فهرست مطالب

  • سال یازدهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • خدابخش اسداللهی*، رقیه آلیانی صفحات 7-16
    مجسمه سازی نوعی آفرینش هنری است که اندیشه و عقاید گوناگون معماران مرز و بوم خود را به ببنندگان القا می کند. خاستگاه این ایده ها به فرهنگ و ایدئولوژی مردمان آن سرزمین بر می گردد؛ از این رو، برای دست یابی به این مفاهیم عمیق فرهنگی، باید به رمزگشایی مجسمه های نمادین پرداخت؛ لذا، برای معنادار کردن مضامین این تندیس ها ناگریز، باید از علم نشانه شناسی بهره برد؛ چرا که به واسطه این علم، می توان به رمزگان های فرهنگی، تاریخی، عرفانی و... تندیس ها پی برد. این پژوهش درصدد است به روش توصیفی تحلیلی و به صورت کتاب خانه ای، به نشانه شناسی مجسمه های میادین رشت بپردازد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد: تندیس ها به طور اتفاقی خلق نشده اند؛ بلکه ریشه در اساطیر و فرهنگ و هنر مردم گیلان زمین دارند. از جمله این مجسمه ها، می توان به مجسمه های اسب- ماهی، زن دست فروش، مجسمه میرزا کوچک و... اشاره کرد. این مجسمه ها بیانگر عقاید متعالی و روشن اساطیری، تاریخی، فرهنگی و آداب و رسوم مردم گیلان هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: نشانه شناسی، مجسمه، میادین رشت
  • نیلوفر جمالی، عفت السادات افضل طوسی* صفحات 17-26

    زبان بدن و به طور کلی، ارتباطات غیرکلامی بخش عمده ای از ارتباطات را تشکیل می دهند. همه انسان ها، خواه به صورت ارادی یا غیرارادی، پیام هایی را به وسیله بدن خود به اطرافیان صادر و یا در فرایند ارتباطی از دیگران دریافت می کنند. زبان بدن رابط شاخصی بین فرستنده و گیرنده یک پیام بصری است که به مراتب تاثیر بیش تری از کلام بر مخاطب می گذارد. از این رو، شناخت و آگاهی از وجوه مختلف زبان بدن و به کارگیری آن، گام مهمی در تولید و بهبود یک آگهی تبلیغاتی است. هدف از این پژوهش، روشن ساختن اهمیت زبان بدن در آگهی های تبلیغاتی و در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است: کاربرد زبان بدن در آگهی های تبلیغاتی چیست؟ به همین منظور، در ابتدا، به مفاهیم کلی زبان بدن و تقسیم بندی آن پرداخته شده است. و در ادامه، چند نمونه از آگهی های تبلیغاتی ایرانی، شامل چهره های مشهور (بیلبوردهای شهری) در سال 95 الی 97، به جهت مطالعه کارکرد زبان بدن در سوژه های انسانی بررسی شده است. این تحقیق، به شیوه کتاب خانه ای (اسنادی) و میدانی و به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام گرفته است. استفاده هماهنگ و ماهرانه از حرکات و ژست ها، موقعیت بدن، بیانات و ارتباط چشمی، از جمله ملزومات یک تبلیغ است که بینندگان را به خرید محصول یا استفاده از خدمات هدایت می کند؛ و عدم رعایت آن، چه بسا، می تواند موجب بدفهمی و گنگی مخاطب شود. بررسی های انجام شده پیرامون چند نمونه آگهی در این پژوهش، نشان داده است که اصول زبان بدن در بیش تر این آثار، به درستی، رعایت نشده است و به نظر می رسد که آگاهی و دانش کافی پیرامون زبان بدن در طراحی اغلب تبلیغات وجود ندارد.

    کلیدواژگان: زبان بدن، ارتباط غیر کلامی، آگهی تبلیغاتی، چهره های معروف پردازی
  • ابوالقاسم دادور، بهناز عتباتی* صفحات 27-36
    ایجاد نقش برجسته ها،یکی از سنت هایی است که حاکمان وقت، برای جاودان ساختن خواست ها و اندیشه های خود از آن بهره برده اند. آن ها در حقیقت برگ هایی از کتاب مصور تاریخ و فرهنگ و هنر هستند که در پس آن اندیشه های فراوانی نهفته و یادمان های ارزنده تاریخی هستند؛که نه تنها، اطلاعات گرانبهایی در خصوص سبک های هنری آن زمان در اختیار پژوهشگران قرار می دهند، بلکه داده های ارزشمندی در تحقیقات و مطالعات نیز محسوب می شوند. به طورکلی، هدف این تحقیق، آن بوده تا با بهره گیری از شیوه تطبیقی و با تاکید بر ارزش های بصری دو نقش برجسته نبرد تل تبا و ستون تراژان، شباهت ها، تفاوت ها، کیفیت تصویرهای ترسیمی،چگونگی مصورشدن تزیینات و هماهنگی آن ها با فضای نقش برجسته ها و تاثیر نگاه تاریخی آن دوران بر کیفیت آثار، به روش تاریخی-تحلیلی و با بهره گیری از منابع کتاب خانه ای مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گیرد.یافته های تحقیق بیانگر این است که، اشتیاق رومیان به روایت وابسته به رویدادهای واقعی، بیش تر به روش آشوری ها شباهت دارد؛ تا یونانی ها. این نقوش برجسته بدان جهت اهمیت خاص دارند که پایان یافتن یک دوره و آغاز دوره بعدی را پیش گویی می کنند.در نهایت، می توان نتیجه گرفت که تمامی تدابیری را که آشوریان در نقش برجسته های روایتی خویش به کار می برده اند، رومیان نیز همین اصول و تدابیر را باردیگر پس از قرن ها در هنر نقش برجسته شان به کار بردند.
    کلیدواژگان: تل تبا، آشوربانیپال، ستون تراژان، ترایانوس
  • سپیده سیدموسوی*، بهنام زنگی صفحات 37-46

