فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
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  • Ali Javadian, Asadollah Mehrara*, Seyed Alireza Ebrahimi, Mohammadreza Bagerzadeh Pages 1-11
    purpose

    The purpose of this research was to identify Dimensions and Components of Human Resource Efficiency in Medical Universities of Iran: To Present a Conceptual Model.

    Methods

    This research regarding the aim of that is an applied research type and in terms of implementation method categories in descriptive-survey and correlational research applying the Delphi fuzzy model. The statistical population of the study consisted of 27 college experts who participated in this research as a decision team in identifying indicators and dimensions of variables chosen by non-random (targeted) and snowball

    Findings

    The findings of the research show that human resource productivity indicators are divided into seven main categories (structural-managerial, socio-psychological, cultural, individual, economic, environmental, initiation and cooperation) and 56 subsidiary indexes. These findings were obtained through three steps back and forth of expert questionnaires, fuzzy and defuzzification of responses.

    Conclusion

    The results of the research indicate that it is possible to improve the skills of the staff and increase the productivity of human resources by their appropriate training, guidance and participation.

    Keywords: Human resources efficiency, structural, managerial, social, collaborative
  • Salman Darabi, Nematollah Azizi*, Jamal Salimi, Naser Shirabegi Pages 12-26
    Purpose

    The main purpose of the research is to study the elements and dimensions of university sustainability and to present a comprehensive conceptual model for the realization of sustainable university in the Iranian higher education system and to compare the approach of public and non-governmental universities.

    Methodology

    The research approach is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of data collection method is descriptive-correlational. And in terms of a mixed method, it is done in two parts: qualitative and quantitative. In the qualitative section, the components of sustainable university were identified by conducting semi-structured interviews with 17 higher education experts and policymakers selected through purposeful sampling. The process of gathering information continued until theoretical saturation. To validate qualitative findings from participant and coworker review strategies and inductive content analysis method for data analysis, the research method was quantitative descriptive - survey. The research instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 8 subscales and its content extracted from qualitative data. The population consisted of 322 faculty members of public and non-governmental universities selected according to Cochran formula. The construct validity of the instrument was confirmed by experts and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software.

    Findings

    The results of data analysis in the coding process were finally categorized into 26 axial categories and 8 selective codes. The findings included eight main categories of pedagogy elements and dimensions in learning processes, sustainable research, functional structural requirements, social sustainability, economic sustainability, academic and academic identity and academic diplomacy in the age of globalization. The results of the quantitative section also showed the difference of sustainability indices in public and non-public universities.

    Conclusion

    Finally, the results showed that universities need to move towards sustainability in order to maintain their stability in the current situation. Accordingly, a sustainable university is a university with a sustainable strategy and strategy, a transversal and community-based vision of implementing sustainable principles and concepts in sustainable teaching-learning functions, sustainable research, strengthening democratic society, minimizing environmental, economic impacts. It is socially and hygienically, and has functional structural requirements, academic and academic interactions, a well-defined and robust economic and financial system that has always sought to strengthen the identity of professional citizens in support of a sustainable and pioneering society.

    Keywords: Higher Education System, Sustainable University, Pedagogy, Democratic, Academic, Academic Identity
  • Alireza Dolati Miandoab, Fariborz Dortaj*, Noorali Farrokhi Pages 27-35
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of KWL educational strategy and conceptual mapping strategy on students' critical thinking.

    Methodology

    This research was based on a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test with two experimental groups and one control group. The statistical population consisted of all male students of the third grade high school of Miandoab in 2016-17. Three classes were selected through multistage cluster sampling. Two classes were randomly selected as experimental group and one class as control group. One of the experimental groups was taught in KWL and the other in a conceptual map. The control group was also trained in a conventional way. The pre-test and post-test data were used to collect data from the California Formation B Questionnaire.

    Findings

    To analyze the data was used one-variable covariance analysis. The findings of the study showed that education through the Kwl strategy and conceptual mapping strategy is effective on critical thinking students (P <0.001). It was also determined that the effectiveness of KWL strategy on students' critical thinking was more than conceptual mapping strategy (p <0.001).

