فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:23 Issue: 4, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • Moosa Rahimi Ghiasi, Hamed Mohammadi, Michael Symonds, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Tabei, Ahmad Reza Salehi, Sima Jafarpour, Leila Norouzi Barough, Elnaz Rahimi, Zohreh Amirkhani, Maryam Miraghajani, Rasoul Salehi * Pages 406-415
    Objective(s)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major worldwide public health challenge, for which gene therapy offers a potential therapeutic approach. To date, no systematic review or meta-analysis has been published in this area, so we examined all relevant published studies on rodents to elucidate the overall effects of gene therapy on bodyweight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), fasting blood glucose, and insulin in animals with type 1 DM.

    Materials and Methods

    The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for potentially relevant studies. Mean±standard deviation (SD) was pooled using a random-effects model.

    Results

    After the primary search, out of 528 studies identified, 16 studies were in concordance with predefined criteria and selected for the final assessment. Of these, 12 studies used viral manipulation, and 4 employed non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The meta-analysis showed gene therapy with a viral vector decreased mean IPGTT (-12.69 mmol/l, P<0.001), fasting blood glucose (-13.51 mmol/l, P<0.001), insulin (398.28 pmol/l, P<0.001), and bodyweight (24.22 g, P<0.001), whereas non-viral vectors reduced fasting glucose (-29.95 mmol/l, P<0.001) and elevated insulin (114.92 pmol/l, P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    Gene therapy has favorable effects on alleviating type 1 DM related factors in diabetic rodents.

    Keywords: Gene Therapy_Insulin_Meta-analysis_Non-viral vector_Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus_Viral vector
  • Mahdi Hajhasani, Vahid Soheili, Mohammad Reza Zirak, Amir Hosein Sahebkar, Abolfazl Shakeri * Pages 416-430

    Monosodium glutamate is a sodium salt of a nonessential amino acid, L-glutamic acid, which is widely used in food industry. Glutamate plays an important role in principal brain functions including formation and stabilization of synapses, memory, cognition, learning, as well as cellular metabolism. However, ingestion of foodstuffs rich in monosodium glutamate can result in the outbreak of several health disorders such as neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, obesity and diabetes. The usage of medicinal plants and their natural products as a therapy against MSG used in food industry has been suggested to be protective. Calendula officinalis, Curcuma longa, Green Tea, Ginkgo biloba and vitamins are some of the main natural products with protective effect against mentioned monosodium glutamate toxicity through different mechanisms. This review provides a summary on the toxicity of monosodium glutamate and the protective effects of natural products against monosodium glutamate -induced toxicity.

    Keywords: Monosodium glutamate, Phytochemical, Neurotoxicity, Herbal Medicine, Food industry
  • Marzieh Darvishi, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Sajad Sahab Negah *, Ardeshir Moayeri, Taki Tiraihi, Javad Mirnajafi Zadeh, Ali Jahanbazi Jahan Abad, Amir Shojaei Pages 431-438
    Objective(s)

    Cell therapy has provided clinical applications to the treatment of motor neuron diseases. The current obstacle in stem cell therapy is to direct differentiation of stem cells into neurons in the neurodegenerative disorders. Biomaterial scaffolds can improve cell differentiation and are widely used in translational medicine and tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of two-dimensional with a three-dimensional culture system in their ability to generate functional motor neuron-like cells from adipose-derived stem cells.

    Materials and Methods

    We compared motor neuron-like cells derived from rat adipose tissue in differentiation, adhesion, proliferation, and functional properties on two-dimensional with three-dimensional culture systems. Neural differentiation was analyzed by immunocytochemistry for immature (Islet1) and mature (HB9, ChAT, and synaptophysin) motor neuron markers.

    Results

    Our results indicated that the three-dimensional environment exhibited an increase in the number of Islet1. In contrast, two-dimensional culture system resulted in more homeobox gene (HB9), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), and synaptophysin positive cells. The results of this investigation showed that proliferation and adhesion of motor neuron-like cells significantly increased in three-dimensional compared with two-dimensional environments.

