- پیاپی 20 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/25
- تعداد عناوین: 13
ابوالعلاء معری، شاعر نابینای عرب و رودکی، شاعر نابینای فارسی زبان، در تصاویر شعری خود استفاده قابل ملاحظهای از رنگ دارند. از آنجا که شعر آیینه تمامنمای روحیات روانی شاعر است؛ تحقیق در رنگهای بهکار رفته در آن نیز میتواند از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار باشد و به عنوان ابزاری مهم در شناسایی هنجارها، واکنشها و رفتارهای شاعر قلمداد گردد. جستار پیشرو با هدف روانشناسی شخصیت معری و رودکی بر اساس آزمایش رنگ ماکس لوشر، و با فرض اینکه خصوصیات رفتاری این دو شاعر نابینا قرابتهایی بسیار زیادی با هم دارند، در تلاش است تا با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی رنگهای «سقط الزند» معری و دیوان رودکی را بررسی و تحلیل کند. بررسیها نشان میدهد که از میان چهار گروه رنگ نظریه لوشر، گروه اول و دوم رنگ های اشعار هر دو شاعر دقیقا مانند هم است. بر این اساس، معری و رودکی هر دو افرادی هستند که از تحریکات شدید که منجر به جدایی آن ها از جامعه میگردد، رنج میبرند و امیدوارند که بتوانند بر بسیاری از محدودیتهای خود فائق آیند. با این تفاوت که ابوالعلاء علیرغم تمایلات درونی به ایجاد روابط صمیمی، روابط عاطفی خود را شدیدا کنترل میکند و فقط افرادی را به حیطه شخصی خود نزدیک میکند که نگرشی مشابه او دارند و همانند او میاندیشند؛ ولی رودکی تمایل به ایجاد روابط اجتماعی و مهرورزانه خویش را به راحتی آشکار می نماید و از این که به نیاز او برای عشق ورزی و درک محبت متقابل، پاسخی داده نمی شود، احساس ناشکیبایی می کند.کلیدواژگان: روانشناسی رنگ، ماکس لوشر، سقط الزند، ابوالعلاء معری، رودکی
نظریه آمیختگی مفهومی، در برنامههای تحقیقاتی ژیل فوکونیه و مارک ترنر ریشه دارد. این نظریه نتیجه بسط قالب نظری فضاهای ذهنی است. اصل سخن فوکونیه و ترنر آن است که ساختن معنی صرفا از ترکیب معانی قبلی یا برقراری نگاشتهایی میان آنها صورت نمیپذیرد، بلکه ساختن معنی، ساختاری نوظهور دارد که از ترکیب و ادغام عناصری تشکیل میشود که بهطور مشخص در هیچیک از دروندادها دیده نمیشود. بر این اساس، هدف جستار حاضر این است که با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با استناد به رویکرد زبانشناسی شناختی نشان دهد که چگونه نظریه آمیختگی میتواند تحلیل مجاز مفهومی، بهویژه نوع عقلی آن را دقت بخشد و تقابل برداشت مفسرین سنتی و شناختی را از مجاز تبیین نماید. مهمترین رهیافتهای این جستار نشان میدهد که کاربست نظریه آمیختگی میتواند ابعاد پنهان تعبیرهای زبانی و عناصر خیالی زبان قرآنی را آشکار سازد. همچنانکه آمیختگیهای مفهومی قرآن در زمینه پدیدههای طبیعی نشان میدهد که چگونه قرآن مناسبترین زمینههای مادی و عینی را برای تبیین حقایق عقلی و معنوی بهکار گرفته است. افزون بر این تعابیر آمیختگی موجود در قرآن کریم، تعابیر اصیل و منطقی به حساب می آیند که با توجه به مفهومسازی ذهنی آنها نه تنها مجاز نیستند، بلکه یک حقیقت عقلی بهشمار میآیند.کلیدواژگان: زبان شناسی شناختی، آمیختگی مفهومی، مجاز عقلی، حقیقت، گفتمان قرآنی
سبک شناسی لایه ای یکی از روش های ارزشیابی مدرن آثار ادبی است که بهواسطه آن می توان متون ادبی اعم از شعر و نثر را با دقت و ظرافتی افزون تر مورد بررسی قرار داد. این سبک شناسی علاوه بر توجه به مباحث کلاسیک و سنتی، بررسی متون را در حوزه پنج لایه «آوایی، واژگانی، نحوی، بلاغی و ایدئولوژیک» به عهده دارد. در این میان لایه آوایی نسبت به دیگر لایه ها به احساسات و عواطف شاعر نزدیک تر بوده و می تواند گویای حال روحیات وی باشد. خلیل حاوی از شاعران معاصر لبنانی می باشد که اشعارش به دلیل پیچیدگی های فراوان، کمتر موشکافی گشته است؛ بنابراین بررسی اشعار حاوی از منظر لایه آوایی می تواند گزینه مناسبی برای بازگشایی گره های روح خسته و غمگینش بوده و نشانگر افکار، اندیشه ها و مقاصد فکری او باشد. با توجه به برخی از یافته های این پژوهش می توان بیان داشت که حاوی در موسیقی بیرونی شعرش تنها از وزن هایی بهره جسته که مناسب حال او باشد و یا از استواری و خوش آوایی خاصی برخوردار باشد؛ بنابراین بحر رمل را برای بیان آلام درونی، بحر رجز را برای مستحکم و خوش آوا نمودن اشعار، در مواردی اندک تر بحر کامل را برای بیان خشم هایش به کار برده و از بحر وافر که مختص فخر بوده و بحر سریع نیز از مضطرب ترین و بی ارزش ترین وزن ها در نزد شاعران است، کمترین بهره را داشته است. در موسیقی کناری نیز از قافیه مترادف که بیانگر غم و اندوه است، بیشترین کاربرد را برای احساساتش داشته، قافیه های متواتر و متدارک نیز به دلیل زیبایی، قدرت و آهنگین بودنشان بعد از مترادف، کاربرد زیادی داشته اند و قافیه های متراکب و متکاوس به دلیل تقیید در حرکت های آوایی و عارض نمودن سنگینی بر گوش، هیچ جایگاهی در بین اشعار ندارند.کلیدواژگان: سبک شناسی، لایه آوایی، خلیل حاوی، وزن، قافیه
متون روایی، علاوه بر کارکردهای تعلیمی و زیباییشناختی، رسانه هایی قدرتمند برای اشاعه ایدئولوژی های سیاسی - اجتماعی به شمار می روند. از این منظر، شگردهای به کار رفته در این متون را می توان بهمثابه تمهیداتی در نظر گرفت که مولف یا سایر عوامل دخیل در تولید متن، تلاش کرده اند از طریق آنها سلطه گفتمانی خود را بازتولید کنند. هدف مقاله حاضر، تفسیر آن دسته از شگردهای متنی و فرامتنی است که بهمنظور بازتولید این نوع سلطه در یک متن روایی (باب «الناسک و الضیف» از مجموعه کلیله و دمنه عربی) به کار گرفته شدهاند. در این راستا، متن روایی مذکور، با استفاده از مفاهیم کلیدی حوزه تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی و روایتشناسی در چهار محور روایتگری، فرایند روایت، ادراک معنای نمادین روایت و بافت روایت تحلیل شد. طبق نتایج تحقیق، در سطح روایتگری، نوعی رابطه سلسله مراتبی میان شخصیتها مشاهده میشود که بر اساس آن برخی شخصیتها در قیاس با شخصیتهای دیگر در تولید محتوای روایت نقش فعالتری ایفا میکنند. بررسی سطح فرایند روایت نشان میدهد که کنشها و نقشهای مثبت به شخصیتهای فرادست و کنشها و نقشهای منفی به شخصیتهای فرودست داستان نسبت داده شدهاند. مطالعه سطح ادراک معنای نمادین روایت حاکی از این است که عناصر نمادین دو داستان اصلی و فرعی باب « الناسک و الضیف» بهگونهای باهم ترکیب شدهاند که خواننده را به سمت پذیرش پیام ایدئولوژیک داستان سوق دهند. بررسی سطح بافت روایت حاکی از این است که روابط سلسله مراتبی میان شخصیتهای متن، بازتابی از منازعات اجتماعی محیطی است که متن در آن تولید یا ترجمه شده است.کلیدواژگان: تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، روایت، باب الناسک و الضیف، روابط ایدئولوژیک
حسامیزی یا آمیختگی حواس بهعنوان نوعی استعاره در زمان ها و زبان های مختلف، کم و بیش وجود داشته و نمونههایی از آن در متون گذشته باقیمانده که از نسلی به نسل دیگر رسیده است. از رهگذر این متون کهن میتوان دریافت که حسامیزی بهعنوان شگردی ادبی، ریشه در گذشتههای دور دارد. افزون بر این، میتوان نمونههای کلیشهای از حسامیزی سراغ گرفت که مردم، خودآگاه یا ناخودآگاه در گفتار معمول خود از آنها استفاده میکنند؛ اما در عصر جدید است که کاربست گسترده آن به نحوی آگاهانه و عامدانه برای بیان عواطف و رساندن پیام شعری رواج مییابد. عبدالوهاب البیاتی (1999-1926م)، شاعر معاصر عراقی در شماری از اشعار خود، از این هنرسازه بهره جسته است. شواهد موجود، نشان میدهد که بسامد حسامیزیهای به کار رفته در شعر وی از نوعی به نوع دیگر متغیر است و وی امکانات مختلفی از حسامیزی را دستمایه خلاقیت شعری خود کرده است. این نوشتار، با روشی توصیفی- تحلیلی، تصویرهای مبتنی بر حسامیزی در دیوان البیاتی را بررسی کرده و نشان میدهد که رابطه متقابل این هنرسازه با دیگر اجزای هر شعر، رابطهای انسجام بخش و هماهنگ با ساختمان آن شعر است و کارکردی ظریف و دقیق در انتقال اندیشه و عاطفه موجود در شعر دارد.کلیدواژگان: شعر معاصر عربی، هنر سازه، حسامیزی، عبدالوهاب البیاتی
تشبیه بلیغ از زیباترین و پربسامدترین تشبیهات بکار رفته در خطبههای نهجالبلاغه است؛ بهگونهای که حدود دوسوم تشبیهات خطبهها را دربرمیگیرد، و ازآنجاییکه نحو پایه و اساس کلام است و تشبیهات بلیغ در ساختارها و شیوههای متنوع نحوی ارائه شده است و هر یک کارکرد و دلالت ویژهای را دربردارد، ازاینرو پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به سبک شناسی تشبیهات بلیغ خطبه های نهجالبلاغه در لایه نحوی میپردازد. ساختمان جملات تشبیهات بلیغ در خطبههای نهجالبلاغه در مواضع مختلف، با توجه بهمقتضای کلام و نقش مشبهبه در پنج اسلوب نحوی واقع شده است. در بیشترین بسامد مشبهبه مفعول مطلق نوعی واقع شده است که به دلیل جناس اشتقاق موجود در آن موسیقی دلانگیزی دارد. در ساختارهای بعدی به ترتیب کاربرد، مشبهبه خبر، اضافه تشبیهی، مفعولبه دوم و حال واقع شده است. کاربرد فراوان ساختهای همپایه در تشبیهات بلیغ جمع، یکی از ویژگیهای سبک نحوی امیرمومنان (ع) است که بستر برخی از صنایع بدیعی مانند تکرار، سجع، تقابل، موازنه و... شده است و همین مسئله سبب ارتقای ارزش هنری و بهویژه ارزش موسیقایی تشبیهات گردیده است.کلیدواژگان: تشبیه بلیغ، نحو، خطبه ها