    خرید آثار نقاشی، ناشی از درک زیبایی شناختی است که به فرم، سبک و تکنیک اثر و نیز به دانش و فرهنگ بصری، بستگی دارد. زمانی که از فرهنگ و سرمایه فرهنگی سخن رانده می شود، مصرف فرهنگی مد نظر است که با توجه به نیازهای فرهنگی به وجود می آید؛ به گفته پی یر بوردیو، این نیازها محصول محیط و پرورش افرادند و با میزان آموزش و تحصیلات رابطه مستقیم داشته و برخلاف نیازهای اولیه -که غریزی اند- به طور اکتسابی ایجاد می شوند. هدف این تحقیق، بررسی عوامل موثر بر خرید آثار نقاشی معاصر ایران بوده که مبین نوعی مصرف فرهنگی است. عوامل دیگری که در این مقاله مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند، عبارتند از: سرمایه های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فردی. ماهیت این تحقیق کاربردی، و روش آن توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و با شیوه پیمایشی و با ابزار پرسش نامه ، انجام گرفته است. در بعد کیفی نیز از ابزار مصاحبه ساختار یافته، استفاده شده است. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، عوامل ساختاری (ساخت اجتماعی) -که تا حد زیادی، بر عوامل اقتصادی و فرهنگی تاثیر دوسویه دارد- تاثیرگذار ترین عامل خرید و مصرف آثار نقاشی معاصر است. هم چنین، عامل سرمایه اجتماعی -که پیامد مولفه ساخت اجتماعی است- شدیدا غرق یک رابطه دوسویه با عامل فرهنگی است. عامل فرهنگی نیز از عامل ساخت اجتماعی، عامل اقتصادی و سرمایه اجتماعی عمیقا، در حال تاثیر است. بنابراین، جمعی از عوامل در هم تنیده ساختاری، سیاست گذاری و حاکمیتی، مصرف کالاهای هنری به ویژه، نقاشی را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهند. این پژوهش، می تواند منشا تحلیل های جامعه شناسانه در حوزه فرهنگ و هم چنین، اقتصاد هنر نقاشی باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: مصرف فرهنگی، سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه اقتصادی، سرمایه اجتماعی، آثار نقاشی معاصر ایران
  • سارا صادقی*، حمیدرضا قربانی صفحات 47-60

    انسان ابتدایی با به تصویر درآوردن باورهایش و بهره از محیط زندگی خود، نقوشی را بر دیوار غارها و صخره ها نقش کردند. این نقوش، روشی برای انتقال پیام و افکار و وسیله ای برای بیان آرزوها و ترس های بشر بوده اند. به همین دلیل سنگ نگاره ها از قدیمی ترین آثار هنری یافت شده در جهان هستند که اطلاعات فراوانی در خصوص زندگی و آداب و رسوم نیاکان ما را بیان می کنند. آفرینندگان این هنر، حکاکی ها و نقاشی هایی را -که بیانگر باورها و عقاید و اسطوره های آنان بوده- بر روی این صخره ها نقر کرده اند؛ اما، امروزه در میان ما نیستند که از خلاقان این هنر بپرسیم، هدفشان از خلق این آثار چه بوده است؟ بنابراین، هدف این پژوهش بر مبنای شناسایی تعدادی از نقوش شاخص در استان خراسان جنوبی و مطالعه تطبیقی با دیگر آثار نمادین یافته شده در ایران است؛ که تا حدی، به معنای نمادین این نقوش -که از اسرار و رازهای انسان های قبل از ما بوده اند- دست یافته ایم. این نوشتار از روش تحلیل و تطبیق محتوا بهره برده و داده های آن از شیوه بررسی میدانی و مطالعات کتاب خانه ای گردآوری شده است؛ یافته های نمادین ما در استان خراسان جنوبی از چهارده محوطه بوده؛ که شامل نقش دایره، چلیپا، نعل اسب، دست، یین و یانگ، حصیرمانند، تله مانند، بته جقه و تعدادی نقش کمیاب هستند. نتایج نشان می دهد: این نقوش، برخاسته از عقاید و باورهای آیینی حکاکان است. لذا، قابل ذکر است که این نقوش از لحاظ تکنیک و تکنولوژی، با دیگر نقوش یافت شده از سنگ نگاره های ایران و خارج از ایران، قابل مقایسه و مورد تطبیق هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: نقوش صخره ای، نگاره نمادین، گاه نگاری نسبی، خراسان جنوبی
  • عاطفه عبدالسلامی* صفحات 61-68

    منسوجات به عنوان یکی از نیازهای اساسی بشر و یکی از اختراعات پرکاربرد او، در طول تاریخ به شکل های مختلفی ارائه شده اند که در سه بخش تاریخی، تکنیکی و شیمیایی قابل مطالعه و بررسی هستند. از ابتدای اختراع دوک نخ ریسی در دنیای باستان تا قرن حاضر، علاوه بر نحوه و کیفیت بافت و نوع مواد مورد استفاده، فرهنگ و جغرافیای هر منطقه عواملی تاثیرگذار در چگونگی شکل گیری انواع مختلف پارچه هستند. از این روی، می توان این گونه نتیجه گرفت که انواع خاصی از منسوجات در دنیا، معرف و مولفه منطقه خاص جغرافیایی متعلق به آن هستند که در مناطق دیگر، شناخته نشده و مورد استفاده قرار نمی گیرند. در پژوهش حاضر، سعی شده است تا با استفاده از روش تحقیق کتاب خانه ای و مطالعه اسناد مربوطه، دو نوع مختلف از شنل های پرزدار مورد استفاده در قرون وسطی در کشورهای شمالی قاره اروپا، با نام های رایا و شاگی -که تاکنون کم تر در کانون توجه محققین قرار گرفته بوده اند- معرفی و تشریح گردند. پژوهش حاضر، به دنبال پاسخ گویی به این پرسش هاست: مبدا تاریخی و کاربرد این منسوجات خاص چیست؟ روش بافت شنل پرزدار شاگی چگونه است؟ و چرا این شنل دارای ارزش بیش تری از نظر دینی است؟ جامعه آماری این مقاله، برخی از معروف ترین شنل های پرزدار به جای مانده در کلیساها و موزه های مختلف جهان است که آن ها را با نمایش شنل های پرزدار در شش اثر مهم هنری قرون وسطی و رنسانس تطبیق داده است. پژوهش پیش رو، این دستاوردهای مهم تاریخ پارچه را در دو بخش مطالعات تاریخی و تکنیکی، مورد بررسی قرار داده و در نهایت، به تشریح بازسازی یکی از انواع گوناگون این منسوجات پرداخته است؛ تا از این طریق، بتواند علاوه بر جامع بودن مطالعات، افق های جدیدی برای پژوهشگران رشته های ذی ربط ایجاد کند. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، به رابطه مستقیم تولید شنل های پرزدار و تعالیم دینی اشاره دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: شمال اروپا، منسوجات، شنل، پرزدار
  • فاطمه محمدی ماکلوانی*، فهیمه دانشگر صفحات 69-82