    Conclusion

    The findings of this study suggested that three-dimension may create a proliferative niche for motor neuron-like cells. Overall, this study strengthens the idea that three-dimensional culture may mimic neural stem cell environment for neural tissue regeneration.

    Keywords: Motor neuron-like cells, Nanoscaffolds, Proliferation, Stem cell therapy, Three-dimension culture, Tissue engineering
  • Jie Chen, Weiqiong Ye, Ling Li, Junfang Su, Yunling Huang, Lingyun Liu, Lili Wu, Can Yan * Pages 439-448
    Objective(s)
    To investigate the effects of paeoniflorin (PEF) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback function of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). cSingle-prolonged stress (SPS) was used to establish a PTSD-like rat model. The contents of plasma corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were measured by ELISA. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), adrenocorticotropic hormone-releasing factor I receptor (CRF1R), and adrenocorticotropic hormone-releasing factor II receptor (CRF2R) in the hippocampus and amygdala were measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
    Results
    The results showed that on day 8 after SPS, model rats showed enhanced HPA axis negative feedback lasting to day 29. On day 29, plasma CORT levels increased in model rats, while plasma CRH levels had no significant difference on days 8, 22, and 29. The expression of GR and MR of model rats significantly increased in the hippocampus, while the expression of GR, MR, and CRF1R significantly decreased in the amygdala. After 14 days of continuous administration of PEF, the enhanced negative feedback was inhibited, and the plasma CORT level significantly reduced after 21 days of administration. Moreover, PEF could significantly decrease the expression of GR and MR in the hippocampus, and increase the expression of GR, MR, and CRF1R significantly in the amygdala.
    Conclusion
    PEF could regulate HPA axis dysfunction in a rat model of PTSD, which may be related to regulating expression of GR and MR in the hippocampus and amygdala and regulating expression of CRF1R in the amygdala.
    Keywords: Adrenocorticotropin hormone, Behavior, Corticosterone Corticotropin releasing hormone, Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, Paeoniflorin, Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Habibeh Vosoughi, Hosein Azimian, Sara Khademi, Abdul Rahim Rezaei, Maryam Najafi Amiri, Fereshteh Vaziri Nezamdoost, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi * Pages 449-453
    Objective(s)

    Nowadays, ionizing radiation (IR) has a significant contribution to the diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, and following that, health risks to individuals through unexpected exposure is greatly increased. Therefore, biological and molecular technology for estimation of dose (biodosimetry) is taken into consideration. In biodosimetry methods stimulation of cells to proliferation is routine to achieve more sensitivity of techniques. However, this concept has recently been challenged by new molecular methods such as gene expression analysis. This study aims to investigate the stimulation effects on gene expression biodosimetry.

    Materials and Methods

    The blood samples were taken from15 patients who were irradiated by TC-99 MIBI, before radiopharmaceutical injection and 24 hr after injection. Lymphocytes were extracted immediately and activated by (phytohemagglutinin) PHA for 24 hr and XPA and FDXR expression levels were investigated by employing relative quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    Results

    The results of this study show a significant increase in the FDXR expression level and a significant decrease in the XPA after stimulation of irradiated lymphocytes. Interestingly, a significant increasing trend in the FDXR expression level (at 0.05 significance level) following cell stimulation to the division was observed.

    Conclusion

    Our results suggest that the PHA activation role in gene expression-based biodosimetry is strongly depended on the target genes and the relevant protein pathways. Finally, cell stimulation looks to be useful for some specific genes, such as FDXR, due to the increasing trend in expression and improvement of sensitivity of gene expression-based biodosimetry method.