    Conclusion

    Based on this study, both cognitive strategies and metacognitive strategies reinforce students' thinking. However, due to the findings of this research and related studies, it is better to use metacognitive strategies along with cognitive strategies because using metacognitive strategies, students monitor their learning process and become more aware of complex issues and points and they get more aware. Based on these findings and previous research, it is recommended that modern educational methods such as KWL and concept maps be used in teaching

    Keywords: KWL Strategy, Concept Maps, Educational Strategy, Critical Thinking
  • Zeinab Roointan, Mahnaz Jalalvandi*, Faeze Nateghi Pages 36-46
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the storytelling and storytelling curriculum in preschool and presenting a favorable role model.

    Methodology

    This study was a descriptive survey. The research method was mixed method. Due to the exploratory nature of the research and the way in which the data were collected and arranged, (firstly qualitatively and then quantitatively) this research has been classified into successive exploration plans. The qualitative part uses the documentary method and the quantitative part uses the descriptive survey method. The statistical environment of the study consisted of all books, articles, theses, and printed and electronic texts related to the subject. Structured interviews were used to collect data and purposeful sampling was used.

    Findings

    The results of content analysis in qualitative part including open coding and axial coding showed that ratings of storytelling and storytelling components in preschool curriculum were from the strongest to the weakest, respectively: cognitive goals, attitude goals, skill goals, Evaluation, content, teaching and learning methods. The results of t-test showed that the mean of obtained sample (3.70) was higher than the mean of community (3)

    Conclusion

    The results showed that storytelling and storytelling can have a significant role in the curriculum and motivate students to be more motivated and motivated to study formal and higher education. He should have a positive and positive impression of school and school.

    Keywords: Storytelling Curriculum, Desirable Pattern, Story
  • Abdolhamid Elhamifar, Vali Mehdinezhad*, Ali Farnam Pages 47-55
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching critical thinking on meta-cognitive awareness and epistemological beliefs of high school students.

    Method

    The present study was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test and follow up with a control group. The statistical population of this study was all second-grade high school students in Zahedan. The sample consisted of 30 subjects who were selected by randomized cluster sampling and were randomly assigned to either experimental (15 subjects) or control (15 People). The data collection tool was a meta-cognitive awareness questionnaire by Shrow and Denison (1994) and an epistemological questionnaire (EQ) (Schumer, 1990, 1993). At first, subjects of both groups were pre-test and then the experimental group received 12 critical thinking training sessions. While the control group did not receive any intervention.

    Finding

    for analyzing the data, covariance analysis was used by SPSS software. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of meta-cognitive awareness and epistemological beliefs in the experimental and control groups in the post-test (P <0.01). The effect of teaching critical thinking on metacognitive awareness and epistemological beliefs of students in the follow-up phase has continued.

    Conclusion

    teaching critical thinking was effective on metacognitive awareness and the epistemological beliefs of students. Teaching students to improve the effective use of abilities, improve their performance and provide them with reasonable decision making and thinking.

    Keywords: Critical Thinking, MetacognitiveAwareness, Epistemological Beliefs
  • Ail Edalatjoo, Hossein Mahdian*, Mohammad Mohammadipour Pages 56-66
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between parenting styles and academic self-handicapping by mediating role of meta-cognitive and perfectionism skills.

    Methodology

    The statistical population of the study consisted of all the second grade secondary school students in studying the academic year of 2017-18, in Bojnourd. A sample of 350 students was selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. To collect the data,(a) Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ),(b) Metacognitive Skills Questionnaire(MCSQ)(Dowson,Mcinerney, 2004), (c) Perfectionism Scale (Hewitt, Flett (1991) and (d) Academic self-handicapping Scale (ASHS) (Schwinger, 2014) were used. Pearson correlation coefficient and Structure Equation Modeling were used to analyze the data.

    Findings

    Findings showed that parenting styles directly to academic self-handicapping was not significant, But through the mediating role of meta-cognitive skills and perfectionism was significant. and the hypothetical model had good fit.

    Conclusion

    teaching of the metacognitive skills to students will reduce the academic self-handicapping, and the increaseing of perfectionism will increase the likelihood of academic self-handicapping in the students.

    Keywords: parenting styles, academic self-handicapping, metacognitive, perfectionism skills
  • Golareh Mohaghegh Daghigh, Mohammad Salehi*, Majid Fatahi Pages 67-84
    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the individual entrepreneurial components of students from the perspective of university lecturers.

