فهرست مطالب

  • سال ششم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • صالح آرخی، براتعلی خاکپور، بهنام عطا* صفحات 1-17

    این تحقیق با هدف پیش بینی پراکنش مکانی رشد شهر ایلام و به منظور ردیابی عوامل موثر بر رشد شهر صورت گرفت. در این بررسی تاثیر هفت فاکتور فاصله از جاده ها، فاصله از مراکز درمانی، فاصله از مراکز آموزشی، فاصله از اراضی بایر و فاصله از پارک و باغ، شیب و جهت دامنه بر روی رشد شهر، مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. در این مطالعه، برای بررسی تغییرات گستره شهر، داده های سنجنده MSS مربوط به سال 1355 و سنجنده TM مربوط به سال 1386 مورد پردازش و طبقه بندی قرار گرفتند. تصاویر مورد بررسی به دو کلاسه شهر و غیر شهر طبقه بندی شدند و به منظور بررسی عوامل رشد، نقشه رشد شهر با متغیرهای مکانی فیزیوگرافی و انسانی وارد مدل شد. برای مدل سازی و برآورد پراکنش مکانی رشد شهر مورد مطالعه از روش آماری رگرسیون لجستیک استفاده شد. نتایج نشان می دهد که در طول 31 سال حدود 1515 هکتار به سطح شهر اضافه شده است. با توجه به نتایج مدل سازی مشخص شد که در مناطق نزدیک به مرز پارک و باغ رشد شهری بیشتری صورت گرفته است. همچنین رابطه رگرسیونی نشان می دهد که متغیرهای فاصله از جاده ها، فاصله از مراکز درمانی، فاصله از مراکز آموزشی، فاصله از اراضی بایر با رشد شهری رابطه معکوس داشته اند یعنی با افزایش این متغیرها میزان رشد شهر کاهش پیدا می کند. در نهایت، یک مدل مکانی ساده که توانایی پیش بینی پراکنش مکانی رشد شهر را با استفاده از رگرسیون لجستیک دارد، ارائه شد.

    کلیدواژگان: رشد شهری، رگرسیون لجستیک، GIS، شهر ایلام، مدل سازی
  • پژمان محمدی ده چشمه* صفحات 19-38

    هدف از پژوهش حاضر تحلیلی بر نقش پیاده راه ها در سرزندگی شهری در خیابان فردوسی شهر اصفهان می باشد. پژوهش حاضر ازنظر روش انجام دادن تحقیق (فنون گردآوری داده ها)، یک تحقیق توصیفی (غیرآزمایشی) است. درواقع روش مورد استفاده در این تحقیق یک روش توصیفی - تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری مورد پژوهش شامل کلیه متخصصین حوزه شهری در اصفهان به تعداد 2865 نفر می باشند. حجم نمونه بر اساس جدول مورگان تعیین شده است و بر این اساس تعداد حجم نمونه معادل 256 نفر می باشند که برای تجزیه وتحلیل مناسب تر تعداد 305 نفر انتخاب شد. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار spss و آزمون کولموپروف- اسمیرنف و تی تست استفاده شده است. بر مبنای آنچه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت، مشاهده گردید که افزایش و به سازی مسیر پیاده راه ها در خیابان فردوسی شهر اصفهان زمینه ساز افزایش رضایت ساکنان، بهبود آرامش روحی و روانی ساکنین و به تبع بهبود سرزندگی فضای شهری و با توجه به افزایش تردد انسان در محدوده خیابان زمینه را برای رونق کسب وکارها فراهم می آورد. بر همین مبنا پیشنهاد می گردد که مدیریت شهری با کاربست مولفه های پیاده مدار و بر مبنای تجارب سایر کشورهای موفق در این زمینه به تدوین سند راهبردی و عملیاتی در پیاده مدار نمودن این خیابان و به تبع سایر خیابان های با نقش اداری، گردشگری، تجاری و... اقدام نموده که نتایج مطلوب آن برای مردم و مسئولین در سرزندگی آن ها نقش خواهد داشت.

    کلیدواژگان: انسان، پیاده راه، خیابان فردوسی، رضایت، سرزندگی، شهر اصفهان
  • سیدمحمدرضازاده، زهره فنی*، محمدتقی رضویان صفحات 39-61

    هدف این پژوهش تدوین راهبردهایی برای بهبود توسعه پایدار منطقه یک شهر تهران با استفاده از مدل  SWOT (برای شناسایی توان ها، ظرفیت ها، پتانسیل های محیط زیست و گردشگری شهری در منطقه وارزیابی کمی و تدوین چشم انداز برای محلات منطقه) است. پژوهش از نوع اکتشافی با ماهیت، توصیفی تحلیلی، توسعه ای است. روش شناسی پژوهش نیز در چارچوب پارادایم توسعه پایدار محیط زیست شهری و رویکرد اجتماع محور با تاکید برتوسعه گردشگری شهری تدوین شده است. برای این منظور، داده ها به روش کتابخانه ای و پیمایشی و مصاحبه با کارشناسان گردآوری و سپس در ماتریس عوامل درونی (IFE) و بیرونی (EFE) به تحلیل اطلاعات پرداخته شده است. حجم نمونه بر اساس فرمول کوکران تعداد 384 نفر از میان ساکنین و گردشگران منطقه بویژه محله های درکه و ولنجک به عنوان محلات شاخص، انتخاب و مورد پرسش قرار گرفته است. برای تدوین اولویت بندی نهایی و فعالیت های راهبردی - پایداری از تلفیق نتایج دو مدل مذکور در محدوده مورد مطالعه از مدل ماتریسی SPACE استفاده شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد افزایش صمیمیت، روابط همسایگی و حس تعلق ساکنان به محله، استفاده از طبیعت منطقه در جذب گردشگر و همچنین افزایش تمایل ساکنان به سکونت در محله، از پتانسیل های تهیه برنامه های راهبردی برنامه ریزی برای توسعه پایدار گردشگری در منطقه یک تهران به ویژه محله درکه هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه اجتماع محلی، گردشگری، محیط زیست شهری، محله درکه، منطقه یک شهر تهران
  • غلامرضا کاظمیان*، رضا واعظی، وجه الله قربانی زاده، مرضیه شاه محمدی صفحات 63-80

    این پژوهش کیفی به دنبال آسیب شناسی شکل گیری حکمروایی محلی در ایران است. حکمروایی محلی نوعی فرایند است، که متضمن یک نظام پیوسته بوده و حکومت و اجتماع را در برمی گیرد. شکل گیری این فرایند در ایران علی رغم نیاز مبرم با موانعی روبه رو بوده است که لازم است تا بررسی های گسترده ای در مورد آن صورت گیرد. در پژوهش حاضر از روش نظریه پردازی داده بنیاد ساخت گرا جهت بررسی این موضوع بهره گرفته شده است. به این منظور ابتدا 4 پرسش با موضوع شناخت پتانسیل ها، محدودیت ها، عوامل زمینه ای و راهبردهای شکل گیری حکمروایی محلی متناسب با اهداف پژوهش مطرح گردید و جهت پاسخ به آن ها 21 مصاحبه عمیق با صاحب نظران انجام شد. تحلیل داده ها منجر به احصاء 749 نکته کلیدی حاصل از کدگذاری اولیه، 297 مفهوم حاصل از کدگذاری متمرکز، 30 مقوله فرعی جدید حاصل از کدگذاری محوری و 8 مقوله اصلی حاصل از کدگذاری نظری شد و درانتهای این کدگذاری الگوی نظری پژوهش نیز شکل گرفت. تحلیل داده ها مبین آن است که با وجود تنها دو پتاسیل نهادی و اجتماعی موجود، محدودیت های نهادی و اجتماعی متعددی در راه شکل گیری حکمروایی محلی وجود دارد. علاوه براین یک سری عوامل زمینه ای هم در ایجاد محدودیت ها تاثیرگذار هستند. درنهایت راهبردهایی برای حل محدودیت های پیش روی شکل گیری حکمروایی محلی پیشنهاد شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: تمرکززدائی، حکمروایی محلی، روابط ملی- محلی، نظریه پردازی داده بنیاد ساخت گرا
  • هادی حکیمی، زهرا رضازاده، رقیه عسکرنژاد* صفحات 81-101