    Keywords: Gene expression, Ionizing radiation, Low dose, Phytohemagglutinin, Radiation Dose
  • Firoozeh Piroozmand, Parinaz Ghadam *, Mahboobe Zarrabi, Ahya Abdi Ali Pages 454-460
    Objective(s)
    Alginates play a key role in mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, biofilm formation, and driving out of cationic antibiotics. P. aeruginosa alginate lyase (AlgL) is a periplasmic enzyme that is necessary for alginate synthesis and secretion. It also has a role in depolymerization of alginates. Using AlgLs in cystic fibrosis patients along with antibiotics enhances bacterial killing and host healing. In this study, we investigated the different biochemical properties of a newly isolated AlgL from P. aeruginosa S21 to complete the databank of AlgLs
    Materials and Methods
    The enzyme was extracted from the periplasmic space of the bacteria by the heat shock method. Using the TBA method, the enzyme activity and biochemical properties were assessed. The mutability of P. aeruginosa S21 AlgL to increase its thermal stability was investigated. The most favorable mutations were studied computationally. The molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) package GROMACS was used for determining the effect of S34R mutation on enzyme’s thermal stability.
    Results
    Data showed that this enzyme has the best activity at 37 °C and pH 7.5 and it can degrade mannuronate blocks, guluronate blocks, and sodium alginate. After 7 hr at 80 °C, 45% of the enzyme activity was retained. This enzyme needed 15 min to completely degrade accessible sodium alginate.  Tris buffer, pH 8.5 and Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 7.0 were the preferable buffers for the enzyme activity. MDS of native and mutated enzymes showed desirable results.
    Conclusion
    P. aeruginosa S21 AlgL can be used in medical and industrial applications to degrade alginates.
    Keywords: Alginate, Alginate lyase, Computational biology, Enzyme assay, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Strain S21
  • Yong Xiang Shi, Wei Shan Chen * Pages 461-468
    Objective(s)

    The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases is complicated, in which inflammatory reactions play a vital role. Microglia cells activation, an essential process of neuroinflammation, can produce neurotoxic molecules and neurotrophic factors, which aggravate inflammation and neuronal injury. Monascin, a major component of red yeast rice, is an azaphilonoid pigment with potential anti-inflammatory effects; however, the effects in central nervous system have not been evaluated. Our goal in this project was to explore the therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of Monascin, which may be via anti-inflammatory action.

    Materials and Methods

    We used lipopolysaccharide to induce BV-2 microglial cells in order to form an inflammation model in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effects of Monascin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western Blot and Immunofluorescent staining.

    Results

    Our data indicated that inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide were suppressed by Monascin treatment. Furthermore, the related pro-inflammatory genes were inhibited consistent with the results of ELISA assay. Western blotting results showed that the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB/p65) was reduced by Monascin treatment may be through suppressing the activation of IκB. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining showed that the translocation of NF-κB/p65 to the cellular nuclear was blockaded after Monascin treatment.

    Conclusion

    Taken together, Monascin exerts anti-inflammatory effect and suppressed microglia activation, which suggested its potential therapeutic effect for inflammation-related diseases.