    رابط کاربری، واسط میان کاربر و ماشین است؛ به گونه ای که ابزار مورد استفاده را قابل فهم و آشنا پذیر می نماید. در این پژوهش، سعی شده است، تا براساس تعریف طراحی رابط کاربری و نیز معیارهای ارزیابی یک رابط کاربری چندمنظوره، به این پرسش پاسخ دهیم که تا چه میزان این معیارها در سامانه های آنلاین فروش موزه های هنر معاصر رعایت شده است؟ متناسب با این پرسش، به صورت موردی سامانه آنلاین فروش بلیت موزه گوگنهایم نیویورک و نیز موزه ژرژ پمپیدو مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرارگرفته اند. این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات کتاب خانه ای و نیز با استفاده از تجزیه خطی ساختار سامانه و ارزیابی معیارهای به دست آمده بر روی نمونه های اصلی بوده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که، سامانه آنلاین فروش بلیت موزه هنرهای معاصر گوگنهایم و ژرژ پمپیدو، علاوه بر این که طراحی مطلوبی را دارا هستند، رابط کاربری قابل درکی را جهت فروش بلیت ایجاد کرده اند. تنها به علت به روز نبودن محتوایی همگام با برنامه های موزه و در نتیجه، عدم اطلاع رسانی مناسب به مخاطبان، رابط کاربری ناکاملی دارند. وجود سامانه های جانبی از قبیل نمایشگاه 360 درجه یا پیش نمایش صندلی سینما و...، هم چنین، استفاده از پیکتوگرام و راهنماهای تصویری، می تواند در ارتقای آن ها نقش به سزایی داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: رابط کاربری، موزه هنرهای معاصر گوگنهایم نیویورک، مرکز فرهنگی و هنری ژرژ پمپیدو، سامانه آنلاین فروش بلیت موزه
  • فاطمه مسیبی دهکردی*، اردشیر آخوندی صفحات 83-94