    یکی از عناصر خدمات شهری، پایانه مسافربری است. پایانه ها به عنوان مفصل ارتباطی جاده های برون شهری و درون شهری، مانع تردد اتوبوس ها به داخل شهرها می شوند و ازاین رو در بهبود وضعیت ترافیک و مدیریت سفرها نقشی سازنده ایفا می کنند. در شهر مشکین شهر به دلیل عدم وجود پایانه برای سرویس دهی به روستاهای مستقر در اطراف شهر، وسایط نقلیه مسافرکش که خیابان ها را اشغال می نمایند، باعث به وجود آمدن نابسامانی هایی از قبیل بار ترافیکی و مشکلات ناشی از آن شده است. به همین منظور این شهر به عنوان پایه مطالعاتی باهدف دستیابی به مناسب ترین مکان جهت استقرار مطلوب پایانه مسافربری انتخاب شده است. نوع تحقیق موردنظر بر اساس هدف، کاربردی و ازنظر ماهیت و روش، علی محسوب می شود. در این مقاله با استفاده از معیارهای مناسب (نزدیکی به جاده های اصلی، دسترسی به معابر اصلی شهر، سازگاری، دسترسی به تاسیسات و تجهیزات، مدل رقومی ارتفاع، شیب، فاصله از رودخانه، قیمت زمین و تراکم جمعیت) لایه های موردنظر در محیط Arc Map آماده سازی شده و با اعمال وزن های حاصل از فرایندهای وزن دهی در نرم افزار Expert Choice به روش AHP در یک مدل فراهم آمده و سپس این لایه ها در محیط نرم افزار IDRISI استانداردسازی شدند. طبق نقشه خروجی سه پهنه به عنوان پهنه های مناسب به دست آمد. برای رتبه بندی این پهنه ها از مدل الکترا استفاده گردید؛ بدین صورت رتبه برتر که به عنوان گزینه اول مطرح شده است در قسمت شمالی شهر که نزدیک ترین دسترسی را به جاده اصلی دارد انتخاب گردید. گزینه های دوم و سوم نیز به عنوان اولویت های بعدی در قسمت های جنوب غربی شهر قرار دارد.
     

    کلیدواژگان: الکترا، پایانه ها، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، شهر مشکین شهر، مکان یابی، منطق فازی
  • صادق فکور کارگر*، ایرج اسدی، نصرت الله گودرزی صفحات 103-125

    هدف مطالعه پیش رو سنجش پراکنده رویی است، با این وجود از مواردی همچون افشاء هویت و ارائه کلیتی از تمام وجوه ادبیات این پدیده، عرضه معیارهای تمیز پراکنده رویی غربی از نمونه ایرانی آن و دست آخر پیشنهاد تعریف رویکردهای ابتکاری- غیرتنظیمی در کنار ابزارهای دستوری- نظارتی جهت مهار این مساله می توان به عنوان اهداف فرعی آن نام برد. ترسیم تصویری درخور از میزان این پدیده با دو روش اسنادی جهت استخراج- تعدیل متغیرهای کمی و سنجش بر پایه تکنیک تحلیل عاملی همزمان با اعمال خصیصه های منحصر به فرد کیفی هر ناحیه آماری میسر شد که این تصویر نه تنها میزان بالای فشردگی را در نواحی مرکزی شهر نشان می دهد بلکه انطباق آن با نقشه هایی چون ادوار تاریخی گسترش فیزیکی کلانشهر و گونه های بافت شهری نیز به تبیین تک تک اشکال پراکنده رویی به اصطلاح ایرانی در شهر هدف و عوامل شکل دهنده هریک از آنان می پردازد.

    کلیدواژگان: اشکال و عوامل شکل دهنده، پراکنده رویی، سنجش کمی و کیفی، منطقه کلانشهری مشهد
  • انور امان الله پور، حسین نظم فر*، رقیه لطفی شاهماربیگلو صفحات 127-146

    هدف اصلی این پژوهش مکان یابی بهینه فضای سبز شهری در شهر اردبیل با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) و روش ANP است؛ این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و رویکرد حاکم بر آن توصیفی-تحلیلی است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات و آمار مورد نیاز بر اساس مطالعات اسنادی، کتابخانه ای و بازدید میدانی و مراجعه به سازمان های مربوطه انجام گرفته است. سپس معیارهای مورد استفاده جهت مکان یابی بر اساس ضوابط مکان یابی انتخاب شده و با استفاده از روش ANP در نرم افزار Super Decisions مقایسه های زوجی انجام گرفته و وزن معیار هر یک از شاخص ها جهت آماده سازی لایه ها برای تجزیه و تحلیل های فضایی در محیط Arc GIS 10.2 انجام گرفته است؛ نتایج تحقیق به گونه ای است که در بعضی مناطق شهر اردبیل فضای سبز کمتری به ازای تراکم جمعیتی بیشتر و برعکس، وجود دارد. از جمله این مناطق بخش هایی از منطقه سه و چهار اردبیل می باشد که با وجود تراکم جمعیتی زیاد دارای فضای سبز کمتری نسبت به مناطق یک و دو (بخصوص منطقه دو) هستند؛ در نهایت با نتایج حاصل از تلفیق لایه های وزن دار به دست آمده، در محیط GIS با کمک دستورهای GAMMA 0/9,Weighted Overlay, Weighted Sum مکان های اولویت دار که در درجه زمین های مناسب و نسبتا مناسب بودند برای ایجاد فضای سبز شهری در شهر اردبیل شناسایی و پیشنهاد شدند؛ از جمله محله هایی که شناسایی شده و دارای کمبود فضای سبز شهری می باشند می توان به محله های معجز، باغمیشه، عالی قاپو، محمدیه، دانش و... اشاره کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، شهر اردبیل، فضای سبز، مکان یابی
  • مهین نسترن*، فرزانه پیرانی صفحات 147-164

    پژوهش حاضر در تلاش است به شناسایی معیارها و شاخص های شهر هوشمند متناسب با شرایط فرهنگی شهر اصفهان و به ویژه منطقه سه بپردازد تا بتواند اقدامات اصلاحی در جهت شهر هوشمند فراهم آورد. روش تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای است. در این مطالعه  در ابتدا با بررسی ادبیات موضوع و دیدگاه های مختلف در حوزه شهر هوشمند و تجارب جهانی، 85 شاخص در شش بعد مردم هوشمند، اقتصاد هوشمند، زندگی هوشمند، حرکت هوشمند، حکمرانی هوشمند و محیط هوشمند تدوین گردید. جهت بررسی انطباق فرهنگی شاخص ها و اطمینان از اینکه شاخص ها به بهترین نحو برای اندازه گیری انتخاب شده اند؛ از طریق پرسشنامه دو شاخص؛ ضریب نسبی روایی محتوا (CVR) و شاخص روایی محتوا(CVI) مورد قضاوت 30 نفر از متخصصان قرار گرفت. سپس از میان کل شاخص ها با نظر کارشناسان حدود 26 شاخص، مورد قضاوت ساکنین منطقه سه قرار گرفت. در انتها میانگین نظرات دو گروه با استفاده از آزمون آماری"مقایسه میانگین دو جامعه مستقل " موردبررسی قرار گرفت؛ نتایج مطالعه حاکی از آن است که بین نظرات دو گروه برابری وجود دارد و از میان 85 شاخص موردبررسی، 60 شاخص مناسب شناسایی شدند.