    Keywords: BV-2, Inflammatory reaction, Microglia, Monascin, NF-κB, p65 pathway
  • Fatemeh Khakinezhad Tehrani, Najmeh Ranji *, Fatemeh Kouhkan, Simzar Hosseinzadeh Pages 469-482
    Objective(s)
    Silibinin, as an herbal compound, has anti-cancer activity. Because of low solubility of silibinin in water and body fluids, it was encapsulated in polymersome nanoparticles and its effects were evaluated on pancreatic cancer cells and cancer stem cells.
    Materials and Methods
    MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells were treated with different doses of silibinin encapsulated in polymersome nanoparticles (SPNs). Stemness of MIA PaCa-2 cells was evaluated by hanging drop technique and CD133, CD24, and CD44 staining. The effects of SPNs on cell cycle, apoptosis and the expression of several genes and miRNAs were investigated.
    Results
    IC50 of SPNs was determined to be 40 µg/ml after 24 hr. Our analysis showed that >98% of MIA PaCa-2 cells expressed three stem cell markers. FACS analysis showed a decrease in these markers in SPNs-treated cells. PI/AnnexinV staining revealed that 40 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of SPNs increased apoptosis up to ~40% and >80% of treated cells, respectively. Upregulation of miR-34a, miR-126, and miR-let7b and downregulation of miR-155, miR-222 and miR-21 was observed in SPNs-treated cells. In addition, downregulation of some genes involved in proliferation or migration such as AKT3, MASPINE, and SERPINEA12, and upregulation of apoptotic genes were observed in treated cells.
    Conclusion
    Our results suggested that SPNs induced apoptosis and inhibited migration and proliferation in pancreatic cells and cancer stem cells through suppression of some onco-miRs and induction of some tumor suppressive miRs, as well as their targets.
    Keywords: Cancer Stem cell, miRNA, Nanoparticles, Pancreatic Cancer, Silibinin
  • Neda Nikokalam Nazif, Maryam Khosravi *, Ramesh Ahmadi, Maryam Bananej, Ahmad Majd Pages 483-493
    Objective(s)
    It is known that treadmill exercise has   beneficial effects on the nervous system. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in such effects. This study aimed at investigating effects of intermittent treadmill exercise-induced behavioral, histology, and immunohistochemistry (H&E, TH) measurement of brain interleukin-10 (IL-10) in a mice male model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), as well as the role of BDNF gene in exercise effects.
    Materials and Methods
    The animals were divided into Control (C), Saline (S), Parkinson (P), Exercise (E), and Parkinson + Exercise (PE) groups. Bar test was performed for the 21-day protocol with 5 days a week treadmill exercises. In this regard, brains were removed from the skull for H&E, TH, IL-10, and the expression of the BDNF gene using the MPTP male mice PD model.
    Results
    MPTP reduced the number of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SNpc), whereas daily exercise administration on 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st days significantly reduced the catalepsy duration induced by MPTP. The results of H&E and TH studies showed that MPTP significantly reduced the number of TH+ neurons in the SNpc compared with those of the control mice. The MPTP caused a marked decrease in basal protein levels of IL-10 in SNpc and corpus striatum in the Parkinson (P) group as compared with controls. Treatment with Exercise (E) group had the most BDNF expression (3.71), and the Parkinson (P) group also had the least BDNF expression (0.18) relative to controls.
    Conclusion
    The treadmill exercise having neuroprotective effects in SNpc and corpus striatum has improved MPTP associated with motor deficits. It is considered as a non-pharmacological tool for the management of PD.
    Keywords: BDNF, Catalepsy, Exercise, IL-10, Parkinson’s disease
  • Haiming Cong, Qiu ping Gao, Guo qiang Song, Yin gxin Ye, Xiao li Li, Lian shuang Zhang, Xi feng Wang Pages 494-499
    Objective(s)

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential role of hydrogen in rats after cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury.

    Materials and Methods

    The experimental samples were composed of sham group, model group of rats that received middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 hr followed by reperfusion for 24 hr, and the hydrogen saline group treated by hydrogen-rich saline (1 ml/kg) after MCAO. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), S100-βprotein (S100-β), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels were measured; the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected; the histologic structure and apoptotic cells of hippocampus were observed; the expressions of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test.

    Results

    Our results showed that hydrogen up-regulated H2S levels via promoting the expression of CBS in the hippocampus, and its treatment alleviated oxidative stress via activating the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, and then cell apoptosis reduced, furthermore, brain function improved by down-regulating the levels of S100-βand NSE.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates cell injury through up-regulating the expression of CBS in the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats, this provides new experimental evidence for the treatment of stroke with hydrogen saline.