    Methodology

    The present study is based on a data-base research method that was conducted through interviews with 12 experts including a combination of university professors and members of the profession including various professional disciplines using purposive sampling method. selected. Data categorization, interviews were analyzed based on the first two stages of the three-stage Strauss and Corbin system, namely open and axial coding and categorical coding. Subcategories and categories were obtained and finally They were divided into main categories that are more general and conceptual. After collecting the questionnaires, 50 raw data were identified which converted this raw data into 17 common codes and 17 common codes were presented in 9 classification concepts, then 9 concepts were classified into 4 categories. In this study, the main variables extracted from the data and their subcategories were investigated.

    Findings

    Data content analysis resulted in the extraction of 4 main themes (subcategories) and 9 sub-themes (concepts) as follows: Creativity with sub-themes: desire for innovation and initiative and fluidity; meta-cognitive beliefs with Sub-themes: Tolerance of ambiguity and flexibility; Self-esteem with sub-themes: Self-esteem and self-assurance; Sub-themes of thinking style: General and partial thinking.

    Conclusion

    The increasing importance of entrepreneurship education and its ability to improve economic growth and job opportunities is evident in some universities at both academic and non-academic levels.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Behavior, Entrepreneurship, Individual Components, Students
  • Farzaneh Taherifar, Hossein Abbassian*, Hassan Reza Zeinabadi, Abdolrahim Naveh Ebrahim Pages 85-101
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to identify and rank the dimensions and components of the pre-school and post-secondary model of academic participation in Karaj Secondary Schools.

    Methodology

    The research method was applied in terms of purpose, and in terms of data collection method, it was a consecutive exploratory mix. The statistical population of this research was in the quantitative section, high school teachers in Karaj in the academic year 2017-18 which included 786 educational units and 17732 teachers. In order to execute the questionnaires, stratified random sampling method was used and a sample of 376 teachers was selected. In the qualitative section, the researcher collected qualitative data through a qualitative interview with 21 experts, in which the reliability of the collection was 77.6% by another researcher. The results of this section indicated that in the components of academic participation antecedents, classroom management components, educational leadership, instructional strategies, organizational climate, and physical environment, and in the outcomes section, learning ability, academic motivation, and academic self-efficacy and academic achievement. Were extracted.

    Findings

    The results showed that among the antecedents of academic participation, education management had the highest standard coefficient (0.98) and the lowest standard coefficient among these variables was 0.76 for education and culture strategies. In other words, educational management explained 96% of the variance in educational participation, while the two variables explained education and climate strategies 58% of the variance.

    Conclusion

    Education is generally influenced by five factors, including teacher, program, equipment, and educational environment. Each of these factors has characteristics that can have different effects on academic achievement and learning.

    Keywords: Academic Participation, Academic Achievement, Management
  • Mahin Mahdavieh, Soheila Hashemi*, Habibollah Naderi, Ali Asghar Firouzjaiyan Pages 102-111
    Purpose

    Epistemological beliefs mean what people believe about the nature of knowledge and knowing that can be related to areas such as learning and theory of mind.The purpose of the present study was to investigate the growth of epistemological beliefs in 9-year-old girl children.

    Methodology

    This was a qualitative grounded theory study. The study population consisted of elementary third grade girl students in Babolsar city in 1397. A sample of 20 students through purposeful sampling method with Theoretical saturation was selected and the epistemological beliefs of these participants were examined in two stages over a period of one year. The research tool was in-depth interviews with emphasis on "draw, write, tell" technique which was used in both stages. Coding was also used to analyze the data.
    The validity of the findings was evaluated by triangulation method including expert review, continuous comparison of data and different methods of data collection.

    Findings

    The epistemological beliefs of children emerged in five dimensions, including ' Ownership ', ‘Innateness’, ' Exactness', 'simplicity' and ‘pace’. Each of these dimensions was relatively complex, and developed over a period of one year, especially in dimension of ownership.

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings, it can be said that the development of girl children's epistemological beliefs towards more complex beliefs can occur if necessary conditions are in instructional Environments. Therefore, it is suggested that providing children with appropriate learning environments such as constructive learning environments and opportunities to reinforce the power of reasoning and argumentation.

    Keywords: Epistemic beliefs, Developmental changes, Student
  • Nasrin Baghaei, Mohammadreza Saffarian Tosi*, Gholamreza Khadivi Rofogar, Gholamreza Khoynezhad Pages 112-121
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to develop a structural model of psychological well-being based on fear of negative evaluation mediating feelings of loneliness in adolescent girls with psychosocial problems.