امروزه بسیاری از جامعه شناسان فمنیست بر این باورند که هویت جنسی، برساختی اجتماعی و سیال است که مجموعه ای پیچیده از روابط اجتماعی بدان معنا می بخشد. بدین ترتیب تصویر فرد از خود به منزله عضوی از یک جنس خاص، افزون بر عوامل بیولوژیک، از عوامل فرهنگی-اجتماعی نیز تاثیر می پذیرد. پس هویت جنسی مقوله ای ثابت نیست و متاثر از عوامل مذکور می تواند تغییر کند. هدف نوشتار پیش رو آن است که نشان دهد چگونه زن قهرمان داستان La nuit sacrée / لیله القدر هویت مردانه ساختگی خود را کنار نهاده و از نو زن بودن و زنانگی اش را باز می جوید. در این راستا نگارنده هویت نویافته «زهره» را از رهگذر واکاوی کنش های او در سه حیطه جنس، جنسیت و رفتار جنسی ترسیم می کند تا روشن سازد دگردیسی او از باشنده ای پوشالی به انسانی واقعی چگونه رخ می دهد. «زهره» در این داستان رمزواره ای است از انسان مراکشی که در چنگال تضادهای درونی و بیرونی اسیر است و برای رهایی، ناگزیر باید بر سینه باورهای نادرستی که جامعه بر او تحمیل می کند، دست رد زند.کلیدواژگان: طاهر بن جلون، رمان La nuit sacrée، لیله القدر، احمد، زهره، هویت مردانه، هویت زنانه
اسطورههای سیمرغ و عنقاء یکی از نمودهای وحدت اندیشه بشری است. پرواز، آرزوی دیرینه و میل به جاودانگی بشر درآنها متصور است. اساطیربه دلیل بنمایههای تاریخی و اهمیت در حماسه و امثال تجلی یافتهاند. نگارندگان در این جستار به بررسی سیمرغ شاهنامه فردوسی و عنقاء مجمع الامثال میدانی به روش تطبیقی- تحلیلی با هدف تحلیل ریشههای کهن و بیان وجوه اشتراک و افتراقشان پرداختند. از یافتههای تحقیق برمیآید که سیمرغ و عنقاء ریشه در فرهنگ اوستا و زبان سامی داشته و وجود تصاویر ترکیبی و دگرگونی، عامل پیدایش نیروی خیر و شرشان است. احساس ترس و سرخوردگی باعث پیدایش اینگونه اساطیر خونخوار است. ارتباط سیمرغ باگیاه بیمرگی نمود عقل و خرد، و عنقاء درمحیط خشک تجلی نماد مرگ است. در این پژوهش شباهت هایی ازجمله ویژگی های عجیب، زاد و ولد و سکونت... و تفاوتهایی مانند؛ محتوا، هدف و نوع عمل... بررسی گردیدهاست. منشاء اشتراکات فطرت انسانی، اعتقادات دینی و تخیلات جمعی است و تفاوتها به محیط بازمیگردد. در بازآفرینی داستانها مشخصشد مرگ و امید، جادو و خرد در آن دوره بر جامعه ایران حاکم بود. درحالیکه برجامعه عرب مرگ و جادو سایه افکنده بود. دو اسطوره با هستی و آرمان بشر تناسب داشته و تحولات اجتماعی بعد از اسلام در شباهت بیشترشان موثر بوده است.کلیدواژگان: اسطوره، سیمرغ، عنقاء، شاهنامه فردوسی، مجمع الامثال میدانی
دانش روایت شناسی به دنبال استنباط کیفیت عناصر روایی، قواعد داخلی حاکم بر روایت و تاثیر این قواعد در زیبایی متن است تا به دنبال آن، میزان ظرفیت هنری متن را مشخص کند. در این میان بحث در مورد شیوه های بازنمود گفتار داستانی از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. لیچ و شورت ازجمله پژوهشگران ساختارگرایی هستند که بهصورت علمی و هدفمند به موضوع شیوه های گفتار داستانی پرداختهاند. ایشان در مطالعات روایی خویش، شیوه های بازنمایی گفتار را بر گفتار مستقیم، غیر مستقیم، غیر مستقیم آزاد، آزاد مستقیم و گزارش روایتی تقسیم کرده اند. این پژوهش با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی به بررسی وجوه بازنمایی گفتار در رمان الطنطوریه اثر رضوی عاشور، نویسنده معاصر مصری می پردازد تا با درک و فهم آن عناصر، عرصه برای کشف، شهود و روش تولید معنا از متن وی فراهم شود. رهیافت پژوهش نشان می دهد که نویسنده در این رمان برای کم کردن فاصله و واقعی و ملموس نشان دادن حوادث از گفتار مستقیم، گفتار مستقیم آزاد استفاده کرده و در مواردی برای ریتم سریع روایت و فاصله بیشتر بین خواننده و شخصیت از گفتار غیر مستقیم، غیر مستقیم آزاد و گزارش روایتی استفاده نموده است و به دلیل وجود مخاطب درون داستانی، تکگویی رمان «الطنطوریه» از نوع نمایشی است.کلیدواژگان: روایت شناسی، گفتار داستانی، رضوی عاشور، الطنطوریه، لیچ و شورت
انتشار رمان «در جستجوی زمان از دست رفته» توسط مارسل پروست، رمان «زیارت» از بانو دوروتی ریچاردسون، داستان «چهره مرد هنرمند در جوانی» و به ویژه رمان «اولیس» توسط جیمز جویس در سالهای 1922-1913 به مثابه پیدایش نخستین نمونه های جدی «جریان سیال ذهن» به شمار میرود. برخی شاخص های بنیادین جریان سیال ذهن در ادبیات عربی، دارای دیرینهای دور است که بهزعم نگارنده از متون کلاسیک مانند «حی بن یقظان» ابنسینا، «حی بن یقظان» ابن طفیل، «رساله الغفران» ابوالعلاء معری-که به بیان طه ندا متاثر از ارداویرافنامه فارسی پدید آمده است و همچنین در «توابع و زوابع» ابن شهید اندلسی آغاز شده و تا امروز در متنهای داستانی جبران خلیل جبران، چکامه های سرایندگان مکتب تموز و در شعرهای داستانی ادونیس و به ویژه در قصاید کلیه او ادامه یافته است. این جستار بر بنیاد توصیف و تحلیل مبتنی بر نقد روانشناختی و در پی شناسایی و کشف نشانه های روشن جریان سیال ذهن در پیشرفته ترین و پیچیده ترین گونه شعری معاصر عربی یعنی «قصیده کلیه» ادونیس میباشد. یافته های حاصل از این پژوهش حکایت از آن دارد که ویژگیهای بنیادین جریان سیال ذهن مانند تکگویی درونی، حدیث نفس، فوران دادههای ذهن، پیچیدگی و نمادپردازی تا سرحد ابهام، نوسازههای زبانی، باهمآیی زمانها، و... در «قصاید کلیه» ادونیس در جایگاه نمونه ناب متون عرفانی سمبولیک سوررئال به روشنی قابل بازیابی است؛ همچنین ردپای باورهای جیمز جویس، مارسل پروست و ویرجینیا وولف درباره زمان و خاطرات در گفتارهای ادونیس، نظریه پرداز قصیده کلیه به وضوح دیده میشود.کلیدواژگان: جریان سیال ذهن، زمان، رویا، روایت، قصیده کلیه، ادونیس
چشمانداز گسترده و گوناگون شعر احمد شوقی، نشان از قدرت تخیل و میزان پویایی آن دارد. نشانه های خودنما، آرزوهای قلبی شاعر را به نمایش می گذارد و عاطفه ی خواننده را بر می انگیزد. این نشانه ها همراه با تصویرهایی آکنده از دلتنگی، برای القای پیام وطندوستی و ملی گرایی و در بیان تاثرات ذهنی شوقی به مخاطبان پویانمایی می کنند. پژوهش حاضر می کوشد با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، جلوه هایی از حس ملی گرایی شاعر را در چهار محور نشانه های زیبایی شناختی کلام، نشانه های زمانی و مکانی، نشانه های مربوط به هنجار گریزی نحوی و تحلیل متن به اعتبار محور افقی و عمودی بررسی کند. این نشانه ها نه تنها به قصد هنرنمایی ادبی و آفرینش تصاویر شعری، بلکه در جهت تولید معنا، برجسته سازی افکار و تجارب روحی و عاطفی شاعر به کار گرفته شده اند. این نشانه های معنایی باعث افزایش عاطفه در کلام، تصویر آفرینی، جلوه گری کلام و برانگیختن حس نوستالژی، و درنتیجه باعث ایجاد خوانش های متعدد در ذهن مخاطب خواهد شد.کلیدواژگان: نشانه شناسی، احمد شوقی، اشعار وطنی، لایه های معنایی
این نوشتار به بررسی قضایای نقدی – ساختاری از منظر ابن خلدون میپردازد. این نویسنده بزرگ صرفنظر از تاریخنگاری، علم اجتماع و فلسفه در عرصه نقد ادبی هم دارای دیدگاههای ارزشمندی است. ازجمله این نظریات میتوان به تعریف ایشان در مورد ادب و مفهوم نقد و جایگزینی واژه (ملکه) بهجای (موهبت) که میتوان از ابداعات وی برشمرد، اشاره نمود. هدف اصلی در این مقاله آن است که آراء و رویکردهای ادبی ابن خلدون بهدرستی بیان شده و نیز تلاش میشود تا با بهرهگیری از روش پژوهش ادبی و تاریخی دیدگاهها و شیوه وی و همچنین مطالعه بحثهای مرتبط با نقد دوره اندلس توصیف و تحلیل شود. یافتههای تحقیق نشان میدهد، ابن خلدون که ازجمله طرفداران ترجیح لفظ بر معنا است، پیرامون تعریف ذوق و اسلوب بهعنوان معیارهای نقد و سه اسلوب شعر و نثر و قرآن، نگرش ویژهای دارد. او به تبیین ارتباط خاصی میان دین و شعر و کلام مصنوع پرداخته است. با اهتمام به مجموعه رویکردهای نقدی ابن خلدون و تجمیع دیدگاههای ایشان میتوان به تلقی نسبتا جامعی از شخصیت ادبی- نقدی او دست پیدا نمود.کلیدواژگان: ابن خلدون، ادب قدیم، نقد ادبی، آرایه ادبی، شعر و نثر
در یکی از جلسات درس که به «نهجالبلاغه» اختصاص یافته بود، در ماخذ مورد بحث ما «خطبه ایمان» در کنار دیگر مطالب مطرح گردید؛ خطبهای ده سطری با محتوایی متنوع، فشرده و پرنغز، موجز و سوالبرانگیز، نیازمند تفسیر و تاویل، در عباراتی گاهی بهظاهر از هم گریز. این ویژگیها باعث شد تا ذهن نگارنده را در آن سوی کلاس و درس درگیر کند و چراهای چند پیش آورد. درین گیرودار رهایی از چراها، چون به شروح عربی معتبر و اولیه و نزدیک به زمان تدوین «نهجالبلاغه» و سائر مآخذ ائمه فن رجوع شد، با دو پدیده جدید روبهروگشتم که موجب گفتار در پیش رو گردید و مرا در حال حاضر از دیگر مباحث گرفت. این دو پدیده: یکی -افزودن قسمی تازه بر متن «نهجالبلاغه» از «ایمان» بود توسط شارحی برجسته و نامآور. دیگری -در ارتباط با همبستگی دو جمله بود که چنین مینمودند از هم گریزانند، و پاسخ یکی از چراهای نگارنده. این دو پدیده جدید در فضایی از اندیشه و تامل مورد بحث و بررسی دقیق قرار میگیرند، قوت و ضعفها در آیینه اخلاص تجسم مییابد، تا آنجا که نویسنده مقاله هم درین محفل آیینه گردان محض نباشد.کلیدواژگان: سید رضی، نهج البلاغه، ایمان، عاریه در دل، ابن ابی الحدید، حاجت
The Psychological Comparative of Seght Al-Zand by Abul Ala Al-Ma'arri and Rudaki's Court Poet based on Max Lüscher's TheoryPages 1-24Introduction
Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the study of literature and cultural expression across linguistic, national, and disciplinary boundaries. Comparative literature performs a role similar to that of the study of international relations, but works with languages and artistic traditions, so as to understand cultures from the inside. While most frequently practiced with works of different languages, comparative literature may also be performed on works of the same language if the works originate from different nations or cultures among which that language is spoken. The characteristically intercultural and transnational field of comparative literature concerns itself with the relation between literature, broadly defined, and other spheres of human activity, including history, politics, philosophy, art, and science.