    کلیدواژگان: شاخص های توسعه، شهر الکترونیک، شهر با استعداد، شهر هوشمند، منطقه سه شهر اصفهان
  • صدیقه کیانی سلمی*، محسن شاطریان، فاطمه شیخ زاده صفحات 165-184

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی مطلوبیت اقامتگاه های سنتی شهر کاشان و تاثیر آن بر رضایتمندی گردشگران شهری انجام شده است. داده های گردآوری شده از طریق پرسشنامه با استفاده از نرم افزار spss تجزیه و تحلیل و با استفاده از Amos مدل سازی شده اند. حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 310 نفر محاسبه و به صورت تصادفی بین گردشگرانی که در اقامتگاه های سنتی کاشان اقامت داشته و یا از آن ها بازدید به عمل آورده اند، توزیع گردید. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد شش شاخص تاثیرگذار بر مطلوبیت اقامتگاه ها به ترتیب عبارتند از: امکانات و تجهیزات، دسترسی و زیرساخت ها، مدیریتی- خدماتی، کالبدی- عملکردی، اجتماعی- فرهنگی و اقتصادی. شاخص امکانات و تجهیزات موجود در اقامتگاه های سنتی با بار عاملی 99/0 بیشترین اثر را در تبیین مطلوبیت اقامتگاه های سنتی داشته است. در نهایت مدل تحقیق نشان می دهد معناداری اثر مطلوبیت اقامتگاه های سنتی بر میزان رضایتمندی گردشگران با بار عاملی 64/0 و سطح معناداری صفر مورد تایید قرار می گیرد. می توان چنین بیان کرد بین متغیر مستقل مطلوبیت اقامتگاه های سنتی و رضایتمندی گردشگران ارتباط مثبت مستقیم و معناداری مشاهده می گردد به نحوی که با افزایش مطلوبیت اقامتگاه های سنتی بر رضایتمندی گردشگران نیز افزوده می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: اقامتگاه های سنتی، خانه قدیمی، رضایتمندی، شهر کاشان، مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری
  • حمیدرضا مشایخی، سیدعلی علوی*، صفر قائدرحمتی صفحات 185-206

    مسکن و جان پناه به عنوان یکی از ضروری ترین نیازهای بشری همواره در صدر خواسته های انسان قرار  داشته است. خانه های هوشمند از جمله آخرین دستاوردهای صنعت مسکن در عصر حاضر هستند که در چند دهه اخیر در کشور ما نیز موردتوجه قرارگرفته اند، روش تحقیق این پژوهش توصیفی - تحلیلی است؛ که در بخش اول با مطالعه مقالات و اسناد؛ تعریف مسکن هوشمند، زمینه ها، اجزا، کارکردها و همچنین به وسیله مشاهدات عینی و تکمیل پرسش نامه اطلاعات لازم درباره شاخص های مسکن هوشمند جمع آوری شد، در ادامه با استفاده از تکنیک سلسله مراتب AHP میزان آسیب پذیری کالبدی واحدهای مسکونی منطقه 1 شهر تهران مشخص شده است؛ که نتایج نشان می دهد بسیاری از نواحی مسکونی در معرض آسیب پذیری شدید قرار دارد. همچنین برای پاسخ به فرضیه تحقیق نظرات 30 نفر از اساتید و صاحب نظران بخش مسکن جمع آوری و به وسیله تکنیک تحلیل مسیر تجزیه وتحلیل شده است. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل مسیر نشان می دهد کلیه عوامل دارای اثر مستقیم و معنی دار بر روی کاهش آسیب پذیری مسکن شهری می باشند. تفکیک آثار مستقیم و غیر مستقیم متغیرها بر کاهش آسیب پذیری مساکن شهری نشان می دهد که عامل امنیت و ایمنی با مقدار 892/0 بیشترین اثر مستقیم را به طور مثبت و معنی دار بر کاهش آسیب پذیری مسکن شهری دارد. نکته قابل توجه در مورد این عامل این است که اثر غیرمستقیم این عامل از طریق عامل رفاه و آسایش با مقدار  863/0 است، که بسیار قابل توجه است؛ به عبارتی  عامل امنیت و ایمنی از طریق عامل رفاه و آسایش سبب کاهش چشمگیر آسیب پذیری مسکن خواهد شد. همچنین اثر مستقیم عامل رفاه و آسایش با میزان 422/0، و صرفه جویی انرژی با مقدار 398/0 به مقدار قابل توجهی بر کاهش آسیب پذیری مساکن شهری موثر هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی، شاخص های آسیب پذیری کالبدی مسکن، مسکن هوشمند، منطقه 1 شهر تهران
  • مهدی مودودی ارخودی*، سجاد فردوسی، عصمت نجفی ارخودی صفحات 207-222

    هزینه های موردنیاز برای جذب مشتریان جدید، همواره بیشتر از هزینه های حفظ مشتریان فعلی است، لذا توجه به وفاداری مشتریان، به عاملی مهم در صنعت هتلداری مبدل شده است. بر این اساس، هدف این تحقیق، بررسی عوامل موثر بر وفاداری و ماندگاری گردشگران در هتل های پنج ستاره شهر مشهد است. در این تحقیق، میزان وفاداری و ماندگاری گردشگر در هتل های پنج ستاره شهر مشهد در ارتباط با عوامل عمومی، اعتبار، اطمینان، پاسخ گویی، همدلی، و وفاداری بررسی شده است. رویکرد کلی پژوهش، از نوع پژوهش های کمی و ازنظر شیوه گردآوری داده ها، مبتنی بر داده های کتابخانه ای و میدانی می باشد. به منظور توزیع پرسشنامه، نمونه ای به تعداد 354 نفر موردبررسی قرار گرفت. تحلیل داده ها، با استفاده از شاخص های آمار توصیفی همچون توزیع فراوانی و روش مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری با رویکرد حداقل مربعات جزئی انجام شده است. به طورکلی نتایج نشان می دهد که عوامل عمومی (ضریب 788/0)، اعتبار (ضریب 823/0)، اطمینان (ضریب 703/0)، پاسخ گویی (ضریب 717/0)، همدلی (ضریب 640/0)، و وفاداری (ضریب 725/0) بر وفاداری و ماندگاری گردشگر در هتل های پنج ستاره شهر مشهد، تاثیر مثبت و معناداری دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: رضایت، گردشگر، وفاداری و ماندگاری، هتل
  • محمدتقی رضویان*، سهراب موذن، مرتضی قورچی صفحات 223-237

