فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • R.J. Isaifan * Pages 275-288

    The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported from Wuhan, China, on December 31st, 2019. As the number of coronavirus infections has exceeded 100,000 with toll deaths of about 5000 worldwide as of early March, 2020, scientists and researchers are racing to investigate the nature of this virus and evaluate the short and long term effects of this disease. Despite its negative impacts that obliged the World Health Organization to declare COVID-19 epidemic as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, the rate of mortality of this infection has not exceeded 3.4% globally. On the other hand, the mortality rate caused by ambient air pollution has contributed to 7.6% of all deaths in 2016 worldwide. The outbreak of COVID-19 has forced China to lockdown its industrial activities and hence dropped its NO2 and carbon emissions by 30 and 25%, respectively. This work reports on the first case study that compares the air quality status before and after the crisis. It sheds light on the facts related to the demographics of deaths by gender, age and health status before infection. The historical data on air quality, estimates of annual deaths and its economic burden have been presented and analyzed. The actual daily deaths due to COVID-19 have been obtained from the official records of the daily Situation Reports published by World Health Organization as of March 11th. The rate of mortality due to COVID-19 was impacted by two factors: age and health status. Results show that 75% of deaths were related to cases that had underlying present diseases with the majority aged of 80+ years. The reported figures were compared with the average daily mortality due to poor air quality which reached up to 3287 deaths due to high levels of NO2, O3 and PM. The air quality status before the crisis was compared with the current situation showing that COVID-19 forced-industrial and anthropogenic activities lockdown may have saved more lives by preventing ambient air pollution than by preventing infection.

    Keywords: Air Quality, Burden of disease, China, Coronavirus, COVID-19, Mortality rate
  • F.M. Torres Bejarano *, A.C. Torregroza Espinosa, E. Martinez Mera, D. Castañeda Valbuena, M.P. Tejera Gonzalez Pages 289-308

    Ciénaga de Mallorquín is a coastal lagoon designated as a RAMSAR site due to its ecological regional and international importance. In this work, the environmental fluid dynamics code explorer modeling system was implemented to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of temperature, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand and nutrient levels, and assess the trophic status of Ciénaga de Mallorquín. The model was set up with field measurement data taken during transition period and wet season, and secondary information obtained from local authorities and environmental agencies. The results of model simulations were calibrated and verified by the root mean square error method, achieving a consistent fit for all considered variables. Average velocities were between 0.006 m/s and 0.013 m/s during the analyzed periods. The temperature was higher in the wet season than in the transition period (29°C and 31.5°C, respectively). The dissolved oxygen was similar in both periods (6.6 and 6.7 mg/L). NO3 concentrations were higher during the transition period (3.28 mg/L), with a minimum of 1.76 mg/L and a maximum of 5.09 mg/L. The lowest NO3 concentrations were found in the area influenced by the connection with the Caribbean Sea. PO4 concentrations in the wet season were lower than in the transition period (0.20 mg/L). Finally, Ciénaga de Mallorquín exhibits high productivity levels with Trophic State Index > 50 and temporal variations of mesotrophic to eutrophic. The use of Trophic State Index is useful for the management of water body eutrophication and productivity, making it particularly important in aquatic ecosystems.