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such areas as human development, sports, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes. Psychology is really a very new science, with most advances happening over the past 150 years or so. However, its origins can be traced back to ancient Greece, 400 – 500 years BC. In the early days of psychology there were two dominant theoretical perspectives regarding how the brain worked, structuralism and functionalism. Structuralism and functionalism have since been replaced by several dominant and influential approaches to psychology, each one underpinned by a shared set of assumptions of what people are like, what is important to study and how to study it.
An interest of psychology, and particularly applied psychology in the impact of color on human functioning has a long history; however, it has fairly limited research achievements. Some more systematic empirical studies in the field appeared at the end of the last century; however, many of them suffer from methodological shortcomings and fail to encompass a correlational analysis which is a norm in modern psychology. Therefore, it seems particularly worthwhile for us to present a comprehensive review of research to date in applied psychology dealing with the issue of color.
The past decade has seen enhanced interest in research in the area of color and psychological functioning. Progress has been made on both theoretical and empirical fronts, but there are also weaknesses on both of these fronts that must be attended to for this research area to continue to make progress. In the following, I briefly review both advances and weaknesses in the literature on color and psychological functioning. Despite many methodological problems, colors have long been used in psychological diagnoses. Many instruments have been developed, such as the Max Lüscher color test (1971).
It's common for a sighted person to wonder what blind people see or for a blind person to wonder whether the experience is the same for others without sight. There is no single answer to the question, "What do blind people see?" because there are different degrees of blindness. Also, since it's the brain that "sees" information, it matters whether a person ever had sight. A person who has never had sight doesn't see. People who have lost their sight have different experiences. Some describe seeing complete darkness, like being in a cave. Some people see sparks or experience vivid visual hallucinations that may take the form of recognizable shapes, random shapes, and colors, or flashes of light.
A person who is born blind has dreams but doesn't see images. Dreams could include sounds, tactile information, odors, flavors, and feelings. On the other hand, if a person has sight and then loses it, dreams may include images. People who have impaired vision (legally blind) do see in their dreams. The appearance of objects in dreams depends on the type and history of blindness. Someone who is blind yet perceives flashes of light and color from Charles Bonnet syndrome may incorporate these experiences into dreams.Method
The Lüscher Color Test, despite the remarkable ease and speed with which it can be administered, is a "deep" psychological test, developed for the use of psychiatrists, psychologists, physicians and those who are professionally involved with the conscious and unconscious characteristics and motivations of others. It is NOT a parlor game, and most emphatically it is not a weapon to be used in a general contest of “one-upmanship.”
The Lüscher-Color-Diagnostic measures a person's psycho-physical state, his or her ability to withstand stress, to perform, and to communicate. It uncovers the cause of psychological stress, which can lead to physical symptoms. Using 5015 precise definitions, the selections from among these pre-determined test colors measure the state of 34 personality traits, some of which lie outside the realm of the conscious. Because the color selections are guided in an unconscious manner, they reveal the person as he or she really is, and not as he or she perceives him - or herself, or as he, or she would like to be perceived, which occurs when questions are asked directly or by questionnaires. The test colors from the Lüscher Color-Diagnosis chosen based on favoritism. The test-taker chooses the card color they like best and then orders the rest from most-preferred to lease-preferred. Numbers are printed on the backside of each card, and after the test-taker orders them, the examiner turns them over and references an accompanying book that contains all of the different number combinations and their meaning. Lüscher argues that the subject's choice of color shows the state of their psychosomatic and emotional status and how they feel about themselves.
Lüscher relates to his four fundamental colors to the following fundamental categories:Blue: Contentmen
Feeling of belonging, the inner connection and the relationship to one’s partner.
"How I feel towards a person that is close to me"
Inner control of willpower and the capacity to enjoy.
"The way I want to be"
Red: Self confidence
Activity, drive and the reaction to challenges.
"How I react to challenges"
Attitude of anticipation, attitude towards future development and towards new encounters.
"What I expect for the future"
A 1984 comparison of the Lüscher color test and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory found little agreement between the two tests, prompting the authors to urge cautious use of the formerResults and Discussion
So the two most important observations of these two are:
Desired Objectives, or Behavior Dictated by Desired Objectives.
Suffering from pent-up over-stimulation which threatens to discharge itself in an outburst of impulsive and impassioned behavior.
The Existing Situation, or Behavior Appropriate to the Existing Situation.
1st selection: Hopes to obtain an improved position and greater prestige, so that he can procure for himself more of the things he has had to do without.
2st selection: Hopes to obtain an improved position and greater prestige, so that he can procure for himself more of the things he has had to do without.
Characteristics under Restraint, or Behavior Inappropriate to the Existing Situation.
3st selection: Has high emotional demands and is willing to involve himself in a close relationship, but not with any great depth of feeling.Conclusion
The results showed that among four Lüscher's Color Groups, the first and second in both poets are approximately similar. Accordingly, Ma'arri and Rudaki both were suffering from extreme provocations that had led them to separate from their society and they hoped to overcome a lot of their limitations, but Abol Ala despite of inner desires to intimate relationship, controls tightly his emotional relationships and only allows some people in his private domain that have perspective similar to him and think similar like him. And Rudaki tends to build social relationship and reveal his emotional relationship easily. He shows his unease because there are not enough responses to his needs of loving and understandings of mutual affections too.Keywords: Color Psychology, Max Loucher, Seghtol Zand, Abolala Moarri, Rudaki
The Intellectual Metonymy; Metonymy or Reality through the Conceptual Blending Approach in the Quranic DiscoursePages 25-55Introduction
The conceptual blending/integration theory originates from research programs by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner. This theory is the result of expanding the theoretical framework of mental spaces. The core point put forth by Fauconnier and Turner involves how the construction of meaning does not take place solely through combining former meanings or creating mappings among them; yet, meaning construction has an emergent structure shaped by the combination and integration of a set of elements that cannot specifically be observed within any inputs. Accordingly, the purpose of the present inquiry is to demonstrate how the blending theory is capable of introducing accuracy into conceptual metonymy analysis, particularly the intellectual type, whilst explaining the contrast between conventional and cognitive interpreters’ understandings of metonymy. This study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:
What is the role of conceptual metonymy’s cognitive mechanisms in explaining and comprehending abstract notions in Quranic verses?
What is the contrast between conventional and cognitive interpreters’ understandings of Quranic metonymy?
What is the most important function and implication of the conceptual blending principle in intellectual metonymy?
As a modern approach in linguistics, cognitive linguistics has created a number of effective tools and methods to analyze a variety of texts. Today, the conceptual blending principle is a well-established idea which is derived from expanding the theory of mental spaces. This principle represents the mechanisms behind the formation of newly-emerged meanings; one of its most important functions involves offering an all-inclusive, general view. If said principle is placed into contrast within the area of semantics in Quran, then the conceptualizations present across verses would be examined rather than the very situations pointed out by the verses. According to this principle, the interpreter should refrain from referring any interpretation to other; the interpreter must find the conceptualization hidden within any interpretations as it is. The conceptual metonymy theory is a prevalent view in cognitive linguistics which can be investigated and analyzed based upon the conceptual blending theory.
In the old rhetoric, metonymy in general is referred to as using a word instead of another, while both point out to a single, mutual elements. Unquestionably, closeness between the meanings of words is a necessity in this replacement. In such a view, intellectual metonymy is a type of metonymy which is predicated to a real non-agent in the form of verb predication or what is present in the meaning of the verb. Metonymical predication, predicated metonymy, or ordered metonymy are terms that denote this type of metonymy as they refer to a relation, relativity or order among words which provoke man’s intellect to determine their judgment of the subject. Shamisa (1997) believes that metonymical predication creates a type of conflict in language combinational axis or collocation; this type of predication to the subject involves an unconventional form. In the cognitive view, metonymies act in a systematic manner; they create a set of patterns that are applicable to an extensive set of lexicon rather than a single word. In other words, this is the very meaning formation procedure that is constructed by man’s experience of the world, i.e. naming things. Naming is to create reality that has found its way into man’s sphere of comprehension.
