فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan, Esmaeil Kavi, Amir Mansouri, Hamed Delam * Pages 108-126

    Water pipe tobacco smoking with biological, psychological and social dimensions is one of the problems of the present age. The purpose of this article was to investigate the factors affecting the use of hookah among women. This article is a review study conducted by searching the scientific databases using search engines in the articles published in Scopus, Pubmed, Google scholar databases as well as the general Google search engine using the keywords hookah, Shisha, water pipe, tobacco, women. A rapid literature search strategy was conducted for all theEnglish language literature published before January 2020. The findings of this study indicate the effect of multiple personal, social and family factors on the initiation and continuation of water pipe tobacco smoking among women. Therefore, it seems that with regard to these risk factors, appropriate programs and interventions for prevention of water pipe tobacco smoking use among women can be considered.

    Keywords: Smoking Water Pipe, Tobacco, women, Addictive Behavior
  • Hamed Delam, Esmaeil Kavi, Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan * Pages 127-130
    Background

    Since the elderly  are more susceptible to cognitive impairment than other age groups, this study aimed to investigate the assessment of cognitive status of the elderly  living in nursing homes in Larestan city and the relationship between cognitive status of the elderly people and some demographic variables.

    Methods

    This research was a cross-sectional study conducted on all the elderly living in a nursing home in Larestan city. Sampling was done by census method and 54 elderly people were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Demographic characteristics questionnaire was used to assess general information of the elderly, and standard mini mental state examination questionnaire was used to assess the elderly people’s cognitive status.

    Results

    The mean age of the males was 69.44± 5.83 years with a range of 60-78. Mean and standard deviation of cognitive status were 25.28 ± 2.15 for males and 24.82 ± 2.54 for females, respectively. Also, 5 (9.30%) had moderate cognitive impairment, 24 (44.40%) had moderate cognitive impairment and 25 (46.30%) had normal cognitive status. There was a significant relationship between marital status and cognitive status in the elderly (p value = 0.012). The mean cognitive status of the married and single elderly was 24.10 ± 2.51 and 25.54 ± 2.13, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Cognitive disorders are more prevalent among the elderly married couples, which can improve the adverse effects of these cognitive disorders by strengthening family relationships and caring.

    Keywords: Aged, Cognition Disorders, Nursing home
  • Farzaneh Mobasheri, Gholamhossein Shahraki, Roksana Estakhrian Haghighi, Mohammad Fararouei * Pages 131-136
    Background
    The incidence of accidents, its types and leading causes are largely varied in different communities and within different ages. This survey investigated the incidence and types of injury after accidents in adolescent girls with regard to the parents' socio-economic status, schooling and health-related behaviors.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted among 8159 high school girl aged 11-19 years, using a self-administered questionnaire. Demographic information, parents' socio-economic status, schooling and health-related behaviors, any accident causing the student to seek medical care during the year before the time of completing the questionnaire, the place, the cause and the body area injured in the accident were asked by single item scales.
    Results
    The annual incidence of injury was about 4.4%. Of the total accidents, the most common type was car accident (45%). The most common affected body sites were legs (25.7%) and hands (%18.7); the most common place besides streets (31%) where the accidents happened was home (%19). Multivariate logistic regression revealed higher chances of injury among urban residences, those with lower school grades, those exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke, and those who spend more time with friends (P<0.05 for all).
    Conclusion
    The findings suggested that accidents among adolescent girls are affected by different aspects of life, most of which being modifiable. Most accidents can be prevented if appropriate strategies and intervention programs are applied. For example, providing safer streets, homes and environment and public education are possibly the most effective measures.
    Keywords: Injury, Accident, Girl, Adolescence, Behavior
  • AmirHossein Baghaie *, Raheleh Mirzaee Pages 137-145
    Introduction

    In order to optimize the use of industrial wastewater, proper management practices should be applied for wastewater treatment. Thus, this study was done to evaluate the effect of iron slag enriched cow manure, zeolite and pumice on the sunflower Pb concentration in a soil irrigated with wastewater of battery factory.

    Methods

    In this descriptive study, treatments consisted of applying iron slag (0, 1 and 2 % (W/W)) enriched cow manure at the rates of 0 and 30 t/ha, using zeolite (0 and 2 % (W/W)) and pumice (0 and 8 % (W/W), and sunflower irrigation with the wastewater of battery factory mixed with well water with the ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 (water/wastewater). After 60 days, the plant was harvested and the concentration of Pb and Fe was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The SOD enzyme activity was also determined.

    Results

    Application of 2% zeolite and 8% (W/W) pumice significantly decreased the Pb concentration of the soil irrigated with the wastewater at the ratio of 2:1 (wastewater/water) by 8.1%, respectively. The plant Pb concentration was also increased by 11.2 and 13.3%, respectively. The SOD enzyme activity showed a similar trend with the plant Pb concentration. Enrichment of cow manure with iron slag significantly decreased the Pb concentration of the plant that was irrigated with the wastewater at the ratio of 2:1 (wastewater/water) by 11.3% 
     

    Conclusion

    Iron slag enriched cow manure, pumice and zeolite significantly decreased the soil and plant Pb concentration of the soil and plant that was irrigated with wastewater.

