فهرست مطالب

Trends in Phytochemical Research - Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Satyajit D. Sarker *, Lutfun Nahar Pages 1-2

    Cannabinoids are synthetic, semisynthetic or natural organic molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and they have similar pharmacological properties as produced by the plant, Cannabis sativa L. .Of the 113 naturally occurring cannabinoids identified to date, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC or simply, THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two major cannabinoids, biosynthesized by C. staiva . While D9-THC is the main contributor to the psychoactive property of C. sativa, interestingly, the other major compound, CBD, possesses antipsychoactive property as well as other beneficial medicinal properties, because of which, this compound has been in the lime light for its potential pharmaceutical/medicinal and cosmeceutical applications. However, because of various legislative bottlenecks and restrictions regarding the use, sell and possession of Cannabis and Cannabis products including CBD have made difficult to its breakthrough in the market in many countries, especially in the UK.

    Keywords: Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabinoids, Cannabis, D9-THC, Pharmacological properties
  • Stevine Claudiale Popwo Tameye, Jean Claude Ndom *, Edwige Laure Nguemfo, Jean Duplex Wansi, Juliette Catherine Vardamides, Anatole Guy Blaise Azebaze Pages 3-8
    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Ficus exasperata Vahl. (Moraceae) led to the isolation of a new cinnamic acid derivative, named ficusanol (1) along with eleven known compounds: 3-(6-methoxybenzo[b]furan-5-yl)propenoic acid (2), bergapten (3), oxypeucedanin hydrate (4), marmesin (5), decursinol (6), aridanin (7), betulinic acid (8), maslinic acid (9), a mixture of stigmasterol (10) and β-sitosterol (11), and sitosteryl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12). The structures of the new compound as well as those of the known ones were established by the means of usual spectroscopic
    methods
    NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) data and HR-ESIMS data. Crude extract and compounds 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 were evaluated for their radical scavenging potency using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Accordingly, the compound 6 showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 = 25.10 ± 0.91 µg/mL, whereas the other compounds showed only moderate activity at high concentrations. Compounds 2, 6 and 7 were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activity among which the compound 7 exhibited a strong cytotoxic activity with a viability percentage of 3.5% on mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y.
    Keywords: antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity, Ficus exasperate, ficusanol, Moraceae, phytochemical analysis, Spectroscopic techniques
  • Reda Ahmed Abdelhamid, Alaa Mohamed Nafady, Mohamed Ezzat Abouelela, Hiroyuki Konno, Ehab Saad ElKhayat * Pages 9-16

    Endophytic fungi are a wealth of new bioactive metabolites with vast applications in drug discovery. The methyl alcohol extract obtained from the culture of the Phialophora verrucosa Medlar., the endophytic fungus of Senecio flavus (Asteraceae), was found to be cytotoxic to HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC50 of 20.01 and 28.44 μg/mL), respectively, compared to 5-flurouracil (IC50, 11.05 and 12.46). A chromatographic study led to the isolation of five polyketides; 3,6,7-trihydroxy-α-tetralone 1, 6-hydroxyisosclerone 2, 2,3-dihydro-8-hydroxy-2-methyl-benzopyran-1-one 3, altechromone A 4 and aloesol 5. Compounds 2, 4 and 5, are isolated for the first time from the genus Phialophora. Molecular docking analysis simulation was applied to evaluate the inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2), and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), to illuminate the compounds responsible for the extract cytotoxic activity. Compounds 1 and 5 showed promising results and binding affinities to the examined enzymes.

    Keywords: CDK, Molecular docking, Phialophora verrucosa, Polyketides, VEGFR2
  • Olubunmi Adenike Akinwunmi *, Damilola Kayode Adekeye, Sulaimon Adeoye Olagboye Pages 17-24
    Triclisia subcordata (Oliv) is a useful medicinal plant for the treatments of several diseases in South West, Nigeria. The methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the plant were investigated for the presence of phytochemicals, antioxidants, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities. The determination of the antioxidant potential of the plant extracts was achieved through evaluation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity (NOS), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The qualitative analysis results of the study indicated the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolics, tannin and saponin in Triclisia subcordata (Oliv) methanol extract (TRME), while only steroids, phenolics and flavonoids were detected in the Triclisia subcordata (Oliv) dichloromethane extract (TRDE). Methanol was seen to possess higher extraction capacity than dichloromethane. The quantitative determination of the extract showed that phenolics (593.7 ± 1.34) mg/100 g and flavonoids (192.6 ± 2.10) mg/100 g were more extractable in TRDE than TRME. The results showed that the plant extracts can be used to scavenge free radicals and hence, possess great antioxidant properties. It was also observed that theplantextracts possess a mild in-vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibiting activities. Thus, Triclisia subcordata (Oliv) may be used in the treatment and management of diabetes.
    Keywords: alfa-Amylase, Antioxidant, Diabetes, glucosidase, phytochemicals, Triclisia subcordata (Oliv)
  • Rashmi Lahiri *, Jyotshana A.K. Verma, Karuna Shanker, Raj Kishori Lal Pages 25-36

    Opium poppy(Papaver  somniferum L.), a member of family Papaveraceae is an important source of several benzylisoquinoline derived alkaloids known to the human race since the ancient civilizations for their therapeutic and narcotic values. In the present study a total number of 47 accessions/genotypes of Opium poppywere procured from various resources and screened for economic yield, variability, heritability, correlation and path coefficient. Among them G-18 was identified as highest seed yielding 10.45 g/plant, G-3 & G-6 (0.092%, 0.086%) as high morphine containing accessions. Maximum Genotypic Coefficient of Variance (GCV) recorded for papaverine content. The estimate of heritability in the broad sense was recorded higher side for morphine content (99.96%) and papaverine (99.85 %) while lower for days to 50% flowering (4.22%). The genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficient amongst codeine and thebaine content were found highly significant and positively associated with morphine content followed by narcotine content. The path coefficient analysis revealed that the highest direct contribution to seed yield was made by capsule straw yield (0.8730) followed by days to maturity (0.3758).

    Keywords: Accessions, Coefficient of variation, Correlation, opium poppy, Path analysis, Seed yield
  • Emmanuel Ojah *, Dorcas Olufunke Moronkola Pages 37-44
    Diabetes mellitus is a critical clinical condition characterized by hyperglycemia in which an accelerated amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This work attempts to evaluate the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of Pterocarpus soyauxii at varying concentrations. 1.0 kg of milled leaf sample was first soaked in 5 L of methanol to obtain a percentage yield of 12%. The assay was carried out using standard procedures. The following IC50 values were obtained in the α-amylase inhibition: 0.0395, 0.05995, and 0.0509 mg/mL for hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, respectively compared to the standard drug acarbos (0.00812 mg/mL). A dose-dependent increase in percentage inhibition was obtained for α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.052, 0.059, and 0.065 mg/mL for respective fractions compared to the standard drug used (0.0017 mg/mL). The hexane fraction showed the greatest percentage inhibition for both α-amylase and α-glucosidase, while appreciable inhibition activity was observed in other fractions. The Nigerian Pterocarpus soyauxii has been identified for the first time as a very potent anti-diabetic agent useful in management of postprandial hyperglycemia and related therapeutic interventions.
    Keywords: α-Amylase, α-glucosidase, Diabetes mellitus, Hyperglycemia, IC50, Pterocarpus soyauxii