    استان چهارمحال و بختیاری با دارا بودن فرهنگ و پیشینه ای کهن در طول تاریخ، از جایگاه ویژه ای برخوردار است. وجود برخی دیدگاه ها و اعتقادات در میان مردم منطقه، حلقه های پیوسته با آیین ها و ادیان باستانی نظیر «کیش مهر» را یافته است. این نوع دیدگاه ها در قالب افسانه ها و داستان های محلی متبلور می شوند. نکته قابل توجه اینکه شکل گیری اسطوره ها و افسانه ها، مستلزم مکانی اسرارآمیز و باستانی نظیر غار است، که غارهایی نظیر «پیرغار» و غار«آقاسیدعیسی» در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری نمونه های بارز این واقعه، گشته اند. هدف از انجام این پژوهش موردی، شناخت ریشه های اعتقادی این دو مکان تاریخی -که مورد تقدس مردم منطقه هستند- می باشد. لذا، این تحقیق موردی برپایه روش توصیفی-تحلیلی سامان یافته و گردآوری داده ها از طریق کتاب خانه ای و میدانی) مشاهده ، مصاحبه و مستندنگاری، حاصل شده اند و نتایج حاکی از آن است که ریشه های عمیقی از آیین مهر و مقدسات آن در فرهنگ مردمان منطقه چهارمحال و بختیاری وجود دارند و این اعتقادات در قالب نوین و با شکلی منطبق با دین اسلام، به حیات خود ادامه می دهند و تقدس آنها کماکان حفظ گردیده است. هم چنین حضور عناصری نظیر غار و پیر یا بزرگی به نام سید، نقاط مشترک افسانه های این دو غار با مهر یا میترا در آیین مهر شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: چهارمحال و بختیاری، غار، پیرغار، غارآقاسیدعیسی، آیین مهر
  • جمال الدین مهدی نژاد، علی شرقی، فائزه اسدپور* صفحات 95-106
    استفاده از چوب در طول تاریخ نقش به سزایی در بخش سازه و تزیینات بناهای دوره صفوی و قاجاری داشته است که در شکل گیری معماری بناهای تاریخی روستای ییلاقی کپ از جمله خانه منصوری و مقصودی نیز، ساخت آثار چوبی زیبا و پرکار، همراه با تکنیک های متنوع تزیینی در سقف ، تیر و ستون ها، در و پنجره و نرده های چوبی و نقوش به کار رفته در آن ها مشاهده شده است؛ لذا این پرسش ها مطرح است، تزیینات چوبی، طرح ها و نقاشی روی چوب در خانه های روستای کپ چیست؟ و مطابقت طرح و نقوش تزیینات چوبی در بناهای همان روستا با یک دیگر و با تزیینات وابسته به معماری بناهای دوره صفویه و قاجاریه چگونه است؟ این پژوهش، که از نوع تفسیری-تاریخی می باشد، با بررسی های میدانی و جمع آوری اطلاعات از تزیینات چوبی به کار رفته در خانه منصوری و مقصودی و مطابقت آن با تزیینات بناهای دوره قاجار و صفوی بخش های مرکزی و شمالی ایران این نتیجه حاصل شد: تزیینات به کار رفته در دو بنای مورد مطالعه، توسط معماران، نجاران و سازندگان، ابداع نشده است؛ بلکه از طریق تصاویر دیده شده از بناهای دوره صفوی و قاجاری و دید و بازدید های صورت گرفته از آن ها در حین سفر، از سبک تزییناتی آن ها الگوبرداری شده و مجددا، در دو بنای مورد مطالعه بازنمایی شده است. لذا، از آن جایی که، تلفیق این نوع از سبک هنری و تزیینی با معماری، دارای یک تداوم و پایداری از دوره صفوی تا قاجاری بوده است، توانسته یک پل ارتباطی قوی، بین هنر و معماری گذشته حال و آینده، برقرار سازد و بر ارزش و اهمیت تاریخی دو بنای مورد مطالعه این پژوهش بیافزاید.
    کلیدواژگان: تزیینات چوبی، روستای کپ، دوره قاجاریه، دوره صفویه
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  • KH. Asadollahi *, R. Aliani Pages 7-16
    Art of sculpture making is to meet the needs of the people. Sculptures can be in the form of promoting culture or addressing urban concerns. The sculptures help to identify the city and are displayed in accordance with the general culture of the area; therefore, they convey the cultural concepts of that community and, visually, play the role of beautifying the city. The origins of these concepts go back to the culture and ideology of the peoples of that land; therefore, to achieve these profound cultural concepts, one must decode the symbolic sculptures. To this end, the science of semiotics must be used because through it you can find the statues’ cultural, historical, mystical codes. The sculpture is an esoteric language of architects who crystallize their thoughts in the form of symbolic objects. Sculptures are the elements by which the identity of the city is organized and, consequently, the mental process of the audience, and in addition to the aesthetic function of the social identity of a land. The sculptures, as visual art, in addition to the aesthetic dimension, have the capacity to reflect valuable cultural, mythological historical concepts; semiotic science must be used to obtain these layers. Semiotics is a systematic study of signs to get the meaning. This study benefiting from descriptive-analytical method along with library references aims to study the semiotics of the main squares of Rasht, including Municipality Square, Main Square, Golsar Square, Heshmat Square and Mother Square. In this study, the authors look at the semantics of the sculptures to understand the implicit layers of the symbols and look at their mythological, cultural, historical, and ritual backgrounds. The results show that the statues are not coincidentally created, but rather rooted in the myths and cultures and arts of the people of Guilan, and have always served their mythological, historical, cultural, customs in accordance with the living environment. In the mythical section, there is a horse-fish hybrid statue. Horse is an animal that has always been associated with water as a fertilizing force in myths, and through its mythical function it has always maintained its sanctity among various cultures, including Guilan. In the statue, the horse is combined with fish. Fish is a symbol of life and fertility that complements the horse's sign because both of these are signs of rebirth and in direct relation to water, their identity is formed. In another context there is a horse-fish statue precisely, Neptune. In Greek mythology, Neptune is the god of water and patron of the horse, and fish are always present next to his chariot. In the historical part, the statue of Dr. Heshmat and the statue of Mirza Kouchak Khan Jangali the militant clergyman are seen evolving this heroic pattern with a horse (which symbolizes courage). In general, the historical background of the Guilan people showed their spirit of resistance and warfare, including Gil and Deilam resistance to the Arab invasion. Similarly, the Russian attack on Guilan can be pointed out that at the same time the political movement of the forest movement was formed to defend the land of Guilan. In the cultural section there is also a reference to the culture of reading and studying in Rasht, where the book is on the trunk of the tree. The tree is a symbol of fertility and resurrection and life; precisely the same role that the book plays, because it is the fertilizer of the human spirit, the spirit that drives the human being from the lower world to the upper world. In another context, female sculptures represent Guilan customs and represent a function of traditional society. Some of the statues of the Rasht squares show that women have other abilities, including production, agriculture, etc. in addition to the role of parenting, and a large part of the agricultural workforce plays an effective role. These statues are, in fact, small dimensions of the real issues of the hard working women of Guilan as the independent women who produce and sell products in the fresh food and vegetables Bazaars, and thus, along with men earn their living.
    Keywords: Landmark, Sculpture, squares of Rasht
  • N. Jamali, E. Afzaltousi * Pages 17-26