Additionally, Lakoff and Johnson (2009) believe that metonymical concepts and their constructs are not exclusively limited to language; they are closely related to the thoughts, language, behaviors, and actions of language users. They are metonymical concepts based upon experience. It means that metonymical concepts are created by natural forms offered to mankind in his environment.Method
The present inquiry was conducted using the descriptive-analytical method, via referring to the conceptual blending/integration theory in order to analyze the intellectual metonymy used in Quran verses. The study is also an attempt to explain the difference between the two views of the old rhetoric and cognitive semantics with respect to metonymy.Results and Discussion
The following are the most important findings of the study:- Each Quranic blending has taken place proportionate to style. Blending highlights a set of stylistic elements which are of particular importance to the speaker. This points to the importance of the examination of blending in discovering the spotlight.
- As a prominent cognitive mechanism, conceptual metonymy helps produce and understand abstract, non-objective notions such as day and night conspiracies, losses in trades between the hypocrites, strong day, etc. based on objective, tangible affairs.Conclusion
The study showed that conventional interpreters have changed Quran’s metonymical expressions in many instances, replacing them with their own conceptualizations; conversely, by introducing originality into Quranic conceptualization, cognitive interpreters have expressed the accurate points hidden across intellectual metonymies; as the most important function of blending is to provide a general, all-inclusive view which is considered as a type of imaginary processing and results from reducing complex subjects to a human scale.Keywords: Cognitive Linguistic, Conceptual Blending, Intellectual Metonymy, Reality, Quranic Discourse
The elements present in poems written by poets are the reason behind their distinction from regular, everyday language; however, each poet would make use of these elements in a way that is proportionate to their own inner emotions, different from others. As a result, each poet has a unique style which is shaped by connections among the poet’s personal set of poetic features.
The present study is an attempt to provide answers to the following question: To what extent has Khalil Hawi been able to incorporate his thoughts into his poetry? What are the instances in his poetry where his emotions are manifested more significantly than the phonetics? This study is based upon a hypothesis according to which the poet has successfully incorporated his emotions which are mostly full of sadness and frustration into the majority of musical elements of his poetry; these thoughts and ideas can be found in the external music with respect to his selection of rhymes. Even in the side music, the type of rhymes and their last letters along with their sounds express these thoughts. Given the vertical repetitions and other factors in the internal music of his poetry, his anxious soul is put on display; the same is true in the spiritual music as well.
Review of Literature:
There has been a number of separate books and studies written about this poet which are not in line with the purposes of the present study; however, below are some of the most prominent works: Khalil Hawi’s Poetry (Derasah Fanniyah) by Ali Jumaah Aydi; Al-Eiqah fi al-Sher al-Arabi al-Hadith: Khalil Hawi Nemawzaj by Khamis Alwartani; Khalil Hawi Shaeir al-Hidathah va al-Rumanciah by Abdul Majid al-Hor; and “Derasah Osloubiyah fi Qasidah al-Bahar va al-Darwish la-Khalil Hawi”.Method
Using the descriptive method and content analysis through the study and examination of data, the present study seeks to investigate the stylistics of phonetic layers in Khalil Hawi’s complete set of poetry which includes five Divans: Nahr al-Remad, al-Naay va al-Reih, Biyader al-Jawu, al-Raad al-Jarig, and Min Jahim al-Comedia. Given the extensiveness of studies on stylistics, a single stylistic layer (the phonetic layer) was selected.Results
In Arabic, the equivalent for stylistics is “Osloubiyah” which is comprised of the word “Osloub”, derived from the main word, “Salb”.
Sounds and the Phonetic Layer
There are a variety of the music types in poetry. Certain known types including external music, side music, and internal music are introduced by Shafiei Kadkani. In this study, these types along with the spiritual music are examined in Khalil Hawi’s poetry.
External music is the area of Arabic prosody in poems. The majority of the poems written by the poet are in Bahr Ramal. The use of this Bahr relates the poem to a sad, sorrowful affection.
Side music refers to musical manifestations shaped by repeating poetic words at the end of each verse. In conventional forms, prior to other items, the use of final rhymes are more common. There are a number of different rhymes in Arabic which includes: Mutiradif (synonyms), Mutiwater, Mutadarik, Muterakib, and Mutikawis.
Other aspects of this section involves the examination of the last letter of rhymes and Taqyiid in the rhymes of the examined poems.
Repetition is a prominent feature of internal music in poetry and a fundamental subject in art aesthetics. Vertical repetitions in the poetry are of two types: 1. Repetition of letters, nouns, verbs, expressions and sentences at the beginning of several verses; 2. the repetition of one or more verses in a single poem.
Puns refer to the spoken similarity between two words which are different in meaning. There has been no instances of the use of complete puns in the examined poems; however several incomplete puns were identified.
Rad al-Ajz ala al-Sadr
In Rad al-Ajz ala al-Sadr, one of the repeated words is placed at the end of the verse and the other at the beginning, Hashw, at the end of the first hemistich, or at the beginning of the second hemistich. A number of related samples are provided.
Includes paradox, symmetry, and allusion:
The use of this device in Khalil Hawi’s Diwans is significantly frequent.
It is one of the most-used literary devices which are abundant in the examined poems.
Allusions are references to a known anecdote, a famous poem, a proverb, or the name of a well-known individual, the story of whom is not expressed in a clear manner. A number of examples of this device are also provided.Conclusion
The following were obtained in this study:
Khalil Hawi has put in his best effort to incorporate his inner states into the entire aspects of phonetic layers in his poems.
In the external music of his poems, Hawi has used rhythms that express his inner emotions. Given the examinations carried out on his rhymes, it was shown that out of his 42 poems, 22, 12, and 6 poems were written in Bahr Ramal, Bahr Rajaz, and Bahr Kamil, respectively. Moreover, there are two poems written in Bahr Wafir and Bahr Sarii as well.
He has also attempted to choose his rhymes with respect to his personal emotions. Out of his 42 poems, the type of rhymes in 27, 13, and 2 poems involve Mutiradif, Mutiwater, and Mutidarik. The last two type of rhymes are non-existent in the examined poems. As a result, 64.28% of rhymes across the entire poems in the Divan are Mutiradif (synonyms). Because according to experts and scholars, this type of rhymes can express the poet’s inner sorrow and sadness. Finally, 30.95 and 4.76% of rhymes are Mutiwater and Mutidarik, respectively.
In the internal music of Khalil Hawi’s poems, repetition is abundant; most of these repetitions are vertical and used in two manners. Out of his 42 poems, the first type of vertical repetition is used in 27 poems, i.e. 64.28%. The second type is present in only 11 poems. Vertical repetition of verses are observed in only 26.19% of his poems.Keywords: Stylistics, Phonetic Layers, Khalil Hawi, Rhythm, Rhymes
Critical Discourse Analysis of Narrative in the Arabic Version of Kalila va Dimna (The Case Study of Chapter of the Monk and His Guest)Pages 89-120Introduction
Narrative texts can be considered influential means which, along with their pedagogical and aesthetic functions, reproduce particular social orders. In this regard, we can think of textual strategies as techniques that are applied to reconstruct a discursive hegemony. In other words, the language and structure of a story can serve as an ideological device to protect the power relations in a certain society. Kalila va Dimna is among the oldest narrative texts in which the relationship between power, language and ideology can be easily perceived. Written around 3rd century BC, the original version of Kalila va Dimna contains some didactic fables. These fables were prepared to transfer Indian monarchs’ sociopolitical ideologies to their surrogates. The Arabic version of the book, translated from the Pahlavi by Ibn Al-Moquaffa, is, in effect, an adaptation of the original version and contains similar sociopolitical ideas which deserve in-depth analysis. Combining the key concepts of CDA (critical discourse analysis) with some concepts in narratology, this paper aims at examining the ideological aspects of narrative in a chapter of Arabic Kalila va Dimna.
The most remarkable discursive concepts through which discourse analysts study power relations are “persuasion” and “legitimization”. According to the concept of persuasion, by creating a dual system of moral values, the authors of a text exaggerate “good” (positive) characteristics of the superior class discourse, and simultaneously, highlight the “bad” (negative) characteristics of the inferior class discourse. In this regard, the author acts like an ideologue whose attempt is persuading the reader to accept the preconstructed values as uncontroversial truths. According to the concept of legitimization, the authors validate their texts by using particular strategies, e.g., authorization, moral evaluation, rationalization and mythopoeia, to convince the reader to interpret the textual content as a legitimate discourse. Over the last few decades, many discourse experts have utilized the aforementioned concepts to study the ideological aspects of narratives. To this end, they suggest various analytical levels which can be summarized as follows: 1. The level of narrating: in this level, the analyst examines strategies used by a narrator to evaluate characters’ speech as reliable or unreliable. 2. The level of narrative process: in this level, the analysts show that how an ideological framework distributes and naturalizes the good/bad functions or actions in a story; 3. The level of symbolization: in this level, the analyst studies the particular blending methods that lead to forming ideological metaphors; 4. The level of contextualization: in this level, different versions of a narrative and different forms of historical hegemonies, reproduced by these versions, are examined.Method
Following the framework suggested in CDA and narratology, this descriptive-analytical research aimed to investigate different ideological levels of narrative in a chapter of Arabic Kalila va Dimna (Chapter of the Monk and his guest). After introducing the story, we will go through the multiple levels of narrative, discussing how language and structure of a story are affected by a dominant discourse.