    Methodology

    The present study was applied in terms of purpose and in terms of quantitative method and survey-correlation method. The statistical population consisted of female adolescent students with mental health problems who were studying in the second grade of secondary education in Mashhad Nursing School District 2 in the academic year of 2017-18. The method was multistage cluster sampling, so that a list of all secondary schools for girls in the second district of Mashhad was composed of 24 schools that were classified as 4 schools per cluster with respect to government and nonprofit and number of students. One cluster was randomly selected and at the second stage of each school and at each grade level, a total of 3 classes from each school were selected and the students were given questionnaires. The tools of the present study were Psychosocial Well-being Scales (Ryff, 1980), Fear of Negative Evaluation (Leary, 1983), and Dehshiri et al., 2008), Psychosomatic Complaints (Takata & Sakata, 2004). In the present study, SPSS software version 24 and SmartPLS2 software were used.

    Findings

    The results showed that fear of negative evaluation with sense of loneliness had a positive relationship with psychological well-being and negative relationship with fear of negative evaluation with psychological well-being, according to GOF value of 0.595 indicating strong fit of model. It had a lot of research; it had some mediating effect.

    Conclusion

    In order to improve the psychological well-being of adolescent female students, the present study demonstrates the importance of self-expression planning and training and communication skills to reduce feelings of loneliness and screening of students with negative evaluation to provide appropriate psychological treatment for this group of adolescents. Reminds students of education.

    Keywords: Psychological Well-being, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Loneliness, Psychosomatic Problems, Female Adolescent Students
  • Alireza Zamani, Alireza Chenari* Pages 122-137
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of leadership style on innovation according to the mediating role of commitment and organizational climate.

    Methodology

    The research method was applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-survey in terms of data collection method. The statistical population of the study consisted of all employees of the Tax Administration of Iran. Using Cochran formula and stepwise cluster random sampling, 752 individuals were considered as the sample size. Data were collected using standardized and transformational leadership questionnaires by Bass & Avilio (2000); organizational commitment by Meyer & Allen (1997); Holpin & Croft (2000); After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed by mean, standard deviation, percent, frequency and table using SPSS software and statistical inference was made by structural equation modeling using lisrel software. Path coefficients and software significant coefficients were used to investigate the research hypotheses.

    Findings

    The results showed that the degree of fit of the proposed model was appropriate according to the research components; transformational leadership on innovation with mediator role of organizational commitment was 0.90, transformational leadership on innovation with mediator role of organizational commitment. 0.82, pragmatic leadership influenced innovation with mediator role of organizational commitment 0.99, also pragmatic leadership influenced innovation with mediator role 0.71.

    Conclusion

    Managers can increase employees' organizational commitment by adopting transformational leadership style or a combination of transformational and pragmatic leadership style rather than pragmatic style.

    Keywords: Transformational Leadership, Pragmatic Leadership, Organizational Commitment
  • Maryam Darzi Azadboni, Mohammadkazem Fakhri*, Bahram Mirzaian Pages 138-145
    Purpose

    The aim of the present study was to model the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between risk perception and psychological vulnerability in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Methodology

    The method of this research was correlation research based on structural equation modeling method. The statistical population of this study was all first grade students in the second-high school of Sari in the academic year of 1398-98. 260 subjects were selected using stage sampling method and Rundo & Aborson Risk Perception Questionnaire (2004), Social Anxiety Inventory (SPI), Psychological Injury Questionnaire (SCL-25) and Child and Adolescent Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ-C)) Answered. The statistical method of the research was structural regression equations according to spss24 and Amos23 software.

    Findings

    The results showed that self-efficacy had a significant mediating role in the relationship between risk perception and psychological vulnerability in adolescents with social anxiety disorder, and there was a significant negative correlation between the components of risk perception and self-efficacy with psychological vulnerability.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study emphasize the necessity of risk perception as well as the mediating role of self-efficacy on adolescents' psychological vulnerability.

    Keywords: Self-efficacy, Risk perception, Mental trauma, Social anxiety
  • Leyli Shaham, Azita Amirfakhraie* Pages 149-157
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mediating role of self-differentiation in the relationship between personality traits and perfectionism in students.