    Body language and non-verbal communication play a significant role in human communications. All human beings send messages through their body and receive them from others in the process of communication, whether intentionally or unintentionally. The body language which connects the transmitter of a visual message to the one receives it, is more influential than words on the audience. Body language in advertising can communicate complex meanings to consumers that go beyond the obvious, straightforward meaning of the perceived advertisement. The initial perception of a product or service is strongly related to the non-verbal elements that the consumer receives from images in advertising, and this initial perception forming before the actual experience would affect interactions and decisions of the consumer. Understanding and applying different aspects of body language is therefore an important step in producing and improving an advertisement. Since the deregulation the use of celebrities in advertising in recent years in Iran, making use of images of celebrities and prominent figures in publicity has grown sharply, seeing familiar faces on billboards and magazines and social media every day. Adherence to the principles of body language in such advertisements which attract the attention of scores of audiences figures prominently. As a large amount of money is paid for celebrity endorsement ads, not adhering to certain principles such as body language, may lead to keeping the audience away from that product or service and ultimately not producing the desired result. The purpose of this study is to clarify the importance of body language in advertisements and answer the question of what is the use of body language in advertising. Analyzing examples of contemporary Iranian advertising, the present study seeks to answer the question of whether the body language of human subjects has been successful or not. The research has been carried out on advertisements in which celebrities have been used. This is a descriptive-analytical study that has been conducted based on field experiment and desk research methods. For this purpose, first the general concepts of body language and its various elements have been discussed. In the following, the body language of human subjects has been discussed in several examples of Iranian celebrity advertisements (sports stars, actors, and artists) which have been collected from billboards in Tehran. From 182 Iranian ads reviewed in the years between 2016 and 2018, seven samples were purposefully selected and analyzed in order to explain the importance of body language in advertising. Studying facial expressions, eye contact, body position and gestures of the human subjects in these examples showed that in most of the cases, the principles of body language have not been used properly in the creation of the advertisement. In some cases, there were fake facial expressions or gestures, and in some others, there were a contradiction between the subject's body language and the message of the advertisement. Lack of contact between the human subject and the product and also subject's body language incompatibility with the advertising slogan were the other problems which have been identified. In the meantime, several successful examples of using body language in Iranian and foreign advertising have been provided and analyzed. Without a doubt, the obtained results cannot be generalized to all works in this field; however the results may be useful in evaluating the overall trend of celebrity use in advertising. Overall, it appears that in most of these ads, the main focus has been on the celebrity presence in the ad that the body language and the importance of using it in conveying the message to the audience have been ignored. Given that the use of celebrity faces in advertising and commercials is relatively new, there seems to be insufficient awareness and shallow knowledge with regard to the use of body language in advertisements or it may be overlooked. Coordinated and skillful use of movements and gestures, body posture, facial expressions and eye contact are necessities of an advertisement that encourage the viewer to buy the product or use the service, and nonconformity of body language can lead to misunderstanding and distraction. In addition, it appears quite unprofessional. Therefore, it is recommended to pay more attention to this subject in designing and executing advertising campaigns so as to increase advertising effectiveness.

    Keywords: Body Language, Non-verbal Communication, Advertisements, Celebrities
  • A. Dadvar, B. Atabati * Pages 27-36
    From ancient times and over thousands of years, mud bricks and walls have been subject to erosion and destruction. Now, from the remnants of large cities that have been inhabited for centuries, there is nothing left just the soil. These archology arches or hills are remnants of ruined buildings that have historically been built on ancient artifacts. Human have been made immortalized their desires, beliefs and ideas in the form of carving, stone-carving, sculpture, stone writing, memorial pillars, etc. from long times ago. Creating reliefs is one of the traditions that rulers of the time have used to immortalize their ideas. The emperors of the two ancient civilizations of ancient Assyria and Rome expected their high status in their favorite works, such as war and hunting, to be specified and recorded in precise and inaccurate terms, and to intensify the same feeling of wondering in newcomers. In fact, the reliefs are the leaves of the illustrated history, culture and art book, which have many ideas inside. Until today, all their concepts have not been properly understood. They are valuable historical monuments that not only provide researchers with valuable information on the art styles of the time, but also provide valuable data in research and studies. Many ways of expression, techniques and views of art that are influenced by the social, economic, cultural and religious conditions of their time in each era can be understood and blended with the personal and national taste of the artist. Overall, the purpose of this research was to emphasize the visual values of the two reliefs of the battle of the Tal Taba and the pillar of Trajan, the similarities, differences, quality of the drawing and decorations and to coordinate them with the reliefs and the impact of historical viewpoints on the quality of the works. In this historical-analytical research using library method, information has been collected by historical-documentary method. Also, using the available texts and authoritative sources on the two reliefs, the works are categorized and analyzed based on a comparative approach. One of the central questions of this paper is, can a comparative approach and an in-depth look at the content and artistic essence of these two reliefs succeed in understanding the relationship between narrative concepts and the historical reality of the time, albeit on a limited scale? Secondly, how has historicism, along with realism, been the ornament of the two reliefs of the battle of Tal Taba and the Trajan pillar?  And lastly, what is the difference between the way Assyrians and Greeks look at the real scenes and the conflict of the war in the reliefs of the Battle of Tal Taba and the Trajan Column, due to their experiences and abilities?  The findings of the study indicate that, in the delicate reliefs of the Trajan memorial column, a completely different approach is used, and we see another type of realism, not transparent visual realism, but rather an anatomical documentary realism that prefers the conceptual truth to the obvious truth. The conceptual approach in these reliefs allows the artist to present complex scenes with some subtlety. The Romans' passion for real-life narratives is also more akin to that of the Assyrians than to the Greeks.  And the most important feature of a relief in which the whole is formed on this basis is the existence of powerful centers, which is the main pillar. This feature is well visible in the Assyrian reliefs and the Trajan column. These reliefs are of particular importance because they predict the end of one period and the beginning of the next.  Finally, it can be concluded that all the measures that the Assyrians have applied in their narrative reliefs, the Romans have applied the same principles and measures again in centuries to their reliefs.
    Keywords: Tal Taba, Ashurbanipal, Trajan Column, Traianus
  • S. Seyedmousavi *, B. Zangi Pages 37-46