    Keywords: Cerebral ischemia reperfusion, Cystathionine β-synthase, Hippocampus, Hydrogen, Rats
  • Farnaz Mozayeni, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Farahnaz Jabbari Azad, Mahmoud Shabestari, Reza Faridhosseini, Houshang Rafatpanah, Hadis Yousefzadeh, Yousef Ali Garivani, Lida Jarahi, Narges Valizadeh, Faezah Sabet, Sharare Moshirahmadi, Fatemeh Sadat Mohammadi, Mohammad Shabestari * Pages 500-506
    Objective(s)
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is known as a life threatening disease, worldwide. In this study the role of HTLV-1 infection was evaluated on cardiac involvement in an endemic region of northeastern Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    Serologic and molecular tests for HTLV-1 infection were carried out in subjects who had coronary angiography. A real-time PCR, TaqMan method, to quantify HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL), and routine hematological and biochemical tests were performed for study subjects.
    Results
    Twenty nine patients were HTLV-1+CAD+ and 13 cases were HTLV-1+CAD-. Although, there were no significant differences for risk factors like FBS, HDL, triglyceride, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Cbp, Dbp), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (WL), cholesterol  (P=0.003), and LDL (P=0.007) levels, and monocyte count (P=0.05) had meaningful differences. The mean HTLV-1 PVL in HTLV-1+CAD+ subjects was 992.62±120 which was higher compared with HTLV-1+CAD- group (406.54±302 copies/104 PBMCs). Moreover, HTLV-1 PVL in males (833±108) was lower compared with females (1218±141 copies/104 PBMCs) (P=0.05). Patients with HTLV-1-PVL of more than 500 copies/104 had more diffused atherosclerosis plaque than patients with less than 500 (OR=6.87, 95% CI=1.34-35.05; P=0.016). Furthermore, patients with diffused coronary atherosclerosis had significantly higher levels of HTLV-1 PVL than patients with middle, proximal, and normal location of coronary sclerotic lesions (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Taken together, in endemic area, HTLV-1 infection, more likely is a facilitating factor for heart complications and the high HTLV-1 PVL might affect CAD manifestations.
    Keywords: Cardiac involvement, Coronary artery disease HTLV-1, HTLV-1 Proviral load, Real-time PCR
  • Faezeh Soltanpour Gharibdousti, Banafsheh Fazeli Delshad, Reza Falak, Nasrin Shayanfar, Mazdak Ganjalikhani Hakemi, Alireza Andalib, Gholamali Kardar * Pages 507-514
    Objective(s)
    Blocking of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in inhibition of metastasis and is a target for development of anti-angiogenic agents. In this study, a peptide-based vaccine was designed and its potential for induction of humoral immune responses, generation of neutralizing antibodies, inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis was determined.
    Materials and Methods
    With online bioinformatics tools, a fragment of the VEGF-A was selected for a peptide-based vaccine. To enhance its antigenicity, the peptide was conjugated with Keyhole limpet hemocyanin and used to immunize mice. Then, the polyclonal anti-VEGF antibody titer was measured and its effect on proliferation of HUVEC cell line was investigated by MTT assay. Finally, we checked the effect of the peptide on tumor growth, metastasis, and survival rates in a mouse model of cancer.
    Results
    The bioinformatics analysis of the selected region confirmed dis-similarity of the peptide with any other human protein and its acceptable antigenicity to stimulate a tumor-specific humoral response. Anti-VEGF antibody titers were significantly greater in vaccinated mice than in controls. IgG antibody from mice immunized with recombinant VEGF-A inhibited HUVEC proliferation (P<0.0001). Tumors in vaccinated mice were significantly smaller than those in controls. Moreover, metastasis was reduced and survival rates increased in the vaccinated group.
    Conclusion
    Production of high-titer antibody against the peptide vaccine indicated that the peptide has the potency to be used as a peptide-based vaccine for humoral inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. The efficacy of the peptide should be further tested in primate models.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis, Immunoinformatics, Metastasis, Peptide based vaccine, VEGF
  • Khalid Hashem *, Asmaa Elkelawy, Saber Abd Allah, Nermeen Helmy Pages 515-526
    Objective(s)

    The current study aimed to assess cisplatin-mediated ovarian apoptosis in a rat model by Royal jelly (RJ).