    توسعه شهرنشینی و افزایش جمعیت شهرها، منجر به افزایش مصرف و تقاضا برای منابع انرژی شده است که این امر محدود شدن انرژی مورد مصرف و آلودگی های زیست محیطی ناشی از مصرف سوخت های فسیلی را در پی داشت؛ از این رو، امروزه، یکی از چالش های پیش روی دولت ها در سراسر جهان، ایجاد شهرهایی است که از نظر مصرف انرژی بهینه باشد. در این زمینه، برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین، نقش موثری در کاهش مصرف انرژی ایفا می کند. پژوهش حاضر تلاشی است در جهت برنامه ریزی کاربری اراضی و ارتباط آن با بهینه سازی مصرف انرژی در جهت توسعه پایداری شهری. در همین راستا، با استفاده از مدل لید به ارزیابی کارایی انرژی در محله ولنجک شهر تهران پرداخته شد. نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی می باشد. روش جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و داده های طرح تفصیلی منطقه یک شهرداری تهران بوده و تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها با استفاده از مدل LEED و نرم افزارهای EXCEL و GIS صورت گرفته است. یافته های تحقیق نشان دهنده وجود ارتباط مستقیم بین برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین و میزان مصرف انرژی بوده و دو بخش ساختمان و حمل ونقل، دو مولفه تاثیرگذار در مصرف و کارایی انرژی به شمار می روند. در مجموع امتیاز محدوده مورد مطالعه از 43 امتیاز ممکن حدودا 20 امتیاز را بدست آورده است که نشان دهنده وضعیت متوسط (و نه چندان مطلوب) محله است. با سیاست گذاری و برنامه ریزی می توان شهرهای ما را به سمت فضاهای با کیفیت تر و با کارایی انرژی سوق داد.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین، توسعه پایدار، کارآیی انرژی، محله ولنجک شهر تهران، مدل LEED
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  • Saleh Arekhi, BaratAli Khakpour, Behnam Ata* Pages 1-17
    Introduction

    The physical developments of cities are considered as the main factors of changes in the land use and the land cover. Urbanization has put the living conditions of urban residents at the risk of destruction by creating the most extensive manipulation of human in nature. However, urban development and changes in the land use patterns cause widespread social and environmental impacts.These impacts include the reduction of natural spaces, the increase of the vehicles concentration, the reduction of the agricultural lands with high production potential, and some impacts on the natural drainage and water quality. These impacts are somehow related to the changes in the land use patterns as a result of human activities. Therefore, it seems vital to understand how changes in the land use and the land cover look in terms ofthe quantity of these changes and their special patternsbecause they have wide impacts on the environment, water cycles, natural habitats and so on.So the understanding and modeling of these changes are considered as important issues for environment managers, planners, and municipalities. On the other hand, physical development of the cities is eliminating and destroying fertile agricultural lands.


    Review of the Literature:

    One of these physical development effects includes development at the suburbs or countryside districtslocated beyond the administrative boundaries of the cities. This urban development has gone into the outer areas of the cities and can lead to changes in the land use over there. Furthermore, the physical urban development will eliminate and destroy high-quality agricultural lands.At their initial stages of formation, most of the cities in Iran were established near or among the high-quality agricultural lands with the purpose of using high-quality soil for agriculture and then these lands were gradually buried under the cities through villages development.Accordingly,agricultural activities were inevitably receded to the poor lands.The physical urban development is a dynamic and continuous process in which the city boundaries and its physical space increase in the vertical and horizontal directions both quantitatively and qualitatively. If this process is a rapid and unplanned process, the city space and body will be faced with some problems.

    Method

    Landsat (MSS) satellite images taken on 1976/01/06, Landsat (TM) satellite images taken on 2007/29/06, aerial photographs 1:20000 taken in 1979, and land use map 1:250000 prepared in 1998were used in this study.  In addition, ENVI 4.7, IDRISI Selva and ArcGIS 9.3 software were used for data processing, manifesting, modeling, and getting output.Maximum likelihood method was also used to classify the uses.Analogy after classification was then used to examine changes in uses. Finally, logistic regression model was used for the anticipation of changes.According to the desired classes for classification (of urban and non-urban areas) before the collection of the urban information so as to prepare an actual map of the ground and a map from the training samples, first the colored pictorial data obtained from the satellite images were generally identified and the urban and non-urban areas were specified on them. Then,50 samples of each class were selected through GPS system by referring to the cities and a map was then prepared with a raster structure according to each of them. Finally, the maps resulted from classification were compared with the actual map of the ground.

    Results and Discussion

    The results of the images classification showed that about 168 hectares of the entire city were covered by the residential areas in 1976 and non-urban lands were about 6025 hectares. On the other hand, in 2007 the urban lands were about 1683 hectares and non-urban lands were about 4510 hectares. The results of the comparison of two classification maps related to the beginning and the end of the period showed that 1515 hectares hadbeen added to the urban area during this period due to the construction.When the location and level of the residential areas development were determined, logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between the factors associated with this phenomenon. Digital data such as distance from roads, distance from treatment centers, distance from educational centers, distance from arid lands, distance from parks and gardens, and the domain slope and direction were prepared at GIS environment as independent variables of the regression model and then a logistic regression relationship was established between the urban development as the dependent variable and the mentioned parameters.According to the results, Pseudo R2 amount was equal to 0.2808, so the model fitting can be considered tolerable. On the other hand, the ROC amount was equal to 0.8743, that is, close to 1 which shows high capability of the model for describing the changes and determiningthe areas prone to changes. A pictorial file was also extracted along with the model results through which the areas of urban developments can be anticipated in the future.Maximum-likelihoodcells for development are removed from the imagefile for each period in thefuture as the areas of urban development.

    Conclusion

    These models are appropriate for anticipating the urban development location and making urban managers and authorities able to avoid uncontrolled urban development through suitable administrative strategies.Land zoning around the city is suggested in order to keep valuable lands such as jungles and agricultural lands.

    Keywords: Urban Growth, Logistic regression, GIS, Ilam city, modeling
  • pezhman mohamadi* Pages 19-38
    Introduction

    Encouraging walking, many short and average trips currently taken by public transportation will be pedestrianized. As a result, the city's financial burden on public transportation systems is reduced. The revival of urban centers comes not only from government policies but also from the citizens' desire to act in their favor. Ferdowsi Street, as one of the most important streets of Isfahan City, which is the communication axis to reach the Zayandehrood River and the city center and it is one of the longest routes to Imam Square, the route to numerous medical centers on Amadegah Street and so on.Although the traffic is heavy and there is a lot of personal and public communication going on, no specific action has been taken to ensure that pedestrians play a vital role in Isfahan. In particular, Ferdowsi Street is an important street as one of the areas of gravity to access the various tourist center of the city and administrative centers. The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of walkways in urban vitality in Ferdowsi Street in Isfahan.

    Review of Literature

    Sidewalks are confined streets, where traffic jams are removed, and only emergency vehicles can access them, and trucks are allowed to travel at specified times. On the sidewalks, there is a great deal of freedom for pedestrians to stop, pause, change direction, and direct contact with others, and according to Beau Canon, freedom of pedestrian movement in cities and urban spaces is a good sign of that city's civilization. The presence of pedestrians in the access network passages has a lifelong impact on the city, and has two main aspects, 1- interurban transport system, 2- space for communication, and social interactions, so that one of the ways of revitalizing civic centers The city is the sidewalks, which play an important role in discovering and perceiving the physical and social environment of the city, and represent the civilization, identity and civility of the city.