    Valuing and purchasing visual artistic works such as painting is due to the aesthetic perception of people which depends on both factors of form as well as style and technique and it also needs the basic visual culture and knowledge. By culture and cultural capital, we mean cultural consumption which is formed by cultural requirements of the audiences, those requirement which based on Bourdieu researches are the product of the environment and people's nourishment and are in direct relationship with the education as well as training and unlike basic needs which are internal, they have been developed. Considering the measure of people's consumption and their tendencies to attain the cultural capital‚ we need to know artistic tastes and talents of them. On the other hands‚ during these years‚ lots of changing tastes and talents like people's visual taste has been occurred in social and cultural fields in Iran. As far as it can be said that Bourdieu's classifications of tastes field has not been matched with current society and it seems that we cannot consider art as main works and rough core of culture in Iran. Based on being equipped with special symbolic code and having a special kind of cultural capital‚ we need to find out the valuation of painting as common art as music‚ sculpture‚ theater and literature in Bourdieu's classification. In spite of education democratization policy in Iran and access to long term educations‚ it is not easy to access the enjoyment of common taste in practice‚ so artists‚ art students‚ and some groups who have been raised in their family and artistic environment are all the fan of common art. The taste field sociologists such as Bourdieu believe that people's taste‚ education‚ and talents‚ are sociable totally and achieved as a result of the social process through education‚ family education and the habits that a person has acquired throughout life. The Bourdieu's view experiences exposure to art work is not as a love at first glance‚ and the activity of sympathizing and being accompany with art has shaped with the assumption based on recognizing and long term education. Purpose of this research is studying effective factors in Iranian contemporary painting works purchase in which it displays kind of cultural consumption. Other factors that are considered in this article‚ include economic‚ social‚ and personal capitals. This research applies a descriptive-explanatory technique to gain some variables from the available literature as well as previous measurements. Through forming them in a conceptual module, it is tried to confirm the relationships among the variables through using questionnaires and its complement, i.e. interviews and finally Confirmatory Factor Analysis Test. Finally the ultimate model is supplied through explanation and equation. According to this model, factors like structural ones (social structure) which affect mutually and significantly the economic and cultural factors are the most influential factors in the purchase and consumption of the artistic works. Also the social capital which is to somehow the result and consequence of the social structure is influenced greatly by the two-sided relationship with the cultural factor. Cultural factor also includes the variables of cultural capital, artistic professional processes and some human development factors such as the amount of study, education and so on. According to the findings of the social structure factor, the economic as well as social capital factors are deeply influence and are affected by one another. On the other hand, the cultural factor has a two-sided relationship with economic factor which includes economic profit and business and investment motivations and is influenced by the economic macro criteria such as inflation rate and income per capita. Therefore, some interconnected policy-making, governmental and structural variables and factors affect greatly the economic, social as well as cultural parameters and factors. The inclination and interest affect the purchase and consumption of the artistic works, paintings in particular and in order to improve the situation of purchase and develop this art, these relationships need special attention and more study. Studying the relationships between the factors and variables and also the way they affect or get affected along with the interaction among them can be the issue of the future studies and the basic for audiences' sociological analyses as well as the economy of painting.

    Keywords: Contemporary Painting of Iran, Artistic Taste, Art Consumption, Cultural Capital, social capital, Social Construction
  • S. Sadeghi *, H. Ghobani Pages 47-60

    The primitive man painted the wall of the caves and rocks by depicting his beliefs and taking advantage of their living environment. These motifs have been a way of conveying messages and thoughts and a means of expressing human dreams and fears. For this reason, sculptures are one of the oldest artifacts found in the world that tell a great deal about the life and customs of our ancestors. The creators of this art have painted these engravings and paintings that express their beliefs and beliefs and myths, but today we are not among the creators of these artworks to ask what their purpose was to create these works. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify a number of prominent motifs in South Khorasan province and to compare them with other symbolic artifacts found in Iran, which in part, have achieved the symbolic meaning of these motifs that came from the secrets of human beings before us. We have studies of carvings are of great importance in two ways: 1) The distribution and number of carvings and paintings throughout the world, 2) The direct connection of these motifs with the lives of the people of the past. Therefore, in the studies of petroglyph of Iran, only these paintings have been studied and introduced and it is noteworthy that among these motifs, only animal motifs have been analyzed. And the symbolic motifs remain still unknown. Therefore, recording and studying the symbolic motifs in Southern Khorasan province in completing the studies of petroglyphs of Iran is very important since it is comparable to other parts of the country. The beliefs of past peoples living in this region have been discovered with motifs. In the geographical area of this research, South Khorasan, out of the twenty areas, 14 sites have been discovered with symbolic motifs; the carvings on this province have been discussed. Indicative locations that contain the motifs are the Folklore: Bijayem, Tangel Estad, Dudameh, Makhunik, Ramangan 1, Khuzan, Daldel Lach, Aso, Kafar Kuh, Chaharmahal Lach, Mount Gerdokchak, Nakhlistan and Kal Hessina. The research method was library and field research. At first, the field method identified the areas. Then, all the landscapes were photographed in different directions. Then, the design of the motifs was done using Corel software. In the library method, all the symbolic motifs have been studied, studied and compared with other motifs found elsewhere in Iran. Then, an analysis of the factors influencing the formation of motifs in specific areas has been included in the field of anthropology and ethnography, and finally, a suggested chronology for each site has been included; a review of documents, historical texts, and backgrounds of studies was also used. A total of 210 symbolic and geometric patterns were found in South Khorasan Province, each representing a specific meaning. Symbolic paintings are, in fact, a common language that depicts the values and beliefs of people of ancient times. In the exponential art of stone carvings in the province, the painter has created the motifs with simplicity, without any ornament, indicating that, despite their settling, hunting or farming life, they came from some sort of unconscious belief and ritual. The inscriptions are petroglyph-style motifs, both individually and collectively. The existence of early roles and their execution on one another, as well as the later inscriptions, suggest that the depiction of this precious stone has continued from time immemorial to years later, and each language has its creators. Therefore, it is noteworthy that these motifs are comparable and comparable to other motifs found in and outside Iran. The cryptography of these people in the creation of the motifs is quite evident, and with these works they have revealed a word about their needs. Deciphering these works is possible by a careful examination of the ancient needs, early rituals, mythology and ancient speculation. Designed as sacred places, these motifs were spell-bound and used to worship natural gods; drawing them depicts man's beliefs and needs; he contemplates measures to protect against natural disasters, they have been resorting to these pictures.

