فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Simeneh Tamrat Alemu *, Amsalu Gobena Roro Pages 1-11
    UV-B radiation and EOD light (EOD) quality has both signaling and damaging effects based on the dosage and time of exposure. At highland areas UV-B decreases crop productivity and also light quality increase at high elevation area but EOD light quality effect was not researched based on altitude. Therefore, in the present study a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of UV-B radiation, EOD light and its exclusion on growth performance and biomass accumulation of sweet potato cultivars on different altitude. The treatments consisting of UV-B exclusion, UV-B+ EOD light exclusion, + UV-B and (control) were studied on two sweet potato cultivars, Kulfo and Hawassa-83. The experimental design was laid out in split plot design with factorial combinations. According to the result, the highest UV-B radiation (1693.0 mw m-2 s-2) was recorded at highlands and the lowest (1107.1 mw m-2 s-2) was recorded at lowland areas. Also EOD light quality was low at lowland. Cultivar and altitude significantly affected growth and net assimilation rate but exclusion only affected growth rate. On dry weight accumulation, cultivar and altitude had high impact but exclusion affected tuber and specific leaf dry weight. Exclusion by cultivar interaction affected net-assimilation rate and specific leaf dry weight but exclusion by altitude interactions affected growth rate, net-assimilation rate and tuber dry weight. Altitude by cultivar doesn’t have any significant effect on growth performance but it has considerable effect on dry biomass accumulation. In conclusion, high UV-B at highland and low EOD time light quality at lowland negatively influenced growth performance and biomass of sweet potato cultivars
    Keywords: UV-B_UV-B + EOD_+ UV-B_altitude_Potato Cultivar
  • Abbas Fallah, S.Zahra Hosseini Cici * Pages 13-26

    Sustainable agriculture can increase the efficiency of resource utilization, provide longer productivity and create a balance in the environment. A field experiment was conducted to study the use of organic and chemical fertilizers on biomass, essential oil content and essential oil yield as well as chemical compositions of Dracocephalum polychaetum Burnm in the first and second cutting. The treatments were: broiler litter (1700 kg ha-1), cow manure (2500 kg ha-1), sheep manure (1700 kg ha-1), chemical fertilizer (110 kg ha-1) and control (no fertilizer) in three replications. The results showed that D. polychaetum was most responsive to application of broiler litter as compared with the other treatments. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis indicated that neral, geranial, geranyl acetate and α-pinene were the major chemical compounds of D. polychaetum in the both cuttings. In the first cutting the plants treated with sheep manure had the highest neral content (28.24%). The highest geranial content (26.85%) in the first cutting was recorded in plants amended with chemical fertilizer, without significant difference with broiler litter (26.36%). In the first cutting the greatest α-pinene (15.52%) content was observed in the control treatment without significant difference with broiler litter (15.09%). Unlike the first cutting, plant amended with cow manure had the maximum neral (23.89%) and geranial (29.27%) contents in the second cutting. The present study demonstrated that the application of organic manure improved essential oil content and quality and aroma profile of D. polychaetum.

    Keywords: Medicinal Herb, Essential oil, Geranial, Neral, organic production
  • Masoumeh Pourghorban, Pejman Azadi *, Shahab Khaghani, Abbas Mirzakhani, Mahdi Changizi, Behzad Edrisi Pages 27-36
    In the commercial production of roses, introducing a method to reduce the time of propagation with maximum success is crucial. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations (0, 1500, 3000, 4500 mg/L) of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on propagation of three cultivars of Rosa hybrid L. ('Dolce Vita', 'Samurai' and 'Utopia') by stenting (simultaneous cutting and grafting) method under greenhouse conditions. The cultivars were grafted onto Rosa hybrida L. 'Natal Briar' rootstock. The factorial experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The stentings were cultured in coco peat and perlite medium at 1:2 ratio in a greenhouse under mist system. After 60 days, the percentage of grafting, rooting percentage, root number, longest root length and fresh and dry weights of roots and shoot traits (including leaf number, shoot number, and longest shoot length) were determined on the stentings. The highest rate of rooting in Dolce Vita cultivar was obtained at 1500 mg/L IBA and in Samurai and Utopia cultivars at 4500 mg/L IBA. Among the three cultivars of roses, highest percentage of rooting (93.75%), healing percentage (93.75%), root length (12.47 cm), fresh weight (0.84 g) and dry weight (0.07 g) of roots were observed in stentings treated with 4500 mg/L of IBA in Rosa hybrida L. cv. Samurai. Interaction between IBA concentrations and cultivars on chlorophyll (a, b and total) and carotenoid contents were significant in all the three cultivars of roses.