    Materials and Methods

    Thirty female adult albino rats (180-200 g) were divided into three groups (n=10): saline (0.9% NaCl, IP) was given to the control group, the cisplatin group: received (5 mg/kg/once a week IP) for 5 successive weeks, the RJ+Cis. group: received RJ (100 mg/kg/ day PO daily), and Cisplatin (5 mg/kg/once per week IP) for 5 successive weeks. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and their ovaries were isolated and used for biochemical analysis, molecular investigations and morphometric assessment as well as histological study. Moreover, blood samples were collected for determination of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Estradiol, progesterone and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH).

    Results

    The current study clarified that RJ given to rats prior to cisplatin significantly increased the ovarian and uterine weights, in addition to follicular count at P˂0.05 compared to rats injected only with cisplatin. Moreover, it restored normal ovarian histological structure with a concurrent reduction in FSH, and LH levels, and increased AMH and ovarian hormone concentrations at P˂0.05 compared to cisplatin group. Also, RJ decreased the ovarian antioxidant/oxidative imbalance harmonized with significant suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and increase of quinone oxidoreductase 1 mRNA expression at P˂0.05 compared to cisplatin group.

    Conclusion

    We concluded that RJ could alleviate mitochondrial-induced ovarian apoptosis caused by cisplatin via increasing anti-apoptotic Bcl2, and diminishing pro-apoptotic Bax with a concomitant increase of Mfn2 mRNA and protein expressions.