    Keywords: Petroglyphs, Symbolic Picture, relative chronology, South Khorasan
  • A. Abdolsalami * Pages 61-68

    Textiles are presented in various ways as one of the basic human needs and also one of his most important and most applicable inventions which can be studied in three parts: historical, technical and chemical. From the beginning of the spinning invention in the ancient world to the present century, in addition to the techniques, texture and quality of used materials, the culture and geography of each region are influential factors in how different types of fabric are formed and designed. Hence, it is an obvious fact that certain types of textiles in the world are presented by the particular geographic region that are not known and used in other regions. During Medieval era everything in Western societies such as culture, art, economics, etc. was given to the Christian religion and the church. In museums around the world can find a variety of artifacts, including medieval surviving fabrics that have appeared in a purely religious approach to symbolism. In most cases, the difference between fabrics has been manifested in the field of symbolism; but in Northern Europe, the difference between fabrics is not merely symbols and techniques; but because of their particular geographical location and cold weather, historically, people in these areas have provided the world with certain fabrics whose main purpose was to protect the body from the cold, and is still used by the inhabitants of this areas today. In this study, it is assumed that these textiles were used only to protect the body against cold and that it is of great value because of its use in religious doctrines. In the present study, we have tried to use library research method and related documents to introduce and describe various types of pile cloak used in medieval in the northern European countries, which have not been the focus of attention for textile researchers so far. This paper seeks to answer these questions: What is the historical origin and application of these particular textiles? How is the weaving method of shaggy fluffy cloak? And why is it more religiously valuable? The statistical population of this study is the most famous woolen shawls left in various churches and museums around the world, matching them with shown fluffy cloak in six major artworks from the Medieval Era and the Renaissance. For the first time between 1950 and 1980 many researchers and archaeologists like Henshall, Guðjónsson and Schlabow studied textiles discovered in northern Europe from the middle Ages, including the Netherlands, Iceland, and Scotland, and referred to fluffy textiles.Historical studies have confirmed the presence of these textiles from the tenth and eleventh centuries. Fluffy fabrics have different types, but they consist of two general groups: the first group is textiles on which the lint is sewn on them and the lint and fabric are separated. In the second group, lint is part of the fabric texture, the most important of which is the Shaggy. All of the medieval Shogi textiles, except the two which mentioned in this article, have been lost throughout history, and today there are only a handful of books and archives left. In this study, we identified and cited 7 examples cited in various sources. The leading essay examines these important achievements of fabric history in two sections of historical and technical studies, and finally outlines the reconstruction of one of a variety of these textiles in order to create new horizons for researchers in related fields. These textile in Medieval and Renaissance art, as the famous Saint of John the Baptist, has been exhibited many times in sculptures and paintings. This fluffy cloak is a special outfit of this saint and somehow represents him in the field of semiotics. The results of this study indicate a direct relationship between the production of fluffy cloak and religious teachings.

    Keywords: Northern Europe, Textiles, cloak, fluffy
  • F. Mohammadi Maklavani *, Fahimeh Daneshgar Pages 69-82

    User interface is an interface between user and machine which makes tools under application capable of being understood and known. User interface is considered as those parts of a tool which may be observed and touched by users or typically its appearance, with which the user directly deals. In other words, a desirable user interface provides a condition for easy transfer of what the user intends, to the computer. In the research, effort has been made to answer the following question upon several criteria mentioned thereafter: “To what extent these criteria have been observed in online sales systems of contemporary arts museums, as one of the most important economic online portals for such cultural and artistic complexes?” Aforementioned criteria include: stability, simplicity and clarity, graphic and combination of colors, using alerting messages and signals, flexibility, conclusiveness, not surprising the user, considering vision, frankness (power of selecting and decision making), not forcing the user to excessive mental workload, Shneiderman’s Eight Golden Rules, Nielsen and Molich’s Ten User Interface Design Guidelines and globalization of user interface design. To answer the question, online ticket sales systems of Guggenheim Art Museum (New York), and Center Georges Pompidou (Paris) have been analyzed, as a case study. Center Georges Pompidou is a cultural and artistic institute in Paris, established in 1977 and named after French president. The gallery is considered as the world’s largest contemporary art museum. The center includes “National museum of modern art”, “Industrial design center”, and “Administration office of cultural development”. Artistic and cultural exhibitions are always holding there, as well. The two other important organizations i.e. “Reference public library” and “The foundation for music and acoustic research and coordination” is also a part of this center. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum is one of the famous museums in New York City, established in 1937. The museum was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, great American architect and interior designer. Both of the museums are from among the world’s most superior and famous contemporary art museums. As a result, they attract visitors and have audiences from all over the world. In the paper and recognizing user interface and some criteria to evaluated user interface in a system with consideration of high volume of addressees in these museums, user interface of ticketing system in these two museums would be studied, in addition to the point that how much concerned principles and criteria have been observed in designing their website? This applied research is considered as an analytical-descriptive research in terms of method. Library method of data collection has been used, as well as linear decomposition of the system structure; and, obtained criteria have been evaluated on the prototype. The results show that online ticket sales systems in both Guggenheim Art Museum (New York), and Center Georges Pompidou (Paris) are not only of very good graphic design; but also, they have created a simple and understandable user interface for communication and ticket sales. However, their user interfaces is incomplete; because, no updated content matching up to the museum’s programs is available, which results in lack of appropriate information provided to the audience. In fact, lack of appropriate pictures for each exhibition –to provide for better visual separation- is considered as one of the most important weakness points for both of the systems. Also, the systems could have been promoted and capable of attracting more audiences, if they would have been made available some side systems such as 360˚ virtual tours, cinema seat preview, pictograms, etc.

    Keywords: user interface, Guggenheim Art Museum of New York, Center Georges Pompidou in Paris, online ticket sales system of museum
  • F. Mosayebi Dehkordi *, A. Akhondi Pages 83-94