    Keywords: Ciénaga de Mallorquín, Coastal lagoon, Environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC), Environmental modeling, Eutrophication, Trophic state index
  • J. Petersen *, C.P. Colon, J.L. Joyner Pages 309-322
    Plumb Beach, Brooklyn, New York in USA is an important horseshoe crab breeding and nursery ground that has experienced substantial anthropogenic influence, including pollution, erosion and subsequent restoration. Since little is known about the relationship between sediment microbial communities and juvenile horseshoe crab survival, next generation sequencing was used to characterize and compare the sediment microbiome of three distinct areas of Plumb Beach:- a tidal creek with abundant juveniles, East Beach with moderate number of juveniles, and West Beach- a highly disturbed area where juvenile crabs are rarely seen. The microbiome of juvenile crab intestinal content (both dissected gut content and fecal flush content) from the tidal creek site was also examined. The results showed that in our 2017 survey, the overall dominant sediment orders at all beach sites were Vibrionales (30%), Flavobacteriales (22%) and Alteromonadales (21%). Although alpha diversity was similar among the three beach sites, Bray-Curtis distances assessed by Permanova revealed significant differences in Beta diversity, with a unique microbial assemblage found in the tidal creek. Both crab gut and fecal flush samples did not sequence well, showing low species diversity and very high variability. This study is the first to use next generation sequencing to characterize Plumb Beach sediment microbes and the first attempt to examine the gut microbiome of juvenile horseshoe crabs. This information will contribute to understanding the relationships between sediment microbial assemblages and juvenile crab populations within this important urban habitat.
    Keywords: beach restoration, Beach sediment, horseshoe crab microbiome, intertidal zone, juvenile horseshoe crab habitat, littoral zone
  • M.R. Limon *, C.B.J. Villarino Pages 323-340
    This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices on food waste of selected households in the northern province of the Philippines. The results of the assessment were used as bases for formulation of a recycling system. A total of one hundred rural households were selected using stratified equal allocation sampling technique. Data were collected through the use of researcher-made questionnaire with Cronbach’s Alpha at .82, and was supplemented by observations. Factor analysis, Pearson r, and point-biserial correlation were used to yield findings in the study. Results show that a number of factors discourage the respondents’ participation in the reduction and recycling of food waste, such as lack of facilities, insufficient training, and information dissemination. Household size (r=.199, p<0.05), monthly income (r=.282, p<0.01; r=-.217, p<0.05), and planning (r=-.243, p<0.05) influences the way the participants manage household food waste. On the other hand, age, educational attainment, and sex, do not significantly affect the way the household-participants manage food waste. One strategic and feasible solution is a compulsory food waste recycling system (FWRS) for private households to combat this pressing issue on food waste. This proposed framework is composed of four major moves that require the collaboration of various sectors and stakeholders in the community, and is expected to suggest valuable policy amendments including significant decrease in wastage of consumable agricultural products. Without doubt, the ongoing over generation of food waste is a serious global setback that needs to be urgently addressed.
    Keywords: education, environment, Food waste recycling system, household, Waste management
  • A. Brotosusilo *, S.H. Nabila, H.A. Negoro, D. Utari Pages 341-354
    It is crucial to achieve effective solid waste management involving not only formal/government agencies, but also individual/informal/voluntary actions in order to create a healthy environment. This study conducted to unveil the factors that increase individuals’ community participation in solid waste management policy. The data were matched with a literature review on existing waste policies to identify gaps in knowledge, which could provide beneficial policy recommendations for the Jakarta Provincial Government. The ordinary least squares regression and Indonesian family life survey data were used. The respondents’ waste handling and participation scores with potentially affected variables were calculated and regressed. Out of 1.791 respondents, the regression revealed that the participation of individuals from Jakarta is influenced by 1) the frequency of their involvement in social community activities, 2) their education level, and 3) per capita expenditure. The solid waste management score increased by 0.233 if the respondents were more socially active, with a participation score of 1. Empowerment had a 0.06 coefficient correlation relative to the waste handling score. According to the broader sample of 28.967 respondents from large cities in Indonesia. It was concluded that individuals’ participation could be enhanced by hosting various social activities at the grassroots level. The study’s gaps show that the Jakarta Provincial Government has a high propensity towards increasing individuals’ participation in solid waste management by maximizing control of the factors mentioned above (especially empowerment), as well as by raising the frequency of citizens’ involvement in social community activities at the grassroots level.
    Keywords: Individual participation, Solid waste management, Waste management, Waste policy
  • S. Kozlovskyi *, L. Nikolenko, O. Peresada, O. Pokhyliuk, O. Yatchuk, N. Bolgarova, O. Kulhanik Pages 355-372
    In the context of globalization of economic development processes, the issue of determining the level of public welfare of economic agents is particularly burning. The object of ehis study is the process of assessing welfare of the economic entities system. The subject of the study is the instrumental and mathematical aspects of modeling and measuring the public welfare. The aim of the work is to develop the mathematical model for measuring the welfare of Ukraine using methods of intellectual analysis, namely, the theory of fuzzy sets. The output of the study is a new approach to objective estimation of public welfare of the state. It is proposed to assess the level of public welfare of the state on the basis of a mathematical model developed on the basis of the theory of fuzzy sets. Input factors of the model are international indices and indicators, such as Index of Economic Freedom, Global Peace Index, Democracy Index, Corruption Perceptions Index, Human Development Index, Prosperity Index, Global Competitiveness Index as well as an indicator that reflects the characteristic property of the Ukrainian economy, namely the minimum living wage. Developed mathematical model for assessment of the level of public welfare of Ukraine and made a prediction of the indicator by 2024 on the basis of the above indices. The results of the study allowed us to establish that the level of public welfare (units) in Ukraine on a scale from 0 to 100 will be equal to 25, 17, 32, 26, and 28 in 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, and 2024, accordingly.
    Keywords: public welfare, estimation, intellectual analysis, Economy, fuzzy sets theory, Management
  • J.D.H. Palermo *, K.L. Labrador, J.D. Follante, A.B. Agmata, M.J.R. Pante, R.N. Rollon, L.T. David Pages 373-384
    Marine microplastics are emerging pollutants that impact across levels of marine food chain at a global scale. Its presence was determined on Sardinella lemuru, a commercial pelagic fish that are harvested generally in the Northern Mindanao, consumed locally, and exported worldwide as bottled or canned sardine products.  The stomach contents of 600 sardines were examined visually under a microscope, stained with Rose Bengal, and tested with hot needle technique to identify ingested microplastics. These anthropogenic particles were measured and physically classified into fibers, fragments, and films. Results of this study showed that 85% of S. lemuru were already contaminated with 3.74 ± 3.92 # of microplastics even before being processed into various sardine products. These microplastics ranged from 0.12 to 21.30 mm and 80 % were mostly < 2.5 mm size classes. The dominant microplastics were 97.94 % in the form of fibers while 1.52 % and 0.54 % were respectively classified into fragments and films. Method validation by isolating microplastics from spiked samples (n = 30) with three retrieval attempts showed 100% recovery efficiency. While results from Canonical Correspondence Analysis of ingested microplastic data had no relationship with the standard lengths of the sardine and the masses of ingested food materials at varying size classes, the total number of ingested microplastics from 2014 to 2016  were directly correlated (r2=0.91, p=0.003) with the human population at the landing sites  along the coastline of northern Mindanao.
    Keywords: Food Safety, Ingestion, Microplastic, Pelagic fisheries, Sardine
  • D. Setyawan * Pages 385-402