    Keywords: Cutting-graft, Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), root, Rootstock, Roses
  • Raziyeh Robatjazi, Parto Roshandel *, Sa’Dollah Hooshmand Pages 37-50
    In the present study, improvement of salt tolerance in basil (as a salt-sensitive plant) was investigated through silicon (Si) nutrition. Basil plants were subjected to silicon (0, 3 mM) and salinity (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl) for a duration of one month. Salt stress significantly decreased the biomass of basil. Si supplement (3 mM) resulted in a considerable increase (averagely +135%) in the biomass of salinized plants. Salt stress significantly decreased photosynthetic pigments concentrations, but Si supplement improved total chlorophyll concentration (averagely up to +217% compared to salinized plants). This improvement in pigment concentrations also occurred for carotenoids content (+123%). Salinity increased lipid peroxidation and H2O2 level in the aerial parts of the basil plants, but Si decreased lipid peroxidation (-49.1%) and H2O2 content (-29%) under salinity condition. Results showed salinity (alone) or together with Si, increased the level of polyphenols and also the level of radical scavenging activities in the aerial parts of basil but this effect was much more in plants co-treated with Si and salinity. Si nutrition increased the activity of SOD, APX and GPX in response to salt stress, but it did not affect CAT activity. Overall, Si supplement could induce salt tolerance in basil plants by improving photosynthesis, membrane integrity, and detoxification of toxic radicals. Furthermore, silicon increased the medicinal properties of basil via elevating its antioxidant capacity under salt stress.
    Keywords: Ocimum basilicum, Polyphenols, Radical scavenging activity, Salt tolerance
  • Masoud Sharifkhah, Davood Bakhshi *, Mohammadreza Pourghayoumi, Soma Abdi, Hossein Hokmabadi Pages 51-58
    To obtain the best quality and quantity of pistachio fruits, knowing the most suitable time of pollination, is of paramount importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of pollination time, different stages of female flower development, including A (lower florets opened and clusters were green), B (lower and medial florets opened and clusters were green), C (all florets opened and clusters were light green), D (the stigma in the lowest florets was light pink), and E (the stigma in the lowest and medial florets was pink) on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of fruits in three pistachio cultivars (‘Ghermez Peste’, ‘Kal Khandan’, and ‘Kaleh Bozi’). Results showed that the highest yield in ‘GhermezPeste’ obtained when the manual pollination carried out at the stage that the cluster were green (early flowering period) while the highest yield In ‘KalKhandan’ and ‘KalehBozi’ were observed when the pollination carried out at the full bloom stage. The highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, and antioxidant activity of fruits observed when pollination carried out at the stage that lower florets opened and clusters were green. The Lowest amount of total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity were obtained in the fruits that pollination carried out in the stage that the stigma in middle and lower florets were pink. As a first step towards identifying the best time for manual pollination of pistachio trees, our results showed manual pollination in the suitable blooming stage led to higher yield and quality of pistachio nuts.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Blooming, flavonoid, Manual pollination, nut, Pistacia vera
  • Saeedeh Saeidi Tombegavani, Bahman Zahedi *, Sadegh MousaviFard, Ahmad Ahmadpour Pages 59-68

    In order to study the germination and growth of pepper seeds, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. The first factor was consisting of five cultivars of pepper (Marquiza, Cadia, California Wonder, California Wonder 310 and California Wonder 300) and the second factor was gibberellic acid with three levels (0 as control, 250 and 500 ppm), and the third factor was naphthalene acetic acid with three levels (0 as control, 50 and 100 ppm). The results showed that the highest germination percentage (89.9%- California-Wonder 310 cultivar), rate of germination (0.85- California-Wonder 310 cultivar), shoot height (95.99 mm- California Wonder 300 cultivar), shoot fresh weight (6.62 g- California Wonder 300 cultivar) root fresh weight (3.46g- California Wonder 300 cultivar), root length (15.85 cm- Marquiza cultivar), leaf length (5.36 cm-Cadia cultivar) and stem diameter (26.91mm- California Wonder 300 cultivar) were obtained from the concentration of 500 ppm GA3 and 100 ppm NAA. The maximum seed vigor index (749.6) was detected in 0 ppm GA3 and 100 NAA in California Wonder 300 cultivar. The 500 ppm concentration of GA3 and 0 NAA in California Wonder 310 cultivar caused the highest leaf number (3.96). No significant differences were obtained for leaf area and leaf width among all tested concentrations. It can be concluded that seed priming of pepper with plant hormones (GA3 and NAA) is a proper strategy for improving germination and growth traits of pepper plants.