    Method

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the pedestrian trend in urban vitality in Ferdowsi Street, Isfahan. The present research is a descriptive (non-experimental) study in terms of research method (data gathering techniques). In fact, the method used in this research is a descriptive-analytical method. The statistical population of the study consisted of all urban experts in Isfahan with 2865 people. The sample size is determined according to the Morgan Table. Accordingly, the sample size is 256 people, and 305 people were selected for more suitable analyses. SPSS software, Kolmoprof-Smirnov test and T-test were used to analyze the data.

    Results and Discussion

    Based on this survey, it was found that the improvement of the pedestrian paths in Ferdowsi Street in Isfahanhas increased the residents' satisfaction. Meanwhile, it has improved the mental and psychological well-being of the residents and the vitality of the urban space accordingly. With an increase in human trafficacross the street, the backdrop for business prosperity is created; On this basis, it is suggested that urban management, using pedestrian components, and based on the experiences of other successful countries, develop a strategic and operational document on pedestrianizing this street, and in other streets take actions, the results of which will be beneficial to the people and authorities in their vitality.

    Conclusion

    Movement, mobility and presence are essential to city life. Today, with the development of motorized vehicles, the emphasis is on riding and ignoring pedestrians. In our reviews, we realized the importance of urban streets and pedestrians and concluded that we could improve the quality and visibility of these routes through the factors such as diversity, vitality, flexibility and safety, and so on. To make urban centers attractive,attempts should be made to focus more on business satisfaction, relaxation and improvement, as well as the development of public transportation, traffic management plans including narrowing roads, widening sidewalks and a solution to the vehicle parks,and reforming the physical structure of the city through pedestrianization (space for walking).When it comes to pedestrian and pedestrian satisfaction, it offers many sub-variables, which can lead to tourism boom, business boom, livelihoods, improved social relationships, etc. Of course, other variables can also be examined in detail in the other contexts. Conclusions can be drawn about the impact of this area's pedestrianization on business prosperity, and the increase of people's happiness, and the satisfaction of users of this space, based on background information and experience of some pedestrians in Iran and the world. Received that this walking will increase business prosperity and popularity, as well as social outreach, which in turn will raise the spirit of cooperation and a sense of community. Compliance with these guidelines can be enhanced by observing the principles and methods of pavement design.

    Keywords: Pedestrian, Vitality, Man, Satisfaction, Ferdowsi Street, Isfahan City
  • SeydMohammad Rezazadeh, Zohreh Fanni*, Mohammadtaghi Razavian Pages 39-61
    Introduction

    During the past few years, there has been extensive concerns over environment and the growing tourism, while one of the main subjects of debate in the world involves their protection. On the other hand, the accelerating growth of the tourism industry is regarded as a considerable source of income as well as an effective factor on cultural exchanges between nations; as the most extensive service industry in the world, it occupies a special position. It also affects cities as tourists’ places of interest, and for many urban managers and authorities, it hastransformed into an economic, symbolic, and significant affair.

    Review of the Literature

    Malmasi (2013) examined the implications of systems and guidelines on environmental impact assessment according to the experiences and standards of countries, and investigated the biodiversity in Central Zagros region. By examining the role of the tourism industry Rasekhi, Karimi, and Mohammadi (2016) concluded that tourism has positive impacts in developed countries while it involves negative effects in developing countries. Habibi, Kaka Jubb, and Abdi(2015) used the Ecological Footprint Model. Al Mohammad, Zebardast, and Salehi, (2015) concluded that explaining the position of environmental strategic assessment in the country’s planning system can help enhance and guaranteeconsistency in the decision-making hierarchy, identify the gaps within planning systems, increase transparency and integration, support strategic planning processes, prevent additional works, and offer effective views. Delaavar and Moradifar (2013) established that mass tourism, the high extent of seasonal demand with respect to such activities along the shoreline, the absence of essential infrastructure, and lack of relative balance in tourism market’s supply and demand have led to more changes in horticultural and agricultural land use along the shoreline, contamination of surface water supplies, decline of coastal landscapes, increased traffic, population congestion, and inefficiency of current facilities. Carr, Ruhanen, and Whitford (2017) concluded that the main directive factors of tourism include opportunity and strength factors. Torres-Delgado and Saarinen (2016) established that the main challenge in this area include compilation of a strategic guideline and theoretical design of indices. Dobrica and Jovicic (2013) showed that sustainable tourism and environment are one of the main components of sustainable developments. Case studies have shown that the examination of urban environment cancontribute to the sustainability of tourism and local communities and help realize their features. Overall, urban environmental sustainability analysis since the 1990s has opened up new horizons regarding urban tourism development and the protection of universal ecological heritage, in addition to bringing about economic growth, social development, meeting the needs related to leisure and pastime, cultural enhancement of local communities and various tourism-related motivations. The focus of this type of urban environment strategic planning influenced by tourism, minimum effects on natural ecosystems, and its objectives, is on protecting local environment and culture, esp. urban tourism.

    Method

    In terms of contents and nature, the present exploratory inquiry is a descriptive-analytical, development study. The method of research was compiled within the framework of urban environment sustainable development paradigm and community-centered approach with emphasis on urban tourism development. The purpose of the study was to identify and protect urban environment so as to prevent the destruction of urban environments caused by tourist activities; furthermore, planning for development and sustainability through suitable contexts of drawing plans and environmental and urban tourism strategies in this region can result in the conservation of environmental and ecological values, attraction of tourists, development of the whole culture (community-centered development) and their desired impacts. The most important techniques used include SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) to identify the capabilities of urban environment and tourism) and QSPM (Quantitative Strategic Evaluation Matrix)for quantitative evaluation of obtained strategies in drawing scenarios and editing the outlook for Darakeh District, and the results of questionnaires were analyzed based on theoretical foundations of the study and models. The purpose of this study is to compile a set of strategies to improve the development of Darakeh District with respect to the urban sustainable development process using such models. The required data for the study are of two types: first the library method which involves the study of documents, data and official statistics, internet examinations, theses and books, reports and schemes by related organizations, and providing various plots of the urban environment to identify capacities and extensive capabilities of the region; and second is the field study method including interviews with units of analysis (residents of District 1, especially Darakeh District, foreign and domestic tourists in the region), observation of issues and various spots in the residential and natural area of the region, photography, obtaining statistics on the number of active employees in urban tourism and environment sector, interview with residents of the region and district along with tourists and experts.

    Results and Discussion

    The results of prioritizing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats along with assessing the evaluation matrix on internal and external factors showed that the most important strengths of the region include intimacy, high neighborly relations, and the presence of social bonds. The presence of narrow paths was identified as the most important weakness of the region. Identified opportunities included the positive role of public institutions in planning and managing the region. The identified threats to the region included the integration of Districts 1 and 2, ineffectiveness of urban plans, and environmental pollutions caused by the considerable number of tourists. Overall, the findings of the study denote high intimacy and neighborly relations and increased sense of belonging, using the beautiful nature of the region in line with tourist attraction, easy access of residents to the main streets, strong social bonds among residents and their willingness to live within the district which are considered as the priorities in planning followed by a set of strategies for sustainable development of the District 1 residents of Tehran metropolitan area. Consequently, given the obtained responses from both models, the answer to the research question is that the presence of suitable contexts for compiling urban environment strategic plans with emphasis on tourism has been able to contribute to the sustainable development of the region and Darakeh District.