    Keywords: Bax, Bcl2, Mfn2, Mitochondrial viability, Ovaries
  • Gholam Hossein Farjah *, Samad Mohammadzadeh, Masoumeh Zirak Javanmard Pages 527-533
    Objective(s)
    Peripheral nerves are commonly damaged. Although the nerve autograft still subsists the gold standard in surgery of nerve injury gaps, it has severe detriment. The egg shell membrane (ESM) is a natural material, which has a great potential in practice. The aim of this survey was to appraise the effect of lycopene and the ESM nerve guidance channel on sciatic nerve regeneration.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, 32 male rats were randomized into four groups: sham surgery, autograft, ESM+ dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and ESM+lycopene. One centimeter of sciatic nerve was removed, and the gap was grafted by ESM channel or autograft. The sciatic function index (SFI) was evaluated at days 7, 21, 30, 49, 60 and 90 after surgery.  Nerve regeneration and gastroknemius muscle fibers were evaluated at days 30 and 90 after surgery by withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), histology and immunohistology assessments.
    Results
    At  49, 60 and 90 days after surgery, the mean SFI in ESM+lycopene group was significantly greater than ESM+DMSO group (P<0.05). On day 90, the mean muscle fiber diameters and the mean number of myelinated axons in ESM+lycopene and autograft groups were significantly greater than ESM+DMSO group (P<0.05). In addition, the mean WRL was significantly lower in ESM+lycopene group than in the ESM+DMSO group 90 days after surgery (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study show that the affirmative effects of ESM+lycopene may be beneficial for treating peripheral nerve damages.
    Keywords: Egg shell membrane, Lycopene, Nerve guidance channel, Nerve regeneration, Rat, Sciatic nerve
  • Fatemeh Hajialaiani, Taher Elmi, Maryam Mohammadi, Delavr Shahbazzadeh, Fatemeh Ghafarifar, Abolhossein Dalimi Asl, Mohammad Arjmand, Fatemeh Tabatabaie *, Zahra Zamani Pages 534-543
    Objective(s)
    Malaria is an important parasitic disease with high morbidity and mortality in tropical areas. Resistance to most antimalarial drugs has encouraged the development of new drugs including natural products. Venom is a complex mixture of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimalarial activity of purified fractions of Naja naja oxiana.
    Materials and Methods
    Lyophilized venom was purified with a Sephacryl S-200 HR column and the fractions lyophilized and inhibitory concentration 50% against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 in vitro obtained. The 4th fraction was run on a Mono Q column, and activity against P. falciparum was detected by lactate dehydrogenase assay and purity by SDS PAGE. Large scale culture of the parasite was carried out with and without the active fraction on the ring stage for 48 hr. The parasites were collected and lyophilized and analyzed by 1HNMR. Chemometrics studies were performed using MATLAB, differentiating metabolites were identified by Human Metabolic Database, and metabolic pathways by the Metaboanalyst online package.
    Results
    The active fraction from the ion exchange column had a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.026 µg/ml on P. falciparum in vitro (P<0.001) with molecular weight of 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE and no hemolytic activity. Metabolomics studies on the two groups with and without the fraction identified 5 differentiating metabolites and a number of related pathways.
    Conclusion
    The metabolites were succinic acid, l-glutamic acid, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, and NAD. The changes in the Krebs cycle and metabolism pathways of nicotinamide and pyruvate were noticeable.
    Keywords: Chemometrics, 1HNMR, Metabolomics, Naja naja oxiana venom, Plasmodium falciparum
  • Samaneh Farrokhfar, Taki Tiraihi *, Mansoureh Movahedin, Hossein Azizi Pages 544-550
    Objective(s)
    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), with suitable and easy access, are multipotential cells that have the ability for differentiation into other mesodermal and transdifferentiate into neural phenotype cells. In this study, Lithium chloride (LiCl) was used for in vitro transdifferentiation of rat ADSCs into neuron-like cells (NLCs).
    Materials and Methods
    ADSCs were isolated from the rats’ perinephric region using Dulbecco΄s Modified Eagle΄s Medium (DMEM) with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), cultured for 3 passages, characterized by flowcytometry and differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic phenotypes. The ADSCs were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 5, and 10 millimolar (mM) LiCl without serum for 24 hr. The optimum dose of LiCl was selected according the maximum viability of cells. The expression of neurofilament light chain (NfL), neurofilament high chain (NfH), and nestin was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the amount of synaptophysin, neurogenin-1, neuroD1, NfL, NfH, and nestin genes’ expression in ADSCs and NLCs.
    Results
    The optimum dose of LiCl was 1 mM in 24 hr. The transdifferentiated ADSCs showed cytoplasmic extension with synapse-like formation. Synaptophysin, neurogenin-1, neuroD1, NfL, NfH, and nestin genes were significantly expressed more in NLCs than in ADSCs.
    Conclusion
    LiCl can induce ADSCs into neural phenotype cells with higher expression of neural and neuronal genes.
    Keywords: Induction, Lithium chloride, Neuron-like cells, Stem cells, Transdifferentiation
  • Majid Abrishami, Mehrdad Motamed Shariati, Bizhan Malaekeh Nikouei, Amineh Sadat Tajani, Asma Mahmoudi, Mojtaba Abrishami, Bahman Khameneh * Pages 551-555
    Objective(s)

    The in vivo efficacy of nanoliposomal formulation of vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) assessed.

    Materials and Methods

    Nanoliposomal formulations were prepared and characterized. The in vivo study was carried out on rabbits which received liquid culture medium containing MRSA under anesthesia. After 48 hr, the eyes treated with the liposomal and free form of vancomycin. The rabbits were euthanized at predesignate intervals at 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 hr intervals injection. The antibacterial activity of different vancomycin formulations was assayed by the time killing method.

    Results

    The zeta potential, mean sizes and encapsulation efficacy of liposomal vancomycin were 29.7 mV, 381.93±30.13 nm and 47%, respectively. The results of time–killing studies indicated that the liposomal formula was more effective than the free form of vancomycin.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study revealed that liposomal vancomycin formulation is a powerful nano-antibacterial agent to combat infectious endophthalmitis.

    Keywords: Nanopliposomes, Vancomycin, Endophthalmitis, MRSA, Drug Delivery