    This study compares the energy intensity performance in Indonesia to other south-east Asia countries such as Vietnam, Thailand, Singapore, The Philippines and Malaysia for the period from 1971 to 2016. For this goal, this research employs a multiplicative Log Mean Divisia Index II method and Spatial-Temporal Index Decomposition Analysis. The manufacturing sector and commercial sector played a key role in the regions economic structures that accounted for around 60% to 80% of the total economic output from 1971 to 2016. The contribution of the manufacturing sector increased quite significantly, from 8% in 1971 to a peak of around 31% in 2001, before it fell to 28% in 2016. On the other hand, the contribution of agriculture sector dropped from 49% in 1971 to approximately 17% in 2016. It is demonstrated in this research that the aggregate trend of the changes in energy intensity in these countries in the past forty-five years has been decreasing. For Indonesia, aggregate energy intensity rose steadily by an average of 3% per year from 1971 to 1999, more than doubling over this period, while from 1999 to 2001 energy intensity fell by 1% per annum on average, falling by 17% overall in 2016. Overall, in terms of structure and industry effects on aggregate energy intensity, all these countries showed a shift in industry value added to more energy-intensive industries which also offset by falling within-industry energy intensity. However, the analysis shows that both element of this trend was most pronounced in Indonesia.

    Keywords: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Economic, growth, Intensity, Log Mean Divisia Index
  • M. Camara, N.R.B. Jamil *, A.F.B. Abdullah, R.B. Hashim Pages 403-414

    Predicting land use change is an indispensable aspect in identifying the best development and management of land resources and their potential. This study used certified land-use maps of 1997, 2006, and 2015 combined with ancillary data such as road networks, water bodies and slopes, obtained from the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Surveying and Mapping in Malaysia, respectively. The prediction of future land use changes in the Selangor River basin in Malaysia was performed using the Cellular Automata Markov model. The transition probability matrices were computed using the land use conditions of the periods 1997-2006, 2006-2015, 1997-2015. The performance of the model was very good in its overall ability to simulate the actual land use map of 2015, with the index values of 0.92% and 0.97%, respectively for Kappa for no information and Kappa for grid-cell level location which indicated the reliability of the model to successfully simulate land use changes in 2024 and 2033. Based on the expected results, the future urban area will grow faster (33%) over the next two decades, leading to a decline in forest area that is expected to lose 8% of its total space during these periods. Agricultural land will increase to 4%, while water bodies will change slightly increasing to 1%, and other areas of land use will likely become reservoirs of water, topsoil or new green spaces shrinking at 30%. Given the importance of knowledge of future land use in addressing the problems of uncontrolled development on environmental quality, this study could be valuable for land use planners of the river basin largely covered by natural forest. The study however, suggests future research to integrate geospatial techniques with biophysical and socio-economic factors in simulating land use trends.

    Keywords: CA-Markov model, Change simulation, Land use change, River basin, urban development
  • C.A. Odiji, O.M. Aderoju, M.C. Ekwe, D.T. Oje *, J.O. Imhanfidon Pages 415-428

    Runoff assessment and estimation is crucial for watershed management as it provides information that is needed to expedite the course of watershed planning and development. The most commonly used model due to its simplicity and versatility in runoff estimation is the soil conservation service curve number developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. The study estimates the surface runoff of Upper Benue watershed using a geospatial based soil conservation service curve number model. Datasets utilized for this purpose are; Rainfall, land use, digitial elevation model and FAO-Soil. The soil and land use data were intersected to create the curve number grid and database. The curve number grid combined with the mean annual rainfall data from 1990 – 2017 was used to estimate runoff. The result revealed that 61.5% of rainfall was direct runoff while 38.5% of the rainfall was retained by tree/plant cover and soil. The average curve number for the normal condition was calculated to be 80.1 while the dry and wet season was 59.6, and 93.2 respectively. The average runoff volume for 27 years was estimated to be 69,887.43mm3. A correlation coefficient of 0.79 was found for the relationship between rainfall and runoff. The research highlights the importance of geospatial technique when integrated with soil conservation service curve number to estimate runoff conditions in Upper Benue Watershed.

    Keywords: Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC), Digitial elevation model (DEM), Harmonized soil group (HSG), Runoff, Soil conservation service curve number (SCS CN), Watershed