    The province of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari bears a special position by virtue of its cultural and ancient background. The existence of some attitudes and beliefs among the people of this area has links with ancient rites and religions like Mehr ritual. The locations which are referred to the lords with religion themes in Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari Province are a lot to find. These locations in local phrase with suffix and prefix are called “Pir” like Pir Baloot, Pir Mohammad, Pir Shah, Phir Chenar, Sar Pir, Pir-E-Ghar, etc. Some are called as “Baba” like Baba Gerdaloo, Baba Pirahmad, etc. Also they use the term “Mir” like Mir Heidar Shah, Mirmelas, etc. “Shah” is used in some words like Shah Mansoory and Shah Zadeabdolah. We have tried to find out the pronunciation roots started about these titles’ roots like “Baba” and “Pir” in religions before Islam. There was a kind of mysticism in the pre-Islamic era of Mehr worship, the last of which was aging. In Sufi mysticism, this rank, the rank and position of the elder, has maintained its last place, albeit the highest, in the place of poems and poems from the early Islamic ages referring to the old and the old way. Among many of his sonnets, Hafez Shirazi is reminiscent of the old position in Sufism. In the culture of the people of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari, one of the good endings that the elders and elders wish for the younger is getting older. This is an indication of the value it gives to that person. As mentioned, these values are deeply rooted in the culture of the people in ancient rituals, and the purpose of this study is to identify the religious roots of the two "Pirghar" and "Aghaseyed Issa" caves and ideological aspects of their region. 
    Mehr ceremonies usually had to take place in caves. These caves represented the arch of heaven. There must have been some blue water near or within these natural temples. But in cities or plains they built these temples in the basement, similar to caves. The temple reached the ground with the help of a long staircase. These temples did not use outside light and had no windows. Sometimes the stairs would lead to a room-where their followers would prepare for worship-and then from there into the main courtyard. The temple arch was decorated like the night sky. Inside the temple were two rows of platforms in Dosu, and between the two rows of platforms, there was the courtyard of the temple where the ceremony was taking place, and the onlookers were seated on benches beside the platforms. Also, according to local elders, the area was lit by fire or candlestick.
    Although Islamic in nature, their ideological aspects go back to pre-Islamic times and ancient religions such as Mehr worship. Because of the Arab invasion, many sacred sites, such as fireplaces and temples have been demolished or converted into mosques. The two mentioned caves have also taken on a new form of preservation in the Islamic era to continue their sacred life. The purpose of this case study is to identify the belief-related roots of these two historical locations which are considered holy by the local people. To this end, this case study is based on a descriptive-analytic method with the data being collected through library and field studies such as observations, interview and documentations. The results indicate that there are deep roots of the Mehr ritual and its sanctity in the culture of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari’s people and that these beliefs continue to live in a modern shape matched with Islam and are stilled deemed holy. Also, the existence of elements like caves and the old wise man named “Seyed” are common fieds with Mehr and Mitra in fables about these two caves.

    Keywords: Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari, Cave, Pir-E-Ghar, Aghaseyed Issa Cave, Mehr Ritual
  • J. Mahdi Nejad, A. Sharghi, F. Asadpour * Pages 95-106
    Prior to iron, wood has been one of the most utilized materials in traditional Iranian architecture. Wood has always played a significant role in the structures and decorations of buildings in the Safavid and Qajar period. Wood has been used in many ways in accordance with the ecological, cultural, economic, political and climatic conditions of the area in which it is located. This material has been very influential in the formation of the monuments of the village of Kop (located 45 km from the county of Noor) thanks to its massive forests. Using a variety of decorative techniques, the beautiful and prolific wooden works of art are used on the ceiling, beams and columns, doors and windows, wooden fences and motifs. We can see some of these decorations at Mansouri and Maghsoudi houses. However, the cultural heritage officials have neglected to support such buildings, despite being aware of the existence and valuable potential of the monuments of this village with a period of more than one and a half years old. Natural factors, the passage of time, and the change in the lifestyle of the owners, have also affected the structure of old houses and led to the destruction of old houses and the construction of new ones. The appearance of new houses is not in line with the appearance and architecture of the village, and it lacks any artistic taste and specific environmental, regional and organic features. The construction of new houses has brought about the destruction of these valuable buildings. Therefore, in order to inform art lovers, researchers and high-rank officials of the existence of such a village in the region and its preservation and the necessity of carrying out more extensive studies and research on these monuments, it is necessary to carry out this research. So, we have to ask the following questions: 1. What are the wooden decorations, designs and paintings on the wood in the houses of the village of Kop? Do these decorations fit in different buildings in the same village or with decorations of Safavid and Qajar era buildings in central and northern parts of Iran? What are the similarities? This is an analytical-historical research. Considering the importance of the topic, the method of data collection is based on field and library studies. Therefore, by conducting field studies, the authors sought to collect raw data and standard documentation including: visual, written, audio and oral history of the two historic houses studied and the historical monuments of the Qajar and Safavid periods of central and northern parts of Iran (provinces: Mazandaran, Gorgan, East Azarbaijan, Tehran and Isfahan). The studied monuments include Moezzadin Mosque, Aqajan Nasab Qajari House, Haj Mehdi Sultan's House, Sardar Jalili House, Afghannejad House, Ameri Mansion, Saheb-Qaraniyeh Palace. The results of the survey of these buildings have shown that there are similarities and conformances in wooden decorations, designs and geometric patterns used in the structural and non-structural parts of the interior and exterior spaces of the two buildings and mentioned structures. These similarities include the pattern of roof beam framing and the planks between it, the designs drawn on them, Lionhead sculpture under the ceiling especially in the four corners below the ceiling in the middle rooms and Shahneshins of the second floors, the designs on the windows and doors, as well as the Orosis used in the Shahneshins and other interior spaces of the building. In outer spaces, this correspondence was found in the way of roof beam framing and the planks between them, the designs and motifs used in the ending parts of the wooden beams below the roof of the gable all around the building, and under the ceiling of the terraces of the second floors. In addition, the design of the capitals on the porch and the wooden fences used in the terraces of the two buildings also corresponded exactly. The architects, carpenters and builders of the two monuments in question did not invent the similarity and conformity of the aforementioned decorations, but they have copied the style of the decorations of the building of the Safavid and Qajar periods on their journeys, and represented them in the two monuments. Therefore, since the combination of this type of artistic and decorative style with architecture has had a continuity and stability from the Safavid to Qajar period, it has been able to establish a strong bridge between art and architecture of the present and future, add the value and historical significance to the two studied modules of this research.
    Keywords: Wooden Decorations, Kop village, Qajar Period, Safavid period