    Conclusion

    In general, the outset of urban planning and management is at the micro level (district), in order to provide the means for empowering citizens and attracting real participations, deemed necessary with regards to local sustainability. The status quo of District 1 in Tehran metropolitan area was studied in thisresearch; following the identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, the grounds for compiling a set of strategic plans to achieve local sustainability were ultimately drawn. The findings of the study demonstrate that increase in the level of intimacy, neighborly relations, and sense of belonging to the district, strong social bonds among the residents of Darakeh, the use of the beautiful nature of the region to attract tourists, easy access to the main streets and increased willingness of residents to live in Darakeh district (due to high SWOT results in peripheral landscape of the region) are suitable grounds to compile strategic plans for sustainable development of tourism and the district itself, in District 1 of Tehran metropolitan area.

    Keywords: Community Development, Tourism, Urban Environment, Darakeh Neighborhood, District 1Tehran City
  • Gholamreza Kazemian*, Reza Vaezi, Vajhollah Ghorbanizadeh, Marzieh Shahmohammadi Pages 63-80
    Introduction

    Local governance is a comprehensive concept and a continuous process in which the government and citizens govern the affairs of a territory through bilateral interactions. Accordingly, given the accelerated global developments and inefficiency of one-sided and hierarchical relations between central and local governments, centralization and monopolism of central governments are no longer efficient in governing the vast territory of a nation; as a result, there is a need for strategies to offer an effective relation between these two levels so as to facilitate service provision to citizens. In addition, considering the country’s objectives in line with assembling all resources and terminating sole dependency on fossil fuel supplies to achieve sustainable developments, the notions of decentralization followed by government improvement can be advantageous. To this end, the purpose of the present inquiry is to present a pathologic study of national-local relations through the identification of potentials, limitations, contextual factors and strategies on the formation of local government within the Iranian administrative system.

    Literature Review

    Iran’s inclination towards reducing the role of the government in the economy and other vital aspects of the society as well as emphasis on development and the downsizing of the government suggest the influence of global developments on the Iranian bureaucratic system and policymaking. On the other hand, considering rapid environmental changes, the grounds for meeting people’s demands are arranged and the government should modify and update itself accordingly. Therefore, sole reliance on conventional communication mechanisms can no longer meet the needs of today’s society.Organizations such as the World Bank argue that the position of public decision-making should be as close as possible to the citizens under its influence; particularly, the subsidiarity principle should be taken into account according to which, local governance responsibilities ought to occur locally, unless there are reasons not to allocate such powers. Otes believes that all public services should be provided by the authority that controls the minimum geographical region and internalizes the expenses and benefits of these provisions, because local governments have a better understanding of the concerns of local citizens. On the other hand, Miller suggest that local governments and decentralization are closely-connected notions.In traditional definitions, the word “governance” is synonymous with government and implies “the act or the process of governance”. However, Johnson believes that in the new application, governance is defined as the interference of an extensive spectrum of actors in producing policies; additionally, McLolin defines governance as a process that guarantees a coherent system which involve both the government and the society.In Iran, the first local management and city administration act was passed in 1907 as “Baladiyah Law- meaning Urban Law”; it was a pattern intended for decentralization in Iran which was dismissed during the Pahlavi era and its centralization policies. Following the Islamic Revolution, despite the fact that a suitable capacity was foreseen for the management of local affairs and the role-playing of publicly-appointed councils within numerous constitutional principles, it was not realized and national affairs continued to be managed by the central government. Moreover, the discussion on relations between the central and local governments in line with the formation of local governments has resulted in the involvement of constitutional principles regarding national, intergovernmental relations in the subject of central-local coordination. Such a coordination denotes the mutually effective role of the local and central governments to offer better services and democracy improvement; therefore, these elements and relations in local governance require a more comprehensive examination and revision.

    Method

    The present study was conducted using the Constructing Grounded Theory which follows an interpretive, exploratory approach and places an emphasis on emergent phenomena, the definition of their characteristics, and presentation of participants’ definitions of events and situations whilst attempting to expand its tacit meanings and implied principles (Charms, 2014, 32). The participants in this study included 21 experts with working experience. Data were collected using in-depth interviews, documentation, and continues comparisons. Analysis in the grounded theory was conducted through four coding stages including initial, centralized, axial and theoretical, the results of which provided a demonstration of relations between concepts. The reliability of the study was insured through extensive presence at the location and in-depth interactions. The validity of the study was also guaranteed through transparency of the entire research procedures.

    Results and Discussion

    In this study, 749 key expressions were obtained at initial coding, 297 concepts identified from centralized coding, and 30 secondary and 8 main concepts were attained using axial and theoretical coding, respectively. Titles including “the element of lawfulness at the local level” and “citizens’ access and familiarity of modern communication tools” were identified as the only institutional and social potential secondary concepts, respectively. The five secondary concepts of institutional limitations included policy-performance conflicts, legal issues, informal influences, inadequate local-central financial and functional relations, and impractical outsourcing. The five secondary concepts of social limitations included negative policymaking, multitude of interests, pessimistic outlooks, seeking personal benefits, and the absence of collective participation and a merit-based sysetm. Four secondary concepts of political factors involved the government’s monopolist spirit, ineffective implementation of democracy, the influence of governance background, and the absence of political parties. The secondary concepts of economic factors were comprised of resource limitations and the issue of corrupted economy. The seven secondary concepts of institutional strategies included the decisive exercise of present laws, revision and modification of laws, gradual and development-oriented decentralization, the resolution of structural paradoxes, presence of a functional local income system, purposeful and transparent improvement of organization, and extensive planning and their operationalization. Finally, the five secondary concepts of social strategies included the enhancement of public trust, collective empowerment, localism, media improvement, and the allocation of local affairs through increasing participatory motivations.

    Conclusion

    Given the global experiences and lack of domestic success in providing adequate services to citizens, the Iranian national government is principally determined to surrender its centralized power and resolve institutional and social limitations against the formation of local governance so as to facilitate service provision. Moreover, considering the time-consuming nature of resolving social issues, the necessity to make urgent decisions accordingly and the participation of all actors in local governance is inevitable. On the other hand, there are a number of underlying political and economic factors in this concept that call for unity, solidarity, and the adoption of legal and inherent responsibilities among the three constitutional powers of the state. While institutional strategies are mostly related to the resolution of legal issues, certain social strategies are recommended as agendas including building trust among citizens, their empowerment, and participations so that the formation of local governance in Iran would not be too far-fetched.

    Keywords: Decentralization, Local Governance, National-Local Relations, Constructing Grounded Theory
  • Hadi Hakimi, Zahra Rezazadeh, Roghayeh Askarnezhad* Pages 81-101
    Introduction

    One of the important aspects of urban planning is the proper positioning of urban service elements. Within their extensive spectrum involving facilities and equipment, these services include elements that should be positioned in suitable locations according to a set of policies and criteria; terminals are one of those elements. As communication junctures between urban and suburban roads, the presence of terminals prevents the entrance of buses to cities; therefore, they play a constructive role in improving traffic, reducing urban environmental pollutions, and managing trips. Given the absence of terminals to provide services to the rural areas surrounding Meshkinshahr City, taxies and vehicles occupy the streets which results in traffic congestion and its related issues. Accordingly, this city was selected in this study which is aimed at identifying the most suitable location for a terminal.

    Review of Literature:

    Some terms are needed to be clarified in this study.Location: In his book titled urban land use planningPourmohammadi (2003) defines location as an activity in which the capabilities of a region is assessed and analyzed in terms of suitable and sufficient land for a particular use.Urban Transportation System: Urban transportation systems include facilities and services that enable travelling to the entire region and provides opportunities including i) movement of residents and commodities, and ii) access to different urban lands with various uses.Terminals: Terminals are junctures in which travel and shipment begin or end.Studies conducted on the area of rural terminal location are considerably limited.Foreign sources in this field has mostly been focused on identifying locations for multiple stations using network analysis as well as achieving the best possible model to minimize costs. A number of domestic inquiries involve terminal location using methods such as AHP, P-Median, etc. through multiple criteria.