Results and Conclusion:
The results of the present paper reveal that narrative levels and strategies in Chapter of the Monk and His Guest are employed to recreate a particular sociopolitical ideology. Accordingly, in the level of narrating, there is a hierarchal relationship between characters who are involved in generating the story. Based on this hierarchy, the reliable narrator must be an inferior ideologue i.e., a monk, whose speech is legitimized by superior ideologues of Kalila wa Dimna (king Dabeshlim and Baydapay the philosopher). In the level of narrative process, we can see an antagonistic relationship between components of the story: while negative roles e.g., complication are attributed to the inferior character (the guest), the positive actions, e.g., resolution, are attributed to the superior character (the monk). The study of the symbolization showed that the metaphorical components in the main story and its sub-story are blended in such a way that can convince the reader to accept the ideological message of the text. By examining the level of contextualization, it was found that the hierarchical relationship in the fictional world is indeed a reflection of class conflicts in the estates where the text was written or translated. In other words, fictional characters are actually representatives of real citizens who have experienced the dictatorship in Ancient India, Sasanian Empire and Abbasid Caliphate.Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Narrative, The Chapter of the Monk, His Guest, Ideological Relationships
Synesthesia, which literally means the combination of senses, is originally a psychological term. This term is used to describe a neurological condition in which two senses or more are fused and perception related to one sense is stimulated by another, i.e. the synesthetic for example, perceives sounds as inherently colored or tactile. Later, this term referred to as “fusion of the senses” came up. Synesthesia as a kind of metaphor has existed in all eras and languages. Of this artistic device, some examples have survived in early texts and have remained after generations. Examples of it are mentioned in the Iliad and the Odyssey that are among the oldest extant works of Western literature. One can find many uses of the device in classical Arabic and Persian poetry, especially in mystical poetry. For example, notable examples can be found in the poems of Mowlavi and Ibn al-Fariḍ. These old examples lead us to conclusion that synesthesia, as a literary device, is rooted in the far past. In addition, there are a few stereotypical examples of synesthesia used by people in everyday speech. However, for over a century, this term has been used as an artistic device in modern rhetoric. It is in the new era that the conscious and intentional use of it as an artistic device to express emotions and convey poetic message, has spread. Abd al-W ahhāb al-Bayātī (1926-1965), contemporary Iraqi poet, is one of those who used this artistic device in his poems.
Synesthesia means the combination of senses. Many examples of the device can be found all the available literature. This artistic device is a specific kind of metaphor and is also called the metaphor of senses. This is because a sense in synesthesia figuratively substitutes another sense. When synesthesia is expressed in words, it makes language be extended, i.e. when two senses of the five ones enter into combination with each other, ten realms can be theoretically imagined: 1.Vision in combination with hearing and vice versa; 2. Sight in combination with touch and vice versa; 3.Sight in combination with smell and vice versa; 4. Sight in combination with taste and vice versa; 5. Hearing in combination with touch and vice versa; 6. Hearing in combination with smell and vice versa; 7. Hearing in combination with taste and vice versa; 8. Smell in combination with touch and vice versa; 9. Smell in combination with taste and vice versa; 10. Touch in combination with taste and vice versa. Obviously, when the reverse of these ten types is considered, twenty different potentialities of synesthesia can be imagined in total.Method
In order to examine synesthesia and how it was used in al-Bayātī’s poems, the present study uses the descriptive-analytic method. First, the related examples are extracted from his poems and then, that extracted cases is described. Finally, the interrelationships of those examples with syntagmatic elements and theirs emotional and significant functions in both horizontal and vertical axes are analyzed.Results and Discussion
Of the various potentialities of synesthesia, al-Bayātī used more or less seven options. Frequency of using it varies from one type to another. The vision-hearing type was used most frequently and the smell-taste type was used least frequently. The significance and function of each element of this artistic device is in harmony with the vertical axis of each poem, i.e. in harmony with its atmosphere, emotional and significant context. To convey his own experiences and thoughts and to make the structure of each poem more coherence, al-Bayātī by means of his creative imagination brought together two different senses and created synesthetic images. Interestingly, this device often has a social aspect in al- Bayātī's poetry. It should also be mentioned that he genuinely and moderately used synesthesia. The use of it caused de-familiarization, which in turn serves as a means to attract the attention of the audience, along with the aforementioned.Conclusion
In contemporary literary criticism, synesthesia is one of the features of modern literature, especially modern poetry. It is due to the influence of western literature that the modern Arab poets use this artistic technique. Modern poets have used this technique to enrich contemporary poetry. When we study the poems of modern poets, we find that many modernist poets have more or less used this artistic device in their poetry; however, it can be said that al-Bayātī is one of the poets who used noticeably this device in his poetry. Examples of this artistic device in his poetry are to such an extent that it must be considered one of the dominant aspects of his poetic style. Without noticing this artistic device, it must be said that a comprehensive study of his poetic style would be incomplete. Al-Bayātī used this artistic device to depict his emotions and experiences in a concrete way and then conveyed them to the audience. This is because emotions and emotional experiences are abstract and naturally difficult to be conveyed to the audience by means of ordinary speech.Keywords: Artistic Devices, Contemporary Arabic Poetry, Synesthesia, Abd Al-Wahhāb Al-Bayātī
Simile is one the most beautiful artistic expressions and statements of rhetorical science that augments beauty of meaning with various implications. Eloquent simile would be considered the most elegant and frequent ever invoked in Nahj al-Balagh's sermons, which embraces about two third of the sermons’ similes. Since the syntax is the basis of speech, and similes are presented in a variety of structures, each of them has a special function and implication. The present study is aimed to investigate the style of the simile of Nah al-Balaghah on the syntactic layer.
The purpose of stylistic studies is to investigate literary texts to discover and explain their characteristics through the analysis of style making elements in order to indicate the personal style of the writer. A stylistic analysis text would divide the text into five layers including phonetic, lexical, grammatical, rhetorical, and ideological sectors.
One of the most important issues that is considered in stylistic analysis of a literary work is the analysis of syntactic (grammatical) features of the text or its syntactic style. In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes.
In this paper, the syntax layer of the eloquent simile is considered in sentence structure and parallel forms. The eloquent similes in the Nahj al-Balagh sermons are in different positions, according to the role of the word and image. They have been located in six syntactic forms that this article was aimed to study them. The great work of Amir al-Mu'menin (peace be upon him) is abundant use of parallel (similar( structures.Method
According to the extensive use ofsimiles in Nahj al-Balaghah andthe role of syntax in speech, the present study tried to investigate the style of similes in Nahj al-Balagh in syntactic layer through the descriptive-analytical method.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Similes have been extensively used in Nahj al-Balaghah and this is suited to the ideology of sermons that are intended to persuade and guide people and introduce the speaker's thoughts.
Eloquent simile includes about two third of similes of the Nahj al-Balagh. This means that 66% of similes in Nahj al-Balagh are eloquent; whereas many of the similes used are plural simile, which means they have several images, and if any image is considered a simile, the number of similes will increase.
In terms of structural sentences, the eloquent similes have located in six syntactic structure regarding to the syntax role of the image, which are syntactic roles of absolute object predicate, added to likened, and type of expression, respectively. The structure of verb clause in the similes of the absolute object implies some kind of modernity. The repetition of the infinitive form produces a smooth music in addition to the emphasis in. In the similes that image is an informative sentence, the noun clause implies in stability. Hence, the similes used in these structures are also in line with Imam's goals. In most of the additional similes, sensory likened have been added to rational image. Also, most of the similes that are considered to the second object are plural simile.
Another syntactic and stylistic method used in Nahj al-Balagh is the abundant use of parallel structures. Parallel structures are made up of parallel forms connected by coordinate conjunctions and take an identical syntactic role. These structures have been used in two ways in sermons.
The first type of parallel structure is between two consecutive similes, which is the syntactic structure of the second simile that, in turn, is similar to the syntactic structure of the first simile. The second type, which is more frequent than the first type, is in plural simile, which parallel construct are between images used in the same structure. These structures have created some literary devices including repetitions, pun, rhyme and contrast in the similes that have led to their musicalization.Keywords: Eloquent Simile, Syntax, Sermons
The main theme of La Nuit Sacrée is the life of a Moroccan women under the influence of patriarchy that is dominant over the Moroccan society. In this story, Ben Jelloun portrays the turbulent, frustrating life of a girl named Zahra whose femininity is not even acknowledged by her father. Having imposed his masculine identity on her, the father deprives the girl of her femininity. After twenty years spending a hellish life, the girl’s father finally confesses to his sins at his deathbed, recognizing the femininity of the girl who had been covered with men’s clothing until that very moment. Accordingly, the main subject of La Nuit Sacrée and the present study deals with exiting the limbo of being a man or a woman and stepping into a paradise-limbo atmosphere of femininity. Having been called Ahmed to that day, Zahra was raised as a man; she had never been seen as a women not only in the society, but also among her family members and even her mother. Her only taste of femininity was her feminine body that was hidden underneath men’s clothing; and her emotions were considerably suppressed. She had to test and learn being a women, and her femininity was formed through such trials. Following her father’s funeral, Zahra/Ahmed leaves her family home while she possessed nothing with respect to her feminine identity except for a few pieces of clothes and a name. She then attempts to nurture her femininity by living amid the society as a woman and recover her lost identity. Accordingly, La Nuit Sacrée is the story of Zahra’s attempts to find and recover her lost gender; the present study is an examination of the heroine’s metamorphosis process from masculinity to femininity.
The present inquiry is a combined study that seeks to analyze a literary text based upon sociology and women studies; this is due to the fact that the subject of identity is intertwined with sociology, while the modern views of sex and gender are the achievements of the feminist movement. To confront man-centered theories of sociology, feminists have asserted the distinction between sex and gender. Sex refers to biological differences between men and women; observable differences in their reproductive parts as well as their reproductive functions. However, gender is a notion related to culture. In other words, gender explains the social classification of the masculine and feminine. In addition to these terms, sexuality and sexism were also used in this paper. Sexuality oversees the sexual behavior system and addresses the actions and reactions in this area. Sexism is prejudice or discrimination experienced by individuals based upon their gender.Method
To conduct the present study, three concepts were required to be defined including sex, gender, and sexuality; the definitions were acquired by studying the works related to gender sociology and feminist studies. Then, the story was read in detail and its themes were classified. The themes were classified into three groups including sex, gender, and the general category. A number of subjects and themes were placed in the last category which helped the analyses for the study despite their somewhat irrelevance to sex and gender. Next, the collected information were analyzed and the process of sex and gender formation for Zahra as a result of the emergence of her new identity was investigated.