    Methodology

    The purpose of this study was applied, descriptive and in terms of data collection, it was a descriptive correlational design and a path analysis method. The statistical population of the study was all students of Azad University of Science and Research Branch in the academic year 1397-98. The sample consisted of 300 students who were selected by cluster random sampling. Research instruments included the Frost Perfectionism Scale (1993), the Scorn and Friedlander Differentiation Scale (1998), and the McKerry and Costa Five-Factor Personality Questionnaire (1985). Data analysis was done by path analysis and Sobel test at the significant level of 0.05.

    Findings

    The results of data analysis showed that despite the indirect effect of agreeableness, openness to experience and conscientiousness on perfectionism was confirmed by differentiation. On the one hand, differentiation was influenced by personality traits and had a significant effect on perfectionism (P <0.005).

    Conclusion

    Given that high perfectionism plays a significant role in the development and persistence of individual problems, it can be acknowledged that personality traits influence perfectionism by considering the mediating role of differentiation.

    Keywords: Perfectionism, Differentiation, Personality Traits
  • Masoumeh Nazemi, Kiumars Niazazari*, Negin Jabari Pages 158-166
    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to present a model of the effect of social intelligence on teachers' quality of life by explaining the role of risk management. The research method was mixed and implemented with two types of qualitative and quantitative approaches.

    Methodology

    The present study was a mixed (qualitative-quantitative) analysis. The statistical population of the present study included all teachers of North Khorasan province in the academic year of 1389-98. Based on this, 10 of them were selected with the criteria of over 15 years’ experience in educational management and doctorate level and were selected as the sample of the study. The statistical population was 13,800 in the North Khorasan Province Education Department. The statistical sample of the study was 400 people using quantitative Morgan table. In the qualitative part of the study, interview questions were formulated and 10 in-depth expert interviews were conducted with educational experts in the field of educational management. Then, using qualitative theme analysis, the main concepts of index extraction and coding were performed. In the quantitative part of the research, the effect of social intelligence on teacher quality of life was explained by explaining the role of risk management by using interpretive structural modeling method.

    Findings

    The findings of the present study showed that "social intelligence" had an impact on "quality of life" and also social health mediated the relationship between social intelligence and quality of life.

    Conclusion

    Teachers with high social intelligence establish very good social relationships with influential and important people, and this is precisely why their risk-taking on different subject’s increases.

    Keywords: Social Intelligence, Risk Management, Quality of Life
  • Mohammad Reza Izadpanah Kakhak, Ali Akbar Samari*, Hassan Toozandehjani Pages 167-174
    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between positive emotion styles with life expectancy and mediation of quality of life in male elderly.

    Methodology

    This study was a descriptive-correlational study that aimed to investigate the mediating role of quality of life in the relationship between positive emotion styles and life expectancy in the elderly. The statistical population of this study included all elderly men over 60 years old in Neyshabour Welfare Office. The sample consisted of 132 elderly people who were selected through available sampling. Beck, Haffer & Scobler (2009), Schneider et al. (1991) Life Expectancy Questionnaire, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (1998) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed based on structural equations and correlation coefficient.

    Findings

    The direct effect of positive emotion styles on life expectancy was 0.425 with a significance level of 0.008 and the indirect effect of positive emotion styles on life expectancy with respect to quality of life of the elderly was 0.404 and the corresponding significance level was It is less than 0.5, so the mediating role of quality of life is confirmed.
    The results of regression analysis and structural equations showed that there was a relationship between positive emotion styles with life expectancy and mediation of quality of life in male elderly. P≤  0.001). The results also showed that the role of quality of life in the relationship between positive hyper-emotion style and hyper-interest with partial life expectancy was. (P ≤0.001)
     

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings of this study, it is shown that extrasensory styles such as being pleasant, socializing, inhibiting and accepting change in quality of life increase in elderly men, which leads them to experience higher life expectancy.

    Keywords: Positive Meta-cognitive Styles, Life Expectancy, Quality of Life, Elderly
  • Zahra Husseini, Vahid Nejati*, Mojtaba Habibi Pages 175-183
    Purpose

    Executive Functions (EF) improvement is considered as a pivotal axis in cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement according to the studies. Scholars believe that EF can be practiced and improved as a way to ameliorate cognitive ability. The main objective of the present paper is to boost executive functions and meta-cognition via compensatory and rehabilitative cognitive training.