    Method

    The purpose of the present study is applied in which the causal method was employed. There are a number of different indices for terminal location; the indices used in this study was examined in four aspects including physical, environmental, economic, and social. Indices used in the physical aspect include adjacency to the main roads, access to the main urban routes, adaptability, access to facilities and equipment. In the environmental aspect, indices included digital elevation model, and gradient, and distance from rivers. The economic aspect involved the land cost and finally, the social aspect included population density and households.In order to express the relative significance of indices, first their relative weight should be determined. To this end, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was employed. Through indicating the priority of layers over each other using the Expert Choice software, the final weight of each layer was obtained with an instability coefficient of 0.02. Then, the layers should be standardized using fuzzy logic. Unlike Boolean logic, the certainty problem does not exist in fuzzy logic and each layer is graded ata scale between zero to one. At these scales, higher values mean higher utility. In addition to the issue of choosing a scale to draw fuzzy maps, the type of the fuzzy function should also be examined; in this study, functions including sigmoidal, linear and user-defined were used. Moreover, one of the points that should be taken into account while standardizing fuzzy maps is indication of the threshold limit which is also called control points.The ELECTRE method is one of the multi-criterion decision analysis methods used from the middle of 1960s in Europe. As a “non-grade” method, options in this method are not graded. The ELECTRE method was employed in this study in order to grade suitable zones. In this method, all options are assessed using non-graded comparisons and ineffective options are removed.

    Results and Discussion

    Following the preparation of the intended layers in Arc Map and the application of weights obtained from weighing process in the expert choice software using the AHP method, a model was provided in which criteria including closeness to main roads with a weight of 0.234 and distance from rivers with a weight of 0.029 involve the highest and lowest final weights, respectively. Other criteria involved weights between these two values. Next, layers were standardized in the Idrisi software. Then, layers were multiplied by each other using the GIS Analysis command in Idrisi software and the obtained result included a zoning in which the suitable locations for terminals were expressed. Finally, zones with perfect potentials were graded using the ELECTRE model; the grading results showed that option 1 which is located in the northern part of the city and involves the closest access to the main road is the first suitable option for a terminal. Another reason this location was selected is that passengers who enter the city can gain access to the main urban routes as fast as possible. Moreover, land uses present at this zone are more adaptable to the terminal and there are more arid lands where terminals can be constructed. In terms of land prices, this option is more cost-effective compared to others. Other priorities were obtained as options 2 and 3 (South East of the city).

    Conclusion

    In this study, different social, economic and natural aspects were examined and scientific models and principles were employed in order to identify suitable locations for terminals. First, the accessible informational layers and criteria were studied and location analyses were conducted so as to obtain an output map that shows suitable and unsuitable zones for terminal construction. Then, zones with perfect potentials were graded using the ELECTRE model.The majority of studies conducted in the area of terminal location have mostly focus on physical, environmental, economic, and social factors. It was also attempted in this study to take all these factors into account. However, the merit of the present study lies within the use of the WLC model and the ELECTRE method for zoning and grading suitable zones, respectively.Recommended Strategies:1. For the purpose of cost-effectiveness, the construction of the terminal should begin before the price of the zone is increased.2. The establishment of incompatible land uses should be prevented before the construction of terminal.3. Since the criterion regarding the multitude of the surrounding rural areas was overlooked in this study due to certain limitations, this index is recommended to be examined in future research.

    Keywords: ELECTRE, AHP, Terminals, Meshkinshahr City, Location, Fuzzy Logic
  • Sadegh Fakour Kargar*_Iradj Asadie_Nosrat. A Goudarzi Pages 103-125
    Introduction

    The way of our development affects people's daily lives; how much families pay for housing and transportation, how long workers spend commuting home, the economic opportunities in communities and even personal health are all connected to how neighborhoods and surrounding areas are built (Ewing & Hamidi, 2014).The biggest problem in understanding the question of where the city ends and countryside begins is the result of current ways of living where physical boundaries are becoming increasingly less clear. Nowadays we observe new categories like urbanized countryside (rural-type cities) on the periphery of the city. These in-between spaces are the mixing of various mechanisms and natures.Although the changes that occurred in the last half of the twentieth century has made the boundary (difference) between urban and rural less visible (or even erased it), people still perceive the difference in their perceptions of space. In other words, the boundary will become more a part of mental perception rather than a function of exterior physical indicators. Nowadays, suburbs are provided as the new in-between areas for city residents that wish to live in nature and yet close to the city and its facilities (Scott et al., 2007). On the other hand, a driving force for the expansion of urban spaces, especially residential land use, isa critical need for habitation. It is alsoa desire for security through the acquisition of property and private activities aimed at searching for additional benefit via the additional value of urban land. The allocation of appropriate land around the cities for urban development provides a basis for competing among different actors that follow their benefits and strategies; this benefit determines if development begins to take shape or isstopped (Bastye & Deezer, 1999). This phenomenon and the economic and regulatory systems which create it not only produce an inefficient and unpleasant environment on the urban fringe but also adversely affect the inner city and the rural areas as well (Bosselman, 1968).Although the expansion of city at outskirt can be cited as a general and extensible characteristic of urban sprawl problem, in a detailed explanation of why it occurs we have to say that if one block group or a group of them has a significantly higher density than those surrounding it. We can say the former serves as a center for the block groups surrounding it; therefore, sprawl does not always occur at the periphery of urbanized areas moving outward based on this definition, (Ewing & Hamidi, 2010).Due to the above-mentioned definition of sprawl, this article intends to organize the texts and data of other studies and extract their main message. Then, with the help of summarization and evaluation methods, it draws out and applies the practical knowledge lies in them. Based on this method, this studyaims to explore the measurement of urban sprawl in the areas of the Mashhad Metropolitan region as a preferred statistical measurement scale.

    Review of Literature

    From the earliest writings on sprawl, sprawl has been assumed to occur primarily at the periphery of urbanized areas moving outward. An individual street or block may contribute to sprawl, but we would not called it sprawl. This distinction seems particularly poignant when we talk about population and employment centers, which is defined by the interrelationships among block groups (Ewing &Hamidi, 2010).A unique and specific definition of the so-called Iranian sprawl phenomenon includes planned and unplanned automobile-oriented urban growth with lack of local public facilities and uses, public social open spaces, and relatively low-population density caused by fast urbanization and poor growth control and automobile-oriented planning. In this sense, it can be argued that the form of the fast and dispersed developments in the periphery of the Iranian cities has little in common with suburban development. In fact, the urban sprawl of the country can hardly be called suburban or development (Ebrahimpour, 2012).

    Method

    As an organized, controlled, experimental and critical action about a usual phenomenon, the present paper intends to benefit from two joint methods for achieving objective knowledge and practical results through resources-data and identify theirrelationship with people's lives and control it, if necessary. The first methodology is applied at the same time with codification of the research theoretical framework. Thus, using documentary method and the utilization of related references, the results of studies, viewpoints and intellectual evolutions are compared, summarized and combined until a unit estimation begins to take shape and moderator variables areextracted for explaining the effects of the intended phenomenon. In the next step, these variables are adjusted according to the conditions of the country-study area in terms of economic, social and physical general conditions and available-accessible data in order to provide the basis for the second type of methodology at the level of quantitative measurement of the problem. Atthis level, the data are extracted from the available statistical sources and an organized geographical information system. The data are then analyzed and evaluated through the factor analysis to provide the necessary preparations for the production of maps.