Results and Conclusion:
To recover his/her new identity, Ahmed/Zahra faces two significant challenges as a woman: recognizing her feminine body and spirit. Despite having a feminine body, the masculinity imposed on her by her father never allowed this body to emerge and manifest itself. Zahra must take off her mask and show her true face. Yet, this very first step is by no means simple, as it requires a degree of forgetfulness: forgetting what had happened to her soul and body and forgetting those responsible. What helps her along the way is her revelation-like presence in the children’s territory during which she discovers her body; a set of insomniac episodes and revelations repeated several times throughout the story which somehow suggest mysterious discoveries and intuitions that gradually resulted in Zahra’s evolution and set her free. After revealing the body, she attempts to learn its language as well and meet its wishes, the most important of which is the sexual need. Nevertheless, her first attempt to partake in a sexual relationship is unsuccessful; for her, it becomes nothing but a violent image of a sexual relationship that portrays men’s dominance over women. Yet, in her second attempt, love and bodily attractions are combined which meets her physical needs and helps her better understand herself and take a further step towards becoming a women. She had previously experienced the bitter taste of a man’s dominance over her, yet her masculinity led to her being solely under her father’s dominance. And when she chooses to be a woman, she becomes dominated by other women that brought about further damages. Therefore, Ben Jelloun portrayal of Zahra’s newfound identity is a realist image that suffers from the dominant reality of the Moroccan society which is full of prejudice and discrimination. However, the prejudice and discriminations did not stop her from embarking upon her journey as she was seeking to become human rather than a women; and her return to her true self was the most substantial condition for achieving the reality of being a human. In fact, by addressing the double standards between Zahra’s life as a man and a women, the writer portrays the duality that is dominant over his society as well as the suffering resulted from such domination. In brief, the writer attempts to express to his readers, i.e. the Moroccan society, that they, too, lead duality-centered lives similar to Zahra due to the dominance of incorrect beliefs. To set themselves free of this duality, they have no way out except for rejecting incorrect beliefs and attempting to discover the absolute reality.Keywords: Tahar Ben Jelloun, La Nuit Sacrée Novel, Masculine Identity, Feminine Identity, Feminist Criticism
Analyzing the Myths of Simurgh and Angha (Phoenix) in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and Meydani’s Majm’a al-AmthalPages 195-230Introduction
Myth is the evolved thinking activity of the primitive man. It is a set of interesting stories and anecdotes from the most ancient eras, full of miracles and surprises in which reality is intertwined with imagination. The word “mythology” has been repeated 9 times in Quran, in verses such as Infaal: 31. An’aam:25, etc. The myth of Angha is an example of cultural exchange between civilizations; in different nations, it is known as Simurgh, Samandal, Banu, etc. The present study is an attempt to analyze the symbols of Angha and Simurgh in Meydani’s Majm’a al-Amthal and Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, respectively, in order to uncover the mutual dreams of both Persian and Arabic nations; their non-existence does not prevent one from recognizing the mental realities believed by mankind. In comparative mythology, special attention is paid to psychological and linguistic approaches.
Certain researchers have stated that there are no mutual aspect between Simurgh and Angha. However, this study was conducted based upon the following hypotheses: 1. The origins of the symbols of Simurgh and Angha are in the ancient Persian culture and Semitic languages, respectively; 2. Mixed images and the transformation phenomenon are the causes behind the emergence of their good and evil forces; 3. Both symbols can be justified in scientific terms; 4. Collective and mutual archetypes, nature, and religious beliefs resulted in a number of shared features between the two; 5. And the environment and culture of each ethnicity are the reasons behind their differences.
Review of Literature:
There has been a number of extensive studies on Ferdowsi’s Simurgh; however, despite Majm’a al-Amthal being a reference in these studies, there has been no research on Angha. The most important studies in this area are as follows: 1. In his paper, Qolinezhad (2011) conducted a comparative examination of Simurgh with other mythical birds, briefly mentioning Angha. 2. In his study, Hejazi (2010) attempted to recreate the myths of Simurgh and Phoenix, believing external and internal factors to be effective in the revival of both myths, without mentioning Meydani’s Angha; 3. Ajinah (1994) has pointed out various Arabic myths including Angha, regarding the bird as an equivalent for Simurk; however, no comparative aspect between Ferdowsi’s Simurgh and Meydani’s Angha was mentioned. 4. In his work, Asad-allah (2018) regarded the myths of Simurgh and Angha as substantially different without mentioning their historical archetypes and origins. To date, there has been no research on comparing Ferdowsi’s Simurgh and Meydani’s Angha.Method
The present study seeks to answer the following question: What are the similarities and differences between the myths of Simurgh and Angha? To this end, both myth were recreated in stages where Simurgh is present in Shahnameh via analyzing nearly 50-60 verses and comparing them with three Arabic proverbs along with three anecdotes on Angha. The study was conducted using library studies and the comparative-analytical method. It can serve as an introduction for researchers in the areas of culture, literature, and mysticism.Results and Discussion
A) Manifestation of Simurgh through Godlike and Evil Imagery;
1. The birth of Zaal with white hair; 2. The birth of Rostam and Zaal’s desperation; 3. Manifestation in the fifth Khan; 4. Appearance to rescue Rostam.
B) Manifestation of Angha in Meydani’s Amthal;
“Taarat bi-hem al-Angha”, “Halaqat bih Angha Muqribon”, and “Aeiz min Angha Muqrib” as well as anecdotes by Hanzilah bin Safqan, Khalid bin Senan al-Abasi, and Suleiman.
C) Similarities between the Symbols of Simurgh and Angha;
1. Birth: it has been said, “al- Angha tatazavijon fa iza kaana fi vaqte beiadhiha yadh’haro bi-ha alam o osh-sadidon”; Ferdowsi says: Simurgh took flight after the children’s hunger. 2. Symbols of death and survival: Both birds are symbols of creatures’ deaths for the survival of nature, proof of survival, and immortality; 3. Physical power and strength: labels such as the ruler bird, the greatest of birds, etc. refer to the birds’ power, their scarcity and absence of any competitors with a variety of dimensions; 4. Life in the mountain: due to its sheer strength, the symbol of mountains such as Alborz and Qaaf as living places of Simurgh and Angha involve external or mythical realities; 5. The element of fire: fire involves aspects such as disappearance and manifestations of realities and burning in the fire which is the secret to freedom; 6. The element of physical description: both birds have mixed imageries and dissimilar structures, as a combination of human and animal. The cause behind the emergence of the forces of good and evil lie within changes of behavior and the integration of their earthly and heavenly origins; 7. Lifetime: both birds’ survival and immortality are manifested in three stages for Simurgh and the Arabic proverb, “Aezzon min Angha muqrib” for Angha; 8. Flight and ascension through heavens: Angha and Simurgh’s flights involve both mutual and different secrets and motifs; 9. Type of existence: real and imaginary existence can be considered for both. According to the scientific principles of evolution and discovered fossils, these fantastic birds were considered as real in historical foundations of ethnicities; through imagination, different ethnic groups have regarded the birds to be real; 10. Vengeance; the purpose behind vengeance is the survival of nature or the influence of spiritual and mental states.
D) Differences between the Symbols of Simurgh and Angha;Purpose
As the totem of Zaal household and its presence in an epic, the purpose behind Simurgh is to support and give life to Zaal family. Its purpose was to show the godlike dimension of the gods. However, the bird’s face of evil has specific reasons as well: it is the manifestation of the power of death via evil forces; 2. Language element: the conversation between Simurgh and Zaal is the very commonality between nature and culture which was not seen in Angha; 3. Form of texts: Simurgh is manifested in an epic, poetic text behind masks such as the mother, the key to secrets of the unknown, etc., while each mask made the epic process more beautiful and attractive. However, Angha is manifested in prose behind the mask of a hunting bird, the character of which became more frightening throughout the story. Subsequently, symbols of death and hope, magic, wisdom, and fury were dominant in both cultures; 4. Content: in the epic, Simurgh has a magical character and incredible powers and became the hero of an exciting body of contents. Yet, Angha in Arabic Amthal was the descriptive aspect and the hero of wisdom and edification. 5. Insights and type of action: firstly, affection, thoughts and awareness are dominant in Simurgh’s character. Nevertheless, Angha is a bird devoid of any emotions and any signs regarding the search for justice and reform. Secondly, Simurgh showed humanlike behavior and characteristics while Angha had features only in the form of a human. Third, is the awareness over the unknown; expressing Esfandiar’s vulnerability showed Simurgh’s knowledge of the unknown, holiness, and connections to the undead plant, with godlike origins. Meanwhile, Angha’s actions are driven by instincts. Fourth is the result of actions: Simurgh returns a grown child while Angha did not.Conclusion
Themes such as flying through skies, i.e. the ancient dream of humans, along with disappearing into horizons and bringing unknown information and the secrets to immortality are manifested in birds. The origins of symbols of Simurgh and Angha come from the ancient Persian culture (Avesta) and Semitic anecdotes in Hebrew, respectively. Ibn Muqafa’, Tabari, etc. have translated the Pahlavi Simurgh as “Angha”. Today, both words are used as synonyms in translations. Despite their different origins, there are many similarities between the two myths.
Sometimes, certain symbols such as Angha appear to be secondary and insignificant; however, detailed examinations into texts show that they are used as contexts and tools to draw upon the main events. As a result, despite their individual characteristics, all humans have similar beliefs and intentions which has led to the creation of similar symbols such as Simurgh and Angha. Regardless of their non-Islamic origins, both Simurgh and Angha have influenced the culture and literature of the nations throughout history; later, religious and political affairs resulted in the mutation of their meanings, characters and increased similarities. Due to their relevance to today’s man, they are also reflected in works of contemporary poets such as Mousavi Garmaroudi, Iylia abu Madhi, etc.Keywords: Myth, Symbol, Angha, Simurgh, Ferdowsi
Investigating Fictional Dialogue: Speech and Conversation in the Palestinian Resistance a Case Study of al-Tantoryeh by Radwa AshourPages 231-251Introduction
Narratology is based on narration with structural analysis and description of the rules and by analyzing the totality of texts and divide it into smaller units; they are going to achieve narrative grammar. This scope of human knowledge has advanced to the extent that nowadays it is studied as a scientific branch. This research focuses on analyzing speech and thought presentation in the story by means of stylistic approach proposed by Leech and Short. They are known to have five levels of discourse: 1- Indirect Speech/Indirect thought. 2-Indirect Speech/Indirect thought. 3- Free Indirect Speech/Free Indirect Thought. 4- Direct Speech/Direct Thought. 5-Free Direct Speech/Free Direct Thought.
The method of this study is descriptive-analytic with narrative cognitive approach. Tantura novel by Radwa Ashour, due to the complexity and specific narrative techniques is the suitable option for studies of narration's tense. The research findings show: the Egyptian author, Radwa Ashoura, has tried to present the whole story from the point of view of the protagonist. The novel uses a variety of direct, indirect, free and indirect free speech and narrative reporting to express the belief in resistance and instill a Palestinian sense of war.
Review of Literature:
A dialogue is a literary technique in which writers employ two or more characters to be engaged in conversation with one another. In literature, it is a conversational passage, or a spoken or written exchange of conversation in a group, or between two persons directed towards a particular subject. Generally, it makes a literary work enjoyable and lively.
Leech and Short (1981) have classified speech and thought presentation in fiction into five categories. They are:
1-The Narrative Report of Speech Act (NRSA): It is more indirect than indirect speech. Here the narrator does not reproduce the actual words uttered by the person, whose speech is being reported. When a writer reports the speech made by a person without actually quoting the words uttered by him, we see the event entirely from the writer’s perspective (Jayal, 2013)
2 Indirect Speech/Indirect thought: Indirect Speech (IS): The words of the speaker are reproduced in the third person with a reporting verb and the speech is presented from the point of view of the narrator. (Leech, G., and M. Short. 1981).
