phenotypic coefficient of variation along with high heritability with moderate to high genetic advance as a percentage of the mean. Selection can be performed on those traits showing the high genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability with high genetic advance as a percentage of the mean for yield improvements program. Cluster analysis showed that the hybrid genotypes showed considerable genetic diversity among themselves by occupying three different clusters.

    Keywords: Genetic potential, heritability, Geneticgain, GCV, PCV
  • Bimal Chandra Kundu, Md. Abu Kawochar, Sauda Naznin, Maruf Mostofa*, Hossain K.M. Delowar, Tuhin Suvra Roy Pages 171-178

    Thirteen advanced potato genotypes developed by TCRC were characterized for 24 qualitative and 16 quantitative traits and analyzed for diversity by PCO, PCA, and Cluster analysis. Qualitative traits showed low variability (0.34), which Quantitative traits showed medium-high variation (0.67). The pooling of all traits showed a medium type index (0.51). The genotypes were grouped into four clusters. Cluster I had six genotypes, while cluster II and IV had only one. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters II and III and the lowest was between clusters III and IV. The highest intracluster distance was found in cluster I, whereas Cluster II (0.00) and cluster IV (0.00) showed the lowest. The highest inter-genotype distance was between genotypes 8.46 and 7.33 (33.79), and the lowest was between 7.86 and 7.48 (5.70). The genotypes of cluster I earned the highest mean values for foliage coverage, plant vigor and tuber numbers/hill. Cluster II produced the highest means for plant vigor, primary stem/hill, leaf length, leaf width, leaflet blade length, blade width, lateral leaflet blade length, width, tuber weight/hill, and tuber yield. The first three PCA counted for 91.75% of the total variation, whereas the first one accounted for 69.47%. From the scree plot, three principal sample components effectively summarized the total variance. Results of PCA showed the reduction of the 16 original variables to three independent linear combinations of PCA. The number of tubers/hill contributed maximum towards divergence.

    Keywords: Characterization, Cluster analysis, PCA, Potato, Solanum tuberosum