    Keywords: Capsicum annum L, gibberellin, plant hormone, naphthalene acetic acid
  • Babak Valizadehkaji *, Ahmadreza Abbasifar, Hosein Bagheri, Golnar Zandievakili, Atieh Daryabeigi Pages 69-79
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stenting (grafted cutting) propagation of commercial pomegranate cultivars as scions on drought tolerant genotypes as rootstocks. The effect of drought stress on nine pomegranate rootstocks was analyzed. Cultivars including ‘Daneshgah 13’, ‘Daneshgah 32’ and ‘Daneshgah 8’ that were used as rootstocks showed the maximum drought tolerance among the studied cultivars; therefore, these three rootstocks were used to investigate the stenting propagation. Furthermore, three pomegranate cultivars including ‘Malas Saveh’, ‘Robab’ and ‘Bihasteh’ were used as scions. The highest percentage of graft success (58.88%) was obtained from grafting on ‘Daneshgah 13’. In addition, the highest percentage of graft success (84.22) was found in ‘Robab’. ‘Robab’ and ‘Malas Saveh’ had the longest shoot (11.50-11.93 cm) and highest shoot fresh weight (33.66-35.00 g) when grafted on ‘Daneshgah 13’. ‘Daneshgah 13’ had higher shoot dry weight (5.47 g) compared to the other rootstocks. Regarding the scion cultivars, ‘Robab’ and ‘Malas Saveh’ showed higher shoot dry weight (6.76-6.96 g) in comparison with ‘Bihasteh’. Using ‘Daneshgah 13’ as rootstock resulted in the highest content of chlorophyll a (18.11 mg/g), chlorophyll b (8.02 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (26.13 mg/g) in the scion leaves. ‘Robab’ and ‘Malas Saveh’ had highest content of chlorophyll a (18.11-18.33 mg/g), chlorophyll b (8.58-8.62 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (26.73-26.92 mg/g) among the scion cultivars. In all three rootstocks, a negative correlation was observed between the total phenolic content and the percentage of graft success. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the total phenolic content and the percentage of graft success in ‘Bihasteh’ scion.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Grafting, phenol, scion, Stenting
  • Ebrahim Alami, Mahnaz Karimi * Pages 81-91
    One of the important objectives during the production cycle of ornamental plants is to regulate and control their growth. Hence, application of some plant growth regulators such as uniconazole (UN) and cycocel (CCC) is considered as an efficient method for reaching to this objective. To investigation the effect of uniconazole and cycocel on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of zinnia, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with five replications. Application of UN (0, 5 and 10 mg L-1) and CCC (0, 1000 and 1500 mg L-1) as growth retardants, was considered as the first and their application method (leaf spraying and soil application) was considered as the second factor. The effect of growth retardants on plant height, Time of flowering, peroxidase activity, endogenous gibberellins and leaf area were significant. The lowest plant height was observed in soil application of 10 mg L-1 UN. The tallest plant was observed in the control treatment. Growth retardants had significant effects on endogenous gibberellins and leaf chlorophyll contents. Highest activity of peroxidase enzyme was detected in plants treated by 10 mg L-1 UN. The highest and lowest numbers of leaves (21.6 and 16.4 leaves, respectively) were counted in control and 5 mg L-1 UN, respectively. According to the obtained results, the use of growth retardants is recommended to reduce the height and improve the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of zinnia flower.
    Keywords: Enzyme activity, gibberellin, ornamental plants, Plant morphology, Growth retardant