3 Free Indirect Speech/Free Indirect Thought: free Indirect Speech (FIS): It occupies a place between DS and IS. In FIS, the reporting verb is omitted but the function of the ‘tense’ is similar to that of its function in IS. FIS is neither a verbatim reproduction of the original speech nor is it a mere indirect rendering of the original. Leech and Short (1981) remark that FIS involves some kind of a distancing effect in the sense that due to the intervention of the authorial voice between the reader and the words of the character the reader is distanced from the character’s words. (Jayal, 2013)
Direct Speech/Direct Thought: Direct Speech (DS): The words uttered by the speaker are quoted within inverted commas. A narrator uses the direct speech to report verbatim what a character said in a particular context. (Todorov, 2003)
Free Direct Speech/Free Direct Thought: free Direct Speech (FDS): In DS, the narrator reports what the character uttered in a particular context. But in Free Direct Speech (FDS) the character speak directly without the intermediacy of the narrator, and, consequently the reporting clause is omitted in the presentation of such a speech. (Jayal, 2013)Method
The present study by using the descriptive-analytical method within the Speech and Thought Representation Theory, seeks to answer the following questions: What concepts constitute the speech acts present in these novel? In which of these writer speech acts, details are of more importance?Results and Discussion
Narrative dialogues refer to all the conversations in a narrative text cited by the narrator. These dialogues are altered by the narrator in different ways. Representing the narrative conversations can be revealing in reviewing a story especially in narrative discourse analysis through which one can gain more awareness of narrative methods, writers’ style and the relationship between the narrator and character. Character. (Jayal, 2013( This research focuses on analyzing speech and thought presentation in the story by means of stylistic approach proposed by Leech and Short (2007) In speech presentation, there are five techniques as proposed by Leech & Short: Direct Speech (DS), Indirect Speech (IS), Free Direct Speech (FDS), Free Indirect Speech (FIS), and The Narrative Report of Speech Act (NRSA). Below are the examples of speech presentation taken from Leech & Short (1981, pp.255-256-.
The author, Radwa Ashour, used these techniques in an artistic way in her novel Al-Tantoryeh to convey the current reality in her occupied country in all its details. The narrator chose the direct and free direct of the subject to the audience so that the reader can see a clear statement of their living conditions under the Intifada.Conclusion
The author, Radwa Ashoura, has tried to present the whole story from the point of view of the protagonist. It helped the author to gain sympathy and concern for the protagonist and to bring the theme properly before the audiences
The novel uses a variety of direct, indirect, free and indirect free speech and narrative reporting to express the belief in resistance and instill a Palestinian sense of war, and the author used direct speech to convey his literary experience.
Using thought presentation shows that author has given importance to the inner thought process of the characters. To bring out the theme of the story, it was crucial for the author to make proper use of the thought presentation. With the proper use of speech and thought presentation, Radwa Ashoura was able to present the theme of the story successfully in front of the audiences and was able to gain sympathy and concern for his character.Keywords: Narrative Science, Fictional Speech, Razavi Ashour, Al-Tantoriya, Leach, shorts
The fundamental indices of stream of consciousness in Arabic literature stretch back to a long time ago and appear to have been originated from a number of classic texts including “Hayy ibn Yaqdhan” by Avicenna, “Hayy ibn Yaqdhan” by Ibn Tufail, “Resalat Al-Ghufran” by Al-Maʿarri, and “Tawaba’a o Zavaba’a” by Ibn Shuhaid Andelosi. They have continued to date in novels written by Taha Hussain, Taqfiq Hakim, and Najib Mahfouz as well as stories by Gibran Khalil Gibran, poems by the poets of the Tammuz School, and fictional poems by Adonis, particularly in his “Qasayad Kolliyah”.
The main purpose of the study was to examine inquiries and research on reading poetic manifestations of stream of consciousness in Arabic literature along with the lack of research-based papers on the subject. In fact, research on stream of consciousness in the Arabic literature did not seek to detect and retrieve the signs of the stream within the contexts of philosophy and psychology in most instances; these inquiries solely sufficed with contrasting a certain number of formal indices of the stream with texts of contemporary stories. Accordingly, it was considered necessary to conduct this study due to the absence of an academic or general inquiry on retrieving the signs of stream of consciousness in Arabic contemporary poetry, particularly Adonis’ “Qasidah Kolliyah”.
Initially, the present study attempts to explore origins and foundations of stream of consciousness in the West; to this end, first the history of the orientation towards mental reflection in the West’s fictional literature is represented. Then, the origins of the stream of consciousness method in the 20th century are provided in two dimensions including psychological and philosophical aspects, respectively. Next, the fundamental indices of stream of consciousness are presented in brief. As a conclusion, it is attempted to retrieve the theoretic emergence and the main constructs of stream of consciousness within the modern theory of contemporary Arabic poetry, i.e., Adonis’ “Qasidah Kolliyah”.Method
The present study attempts to recognize and uncover the clear signs of stream of consciousness in the most advanced and complex type of contemporary Arabic poetry, that is Adonis’ “Qasidah Kolliyah” based on description and analysis according to psychological criticism. Through retrieving the prominent constructs of stream of consciousness in Adonis’ “Qasidah Kolliyah”, this study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:
Given the emergence of stream of consciousness indices in contemporary Arabic fiction, from which type of Arabic modern poetry can the clear manifestation of the stream be retrieved?
What are the most prominent indices of stream of consciousness manifested in modern types of poetry?
The most prominent hypotheses posed as responses to the previous questions include: 1. within the world of poetry, the theoretical foundations of “stream of consciousness” can be retrieved in the area of poetry with respect to “the new theorization of Arabic poetry”, i.e. “Qasidah Kolliyah” which is in line with contemporary Arabic fiction as well. 2. the most prominent constructs and indices of stream of consciousness are clearly manifested in Adonis’ “Qasidah Kolliyah” including expression, text, plot, music, language as ambiguity and rhetorical devices, time and narrative.Results and Discussion
According to the present study, “stream of consciousness” can be explained as a mental strip containing what is said and unsaid by the mind that are set free from the lawful, linear path of the real life; it passes through every barrier against the reckless storm of the unconscious mind. It also passes through the Aristotelian concept of time and his triple unities within the infinite river of time, sweeping over all types of calendars; similar to a flood that washes away everything in its path, consciousness is a narrative formed by moments, hours, days, months and seasons in the form of poetry and prose at a short, yet watchful moment using an ambiguous expression while employing a writing style linked to the unconscious. Accordingly, restricting such a mental stream when writing a “story” is a considerable disgrace towards figures such as Adonis who had stepped into this river where fresh waters pass through at every second.Conclusion
Given the results, Adonis’ “Qasidah Kolliyah” is the first and purest example of the use of stream of consciousness in Arabic poetry, whether classic or contemporary; this was observed particularly in the third poetic section as a coherent whole and a conflicted diary in terms of new linguistic structures, integration of various types of soliloquy, collocations and interference between time and place, mentioning the future and particularly the constant presence of the mental stream to observe and uncover within the dream world and the unconscious. This has also been proved by the style of writing as well as how punctuation marks are use across this work of poetry. Moreover, the footprints of James Joyce, Marcel Proust and Virginia Woolf’s beliefs regarding time and memories can clearly be observed in Adonis’ “Qasidah Kolliyah”.Keywords: Stream of Consciousness, Time, Dream, Narrative, Qasidah Kolliyah, Adonis
In semiotics, it is attempted to analyze texts and search for hidden meanings. Structuralist semioticians place great emphasis on the relationship between elements and semiotic studies and focus on the role of the semiotic texture in meaning and content formation. Semiotics was used by Saussure as “a science that deals with the examination of signs within social life”. Semiotics refer to the study of symbolic systems such as languages, symbols, codes, and signals. Language is an independent concept among symbolic systems; “… and contents and meanings are constructed exclusively through an active process of interpretation. In the area of structuralism, connections should inevitably be made between signs and codes where they become meaningful”. The reflection of patriotism is a fundamental aspect manifested in Shawqi’s poetry, having become an influential element at the content and language level of his poems. Given their semantic extensiveness, his poems can be examined through a variety of dimensions. His images and poetic meanings can be achieved using the science of semiotics.