    Methodology

    In a randomized controlled trial with pretest, post-test and follow-up assessment, the effects of compensatory and rehabilitative cognitive training via education and personalized practice were studied on the EF and metacognition of 126 secondary students aged 16-18. Participants were assigned randomly into an experimental training group (n=61) using Practical Cognitive Strategy Training (PCST) or a wait-list control group (n=65). PCST (Roshd) consisted of two parts: cognitive strategy awareness and practice for compensatory cognitive training and cognitive exercises for rehabilitative cognitive training. The data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA in SPSS 23.

    Findings

    Results showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in strategy use after twelve sessions of training once a week in twelve weeks of training and a one-month follow-up assessment (P ≤ 0.001). The participants also reported some kinds of transfer in the use of learned cognitive strategies to other life activities.  

    Conclusion

    Practical daily-life-based executive functions training can practically enhance executive functions and meta0cognitipon in real-life activities.

    Keywords: Compensatory, Rehabilitative, Cognitive Training, Executive Functions, Metacognition
  • Maryam Rashidian, Rashid Zolfaghari Zafarani* Pages 184-198
    Purpose

    the purpose of the current study was to produce a Model for the Effectiveness of Organizational Excellence and Agility in Urban Management on Physical, Social and Cultural Dimensions of Tehran Khak sefid area:  

    method

    The method of the current study was applied in terms of purpose and in terms of data analysis was mixed research that is both qualitative and quantitative and is a descriptive survey in terms of method. The population consisted of 632 employees of Tehran's 4th district municipality, out of which 240 were selected according to Krejcie and Morgan table by simple stratified random sampling. The research instrument consisted of three researcher-made questionnaires including Urban Management Excellence Questionnaire consisting of 32 items, Agility Questionnaire on Urban Management comprising 41 items, and Physical and Social and Cultural Status Assessment Questionnaire of White Land including 27 items. For their reliability after a pilot run among 40 statistical samples by Cronbach's alpha, the reliability value of 0.802 for urban management excellence questionnaire, 0.816 reliability for urban management agility questionnaire, and 0.849 for reliability. Questionnaire was obtained and data were collected on physical, social and cultural status of Khak sefid area.

    Finding

     Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. The results of data analysis showed that factors (value added in the workplace, correct leadership in the workplace, process management in the workplace, and nurturing creativity in the workplace) influence the management of urban management. Besides, factors (accountability, continuous staff growth and learning, competence in office, flexibility in the workplace, and speed in doing things) have an impact on the effectiveness of urban management agility. Finally, this model includes the components of accountability, growth, and Learning, Competence, Flexibility, Speed ​​of Action, Value Added, Proper Leadership, Process Management and Peru Rash is creativity and has a degree of fit of 0. 937.

    Discussion

    The Effectiveness of organizational Excellence is a multi-dimensional issue and complicated that will be discussed.

  • Zohreh Gholipoor Haft Khani, Parivash Ja'afari*, Akhtar Jamali Pages 199-212
    Purpose

    This study aimed to determine the factors affecting Service Learning (SL) in primary school students in Tehran.

    Methodology

    The present descriptive survey research was conducted in terms of the goal as basic with mixed approach, exploratory categorization. In the qualitative part, in addition to using specialized texts in the field of SL, Teachers and specialists active in the field of service learning were interviewed; participants in quantity part included elementary school teachers in the same city. In the qualitative section, the sample included 30 people who were selected by targeted sampling method, considering 5-15 people for each variable, and in quantitative one, 309 people were randomly selected via single-stage cluster. To collect data in the qualitative part, analysis of texts related to service learning, and semi-structured interview, and in the quantitative part of the study, the researcher-made questionnaire were used.

    Findings

    For data analysis in the qualitative part, two analyses of grounded and content, and in quantitative, exploratory factor analysis were administered. The results showed that five factor categories affect the implementation of service learning in schools, which were respectively (based on factor load value) at the following: 1) professional and general competence factor of teachers, with 25 indicators and factor load of 0.694. 2) the atmosphere factor of School, with 8 indicators and operating load 0.680. 3) Curriculum development, with 34 indicators and factor load of 0.631. 4) Educational leadership, with 12 indicators and factor load of 0.0670. 5) School relationship with community, with 7 indicators and Operating load 0.646.

    Conclusion

    In general, in order to increase students' orientation of service learning, the competency and capability of teachers should be improved through new software methods and technology, furthermore, the school space should be appropriately enriched in terms of content, curriculum and educational programs to meet students’ basic needs and to establish effective relation between the school, and influential factors in the society.

    Keywords: Learning, Service-Based, Primary Schools