    Keywords: Wastewater, Lead, Zeolite, Adsorption, Iron
  • Masume Bazrafshan, Hamidreza Vakilifard *, Bizhan Abedini, Davood Khodadadi Pages 146-150
    Background

    Social responsibility is a new topic in accounting literature that has been considered by researchers in various aspects. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting social responsibility in pharmaceutical companies.

    Methods

    The present study was a qualitative content analysis research carried out in the year 2019. We performed an interview with 38 experts in the pharmaceutical industry to identify the factors affecting social responsibility in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, the continuous comparison method of Strauss and Corbin (1998) was used to analyze the data.

    Results

    Based on the analysis, 25 categories and 7 main axes???? including environmental conditions; legal agents; and political, ethical, cultural, economic and social factors were identified as effective on social responsibility in pharmaceutical companies.

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that adherence to social responsibility by pharmaceutical companies is associated with optimal investment, producing a better quality product, more customer satisfaction, and cost reduction. Also, identifying the components of social responsibility in pharmaceutical companies can be effective in research on the afield of social responsibility.

    Keywords: Social Responsibilities, Research, Qualitative, Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Zahra Maleki, Mohammad Ghorbani, Haleh Ghaem *, Farid Zand Pages 151-156
    Objectives
    Many risk factors are associated with death in and discharge from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with death and discharge among ICU patients.
    Methods
    This historical cohort study was conducted on 712 patients admitted to the ICU of Namazi hospital in Shiraz between 2013 and 2015. The competing risks regression model was suitable for assessing the risk factors associated with death and discharge in ICU. Data analysis was performed using STATA 13.0 and R software.
    Results
    The mean age of the participants was 53.3±20.7 years. Out of 712 patients, 436 (61.2%) were male and 121 (17.8%) died. In the competing risks model, death was considered as the event of interest, and age and total days of Central Venous Catheter (CVC) and mechanical ventilation use increased the risk of death (all Sub-distribution Hazard Ratios (SHRs) > 1).
    Conclusion
    The findings indicated that increase in age, use of CVC and mechanical ventilation, and female sex caused an increase in death in ICU. However, the risk of death decreased or the chance of discharge increased when the patients were admitted due to surgical reasons.
    Keywords: Mortality, Patient discharge, Intensive care units
  • SeyedMansour Kashfi, Abdolreza Moradi, Tayebeh Rakhshani *, Zahra Motlagh Pages 157-162
    Background

    Human resources are considered as one of the most important production resources and the basic capital of the organization. This study aimed to investigating the relationship between job motivation and job performance of auxiliary nurses under the coverage Shoush health centers.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was carried out on auxiliary nurses  under the coverage of Shoush health centers in 2017. Auxilliary nurses  were enrolled  in the study using census sampling method (150 people). The data collection tools were Herzberg's job motivation questionnaire and Paterson's job performance questionnaire that were completed through the self-report method. Data were analyzed through  SPSS-22 software using Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests.

    Results

    Ninety-nine people (66%) were female and 51  (34%) were male. The average motivation and job performance of the subjects were 184.22±14.98 and 42.50±6.26, respectively. According to the results of Pearson correlation test, there was a significant relationship between motivation and job performance (r=-0.223, p=0.006). According to the results of multiple regression, personal relationships with each other and work environment conditions predicted 22 percent of changes in performance of auxiliary nurses.

    Conclusion

    In the present study, according to the relationship between motivation and job performance of health workers, it is suggested that measures should be taken to increase motivation to improve their job performance.

    Keywords: Job motivation, Performance, Auxiliary nurse, Health centers
  • Saeed Shahabi, Ali Pouryousef, Kourosh Azizi, Bahador Sarkari * Pages 163-166
    Background
    Rodents have a significant role as a reservoir in zoonotic diseases. Rodents which live close to human habitats such as muroid species play an important role in public health and economy. The current study aimed to evaluate the intestinal helminths infections of the Zagros Mountain rodent, Calomyscus (Calomyscus cf. bailwardi), in Shiraz, capital of Fars province, southern Iran.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was carried out from April to October 2019, and a total of 10 Calomyscus were trapped. The animals were transferred to the animal laboratory for euthanization and dissection. Each of the digestive organs was separately cut and examined to identify their intestinal helminths. Parasites were removed by a special needle, and then transferred to 5% glycerin alcohol for the identification of the isolated helminths, using carmine staining.
    Results
    Among the 10 total numbers of specimens, 60% (6 out of 10) were infected. All of the intestinal helminths obtained from the rodents were identified as Syphacia obvelata.
    Conclusion
    Given the fact that the infected rodents which live in close contact with human society may cause rodent-borne infections among the residents, this parasitological study can be important in identifying the epidemiologic pattern related to zoonotic diseases, especially in rarely studied host species like Calomyscus cf. bailwardi.
    Keywords: Helminths, Rodent, Calomyscus, Fars province, Iran