Semioticians pay attention to the recognition of mechanisms that shape discourse such as metaphors, symbols, and other rhetorical techniques. In addition to their explicit meanings, each word may bear an implicit meaning as well which involves social, cultural, personal, ideological, and emotional associations. Shawqi’s patriotic poems were selected among his other works as the subtlety of his emotions and affections are manifested in these poems to a higher extent than his other works. The poet uses these affections to produce highly influential pieces. As a vital part of poetry, affection brings about certain spiritual beauties to the reader. Examination into poetry through such means offers a different, new perspective towards texts. The entire selected poems in this study were discussed in terms of aesthetic symbols, symbols of time and space, symbols related to syntactic norm deviation, and text analysis through vertical and horizontal views. In his 2005 dissertation, Hamid Valizadeh examined Shawqi’s thoughts, expressions, meanings, and how they are employed to create imageries and literary devices. In another study in 2000, Navazallah Farhadi investigated aspects of poetic relationships and similarities between Malek al-Shoara Bahar and Ahmed Shawqi in subjects including praising national heroes, addressing social situations, fighting against tyranny, calling for solidarity, and remembering former prominent figures. In their 2012 study, Sakinah Malmir and Firouz Harirchi conducted a comparative examination of the views of these two poets and attempted to express points of similarities and differences between the poets’ opinions regarding the love of the East.Method
Using the descriptive-analytical method, the present study is an attempt to examine manifestations of the poet’s sense of patriotism in four subjects including aesthetic symbols, symbols of time and space, symbols related to syntactic norm deviation, and text analysis through vertical and horizontal views. The study was conducted to provide answers to the following questions: What symbols are employed in the poet’s patriotic poems in order to present new readings? What are the aesthetic aspects of Shawqi’s patriotic poems? What are the concepts within hidden meanings in patriotic poems?Results and Discussion
In his poetry, Shawqi has employed numerous symbols such as semiotics of title and text as well as semiotics related to intertextuality and aesthetic symbols, symbols of time and space, symbols related to syntactic norm deviation, and text analysis through vertical and horizontal views. In the area of semiotics, the poet expresses symbols such as metaphors, metonymy, simile, hyperbole, etc. His symbols related to time and space such as al-layl, al-Fajr, al-qad, al-sabah, and khatir are majorly used to reflect his longing for his home country. Certain instances of syntactic norm deviations in Shawqi’s poems involve delays and dedications, redundancies, omissions, and briefness. Syntactic norm deviations or evading the rules governing language is normal in poetry; Shawqi does not disrupt language combinations considerably and attempts to connect to the audience mostly in a friendly, ordinary manner. As for text analysis in terms of vertical and horizontal aspects, the choice of signifier out of a set of alternative element depends on factors such as codes, contracts, denotations, rhetorical intentions, personal limitations, etc. The analysis of replacement relationships demonstrates the value of a particular notion in a literary text; replacement analysis involves conducting comparison between each present signifier in a chain of words or hidden signifier that could have been chosen instead of the existing signifier. Therefore, given the employed signifiers, it can be inferred that Shawqi’s work shines best in the semantic area in which aesthetic elements are used to offer beauty and a special literary level to his poetry.Conclusion
These four symbols were used not only to the purpose of literary showcasing and poetic imagery creation, but also in line with producing meanings and highlighting the poet’s spiritual, emotional thoughts and experiences. The use of these semantic symbols has resulted in increasing emotions, image creation, manifestation of words and provoking a sense of nostalgia and numerous readings in the minds of the audience. Rhetorical techniques such as metaphor, metonymy, simile, hyperbole, etc. as well as substitution, companionship, and norm deviations are symbols that play an influential role in recording the poet’s emotional experiences. Using these symbols, the poet seeks to present concepts such as sense of patriotism and nostalgia and express his thoughts and emotions. Shawqi employs these symbols-meanings and create literary imagery in order to offer dynamism to the symbols used in poems, setting them free of his explicit implications. Denotations used in these poems are mostly dependent on personal, emotional, and social aspects of a single signified, while each symbol has helped increase the emotional load and beauty of Shawqi’s poetry.Keywords: Semiotics, Ahmed Shawqi, Patriotic Poems, Semantic Layers
The present inquiry is an attempt to examine critical-structural theorems through the views of Ibn Khaldun, the philosohoer, historiographer, and the theoretician of civil sciences. As a prominent critic, he has put forth a number of theories with respect to literary criticism. In his book, Muqaddimah (Prolegomena), he points out certain criticism criteria not as a philosopher, but as a critic; his comments and opinions can be explored in brief across these criteria. Ibn Khaldun has addressed, expressed and interpreted a number of critical and rhetorical criteria which demonstrated his inspiration from former philosophers of Andalusia. Critical criteria in his book, Muqaddimah, include the poetic queen, words and meanings, style, poetic style, prose, and the Holy Quran; accordingly, the following question can be posed: What are the criteria set by Ibn Khaldun in his critical theories? Given the hypothesis of the study, Ibn Khaldun has been able to formulate new theories and present new ideas in areas of defining poetry, explaining the concept of words and meanings, and differences between poetic devices, natural words, and artificial words, similar to the old critics. Subsequently, the purpose of this study is to examine Ibn Khaldun’s literary approaches and opinions in order to explain critical-structural theories through his point of view. As a part of the Arabic literature history, it appears necessary to address the critical perspective of this well-known author in the area of literary criticism.
Review of Literature:
The only available text on the criticism of Ibn Khaldun’s views written in Persian is titled, “Ibn Khaldun and Literary Criticism” which includes a short inquiry translated by Abbas, published in Keyhan Newspaper. In a paper titled, “al-Dhouq kima yarah Ibn Khaldun”, the author defines the concept of taste among critics and rhetoricians whilst pointing out Ibn Khaldun’s ideas in this regard. In the second section of another article titled, “Qira’ah fi Muqaddimah Ibn Khaldun an al-Adab va Naqdah”, the author writes about the concept of literature and its criticism from the perspective of Ibn Khaldun; being similar to another paper titled, “Ibn Khaldun Adiban Naqidan”, the author addresses the concept of literature and defines literary techniques such as poetry and prose as well as examining Arabic poetry and its conventions in different historical periods. In the fourth chapter, the author investigates Arabic poetry during various historical periods and then discusses Ibn Khaldun’s definitions on poetry. In a thesis titled, “Ibn Khaldun Naqidan”, the author presents a biography of Ibn Khaldun; in the third chapter, he addresses Ibn Khaldun’s views on the criticism and Arabic language sciences which involve syntax, linguistics, rhetoric, and literature. In another thesis titled, “al-Qazaya al-Naqdiyah ind filasifah al-Andelus”, the author ultimately addresses Ibn Khaldun’s critical-philosophical comments. Following the study of related literature and focusing on the most important points in similar research, the present study attempts to examine critical theorems of the old critics and their definitions in this context; next, Ibn Khaldun’s opinions are examined and the differences between the ideas of other critics before him are discussed. The approach adopted in this study is a comparative approach between Ibn Khaldun and other contemporary and former critics; subsequently, the present inquiry involves a set of comprehensive discussions.Method
In this study, it is attempted to describe and analyze Ibn Khaldun’s views on the areas of literature and criticism and study discussions related to the criticism of the Andalusia period with respect to the ideas of this 8th century (A.H.) prominent writer and critic, using credible literary and historical research. The conduct of the study through said approach can yield valid results which could be beneficial for other scholars in the area of literature.Results
According to the results of the study, in addition to areas such as history, civil sciences, and philosophy, Ibn Khaldun was also an expert in literature; he is an advocate of prioritizing words over meaning and has special insights around the definition of taste and style as criticism criteria as well as the styles of poetry, prose, and Quran. Examination efforts into Ibn Khaldun’s set of critical approaches and the accumulation of his views can offer a relatively comprehensive account of his literary-critical character.Conclusion
Ibn Khaldun has drawn boundaries for each type of rhetorical and spoken techniques (poetry, prose, and Quran); according to his descriptions, each technique involves its own special styles. One of the innovative ideas of Ibn Khaldun in criticism is his rejection of a gift that most believe is granted to a writer or a poet. He uses the word “queen” as a replacement for this word.
Regarding the subject of words and meanings, Ibn Khaldun believes that verbal structures, whether in prose or in poetry, lie within words rather than meanings; subsequently, meaning is a function of words and the latter becomes the primary aspect. This shows his preference of words over meaning. Ibn Khaldun believes that as a criticism criterion, taste is not an inherent virtue to measure beauty and enjoyment; rather, taste is an acquired value for humans. He also believes that style is not created unless language compositions are completed; according to Ibn Khaldun, style is similar to a social phenomenon and he expresses its social aspects in poetic examples such as the beginning of ode with crying over homeland, whining, questioning and also poetic elements such as metaphor, similes, examples and descriptions. As for the relation between poetry and religion, he believes that there are very few, if any, imaginations in divine poetry; he expresses their meanings as common and clear in which no technique is used. The reason behind such an observation is that there is no need for poetic rules such as fantasies.Keywords: Ibn Khaldun, Old Literature, Literary Criticism, Literary Device, Poetry, Prose
Imam Ali’s beautiful, pleasant words include letters, instructions, sermons, parables, and advices formed through a variety of numerous events during his momentous lifetime; the volume of his words has been more extensive to be written down or remembered. Some of his words were not written down due to various reasons such as war or the absence of recording conditions, subsequently removed from the course of history. Nevertheless, all that is accessible today are valuable information that require examinations from different perspectives.
Review of Literature:
What is present in old references to Imam Ali is a selection of eloquence and rhetoric, the best of which were compiled into a book titled Nahj al-Balagha by Sayyed Razi (359-406 AH) and his younger brother Sayyed Mortaza (355-436 AH); though Sayyed Mortaza was inferior to his older brother in terms of scientific aspects, jurisprudence and other techniques, he occupied a special position in self-esteem, self-respect, religious valorization, poetry, and literature. During its multi-century background, this book has been examined both as a whole and in detail through a variety of perspectives.
The present study revolves around one of the sermons in the book titled “Iman”, which has a set of specific features. Certain aspects of this sermon including its use of brief terms, thought-provoking intentions, condensed contents, heavy concepts, indexed themes and formal separation of certain sentences from others pose a number of questions in the mind of the reader; these questions would, in turn, result in the reader to speculate whether these laden words that are presented in 10-line long sections might have been a part of a full sermon, since some commentaries on the sermon have used the expression, “Va min kalam laho Alayha al-Salam” (Mohammad Abdoh, 386/1).Method
This study was conducted on a Nahj al-Balagha sermon called “Iman”. It was attempted to search and examine a number of valid references with respect to this area; to this end, consecutive days and weeks were spent examining original Arabic commentaries. Finally, a set of specific commentaries and opinions were collected from examining and reflecting on the contents of the sermon.Results and Discussion
There are seven themes in the examined short sermon, “Iman”:
Faith and its types.
Acquitting someone and leaving them.
Immigration and leaving the homeland.
The poor and their types.
Proof and management.
Making use of opportunities.
The main question that was formulated involved why the form of sentences are not closely intertwined? Why are there heavy contents presented in an indexed form? Dealing with insights and evaluation of these concepts, two subjects were confronted; first, the addition of a new type to the conventional two types of faith in versions accessible to the public. Second, to provide answers to a question with respect to a number of expressions in the sermon which appeared to be devoid of any connections with each other.
Then, the original content was researched in Ibn Abi al-Hadid’s description and a fresh subject was identified: the categorization of faith (Iman) in three types based upon Nahj al-Balagha text:
A) Fa min al-iman ma yakoun thabitan mustaqaran fi al-qolub.
B) Va avaari fi al-qholoub.
C) Va avaari bayn al-qholoub va al-sodour.
These types are briefly explained in the following:
The first type refers to a real, sustainable faith that is fixed at heart and separate from arguments of certainty. The second type deals with an unsustainable fiduciary faith at heart, separate from unfounded quarrels devoid of certainty arguments. The third and final type refers to a fiduciary faith between the heart and the chest, unsustainable and fluctuating in nature, separate from imitation and trust towards others, and devoid of controversial reasoning and argumentations (Ibn Abi al-Hadid: Nahj al-Balagha Description, 2008, 102/13).Conclusion
The “Iman” sermon is a ten-line long sermon with diverse, condensed, laden, brief, and thought-provoking contents that require interpretations of its somewhat unrelated expressions. These features provoke the readers’ thoughts and poses a set of questions in their mind. Given the reference to valid, primary Arabic descriptions published at a time close to the edition of Nahj al-Balagha as well as other references, two new phenomena were observed including: first, the addition of a new type of faith (Iman) to Nahj al-Balagha text by a prominent descriptor. The second was related to correlation between two sentences that appeared separate and contradictory. These two new phenomena are discussed and examined in detail in an atmosphere full of thoughts and reflections; strengths and weaknesses are manifested through a mirror reflecting purity, so that the author would not be considered as the sole agent behind such reflection.Keywords: Sayyed Razi, Nahj al-Balagha, Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Hujjat