    Results and Discussion

    Global urbanization and rapid population growth have made sprawl a common form of development at the international level. Even with consideration of this fact that the nature of suburbanization and sprawl may not be the same, nowadays, however, in many American and world cities, suburbanization often has taken the scattered form and pattern. In Iran, today's massive sprawl is also only a part of the urban transformation process aimed at preparing the urban form of the cities for car usage.It is obvious that the current condition is seeking multi-dimensional spatial planning interference to ensure wise distribution-management of goals, infrastructures, land uses and essential services at city scale on one hand, while proper implementation of plans contains these distributions on the other hand. However, all these ideals could not be practically achieved as they should be. As a result, the ground for the appearance of urban sprawl begins to take shape in illegal or unplanned conditions, generally on the periphery of cities.As a debatable issue, this part of research attempts to rebuild the imperfect or incorrect intellectual assumptions of its audience on the pillars of the problem literature and undermine the accuracy of compound words such as "urban sprawl" and "suburban sprawl" that have been the default assumption of the present researchers'intellectual foundations. Therefore, the authors of this research attemptto explain the following points to readers:Firstly, the common title of this phenomenon misleads the mind in recognition of its true nature and origin of formation. In other words, the prefix "urban" in the compound word "urban sprawl" not only could not describe the true nature of settlements formed based on this development pattern but also could not necessarily be their only formation source.Secondly, if the urban sprawl pattern generally begins to take shape on the periphery of citiesdespite the generalization, we should not overlook the possibility of its occurrence within the city. That is, the prefix "periphery" could not necessarily be the only place that this phenomenon appears.Thirdly, although we may enumerate various causes and mechanisms for the problem of urban sprawl from one city to another,it must be understood that most of them are influenced by a major cause called the value of land and estates.Fourthly, the so-called Iranian sprawl is a compound that nowadays has been forgotten in domestic research, while it is compatible with western sprawl only in generality (some general traits) and fundamental differences are also found in details.Due to various issues arising out of scattered growth pattern, an urgent need is felt for research on the difference between scattered and normal growth. Understanding the obstacles of development management in both developed and developing nations and offering effective approaches are the most important part of the process of solvingthis problem. There are different capabilities to establish theoretical and practical frameworks. Some are not in the scope of this study such asan intellectually-authoritative monitoring and intervention on urban sprawl aligned with the requirements-offers of comprehensive plan, compacting inner city and offering urban gentrification plans, revitalization of historic centers, controlling urban growth through monitoring public transportation networks expansion (especially railway networks) and monitoring the distribution of services outside city limits. On the other hand, because of differing cities' growth and transformation nature, the proposed solutions must be obtained from native urbanization. That is why an attempt was made during this study to offer a unique definition of Iranian-style sprawl.

    Conclusion

    The theoretical and practical findings of this study proved that nowadays sprawl is considered the leading edge of city growth and reflects the effects of slight oversight of the development planning process on the land subdivision. To be more precise, it is necessary to admit this existing reality in Iranian cities that planned or unplanned growth of cities in suburb, illegal change of land use inside and outside of public service boundaries, concentration of residential, commercial and industrial activities outside of city service area along with the intercity roads and many similar cases are not due to the lack of law but are outputs of monitoring weakness and more importantly, non-enforcement of law.These two are the most important issues intensifying urban sprawl in Iranian cities, solving them could become one of the best strategies inhibiting the formation of scattered areas in cities.Urban sprawl has extensive literature, andpaying attention only to its measurement aspect (especially in domestic studies) and the lack of detailed studies in other parts like the causes, consequences and the proposed solutions is a considerable problem and an excuse for future research. The aim of this study was to measure urban sprawl in the metropolitan region of Mashhad, which could consequently determine a likely picture of its compaction amount. The extracted findings and variables from this study are provided for other researchers who desire to study causes, costs, benefits and coping solutions with this phenomenon in separate, in-depth and detailed studies or who aim to assess social success in dealing with it.

    Keywords: Sprawl, Quantitative, qualitative measurement, Metropolitan Region of Mashhad, Suburbanization, City-region
  • Anvar Amanolapour, Hossein Nazmfar*, Roghay Lotfi Shahmarbigloo Pages 127-146
    Introduction

    The green space as one of the indicators of the development of societies has environmental, social, cultural, economic and physical dimensions and the first and most important step is to determine the appropriate places for it, so that it can fulfill its roles. Urban green spaces and the distribution of urban land in cities are of high importance. Generally,locatingis an activity that evaluates and analyzes the spatial and non-spatial deployments of a territory to select the appropriate location for a particular use. Urban green spacesare part of urban open spaces where natural or often artificial areas are covered by grasses based on human supervision and management and considering the rules, regulations and related specialties for the improvement of living, residences and welfare of citizens and non-rural population centers (Management and Planning Organization, 2008).So the main question of this research is that which part of Ardabil city is the best place to create green space? Since the main goals of urban planning are health and beauty, the proper location of urban green space as one of the most important elements of urban environment has a great role in the desirability of space for citizens.

     Review of Literature

    Vatanparast, OladiGhadiklaee and Akbari(2015) planned studied green paths using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) in District 11 of Mashhad.Using this method in the district resulted in proposing a green path of 11.5 acres. The shape of the city and the more human interaction and interaction with the city space are walkable, convenient and doable. Khavaninzadeh, Sarbaz and Ahmadian(2017) investigated the trend of green spaces changes in Yazd city in the last three decades (1987, 1999 and 2015) using remote sensing. The result of the study showed that urban areas of Yazd have decreased to 271.71 ha over the past 30 years, while the population of the city has increased to 332124 during this period. The greatest reduction in green spaceshas been 209 hectares in the District 2 during these years. The results showed that green spaces Districts 1 and 2 have decreased in the mentioned years.Asthe green spaces in Ardabil city (in four districts) are not divided evenly, using Weighted Sum, GAMMA 0/9, PRODUCT, and Weighted Overlay in GIS, the prior places for creating green spaces were identified.

    Method

    This inquiry is an applied research. A descriptive-analytical approach was taken to conduct the research.The data was gathered through documentary analysis, using library sources, field study, and using the needed information of relevant organizations. The criteria of locating were selected based on locating principles and using the ANP method in Super Decisions software paired comparisons and the weight of each index were done to prepare the layers for Spatial analysis was performed in ARC GIS 10.2. Finally, using the results of the weighted layers integration, in GIS environment with the help of GAMMA 0/9, Weighted Overlay, Weighted Sum priority locations that are in appropriate land and that were relatively suitable were identified and proposed for creating urban green spaces in Ardabil.

    Results and Discussion

    By standardizing the layers to perform the analysis and identify the optimal location for green space creation, all the criteria were compared to see their relative importance based on their value in green space locating. Then, the weights obtained in the effective layers in the GIS environment were identified with the help of Weighted Overlay, PRODUCT, Weighted Sum commands, in order to create urban green space in Ardabil.Ardabil city, due to its inappropriate population distribution, does not have proper distribution of urban green spaces. In some districts of Ardabil city, there is less green space for the population and in some others there is more green space for the population of the areas. Among the areas are Districts 3 and 4 which that despite the high population density, have less green spaces than District 1 and 2. Therefore, selecting optimal locations for urban green spaces according to the usual criteria as well as criteria such as pollution, population density and worn out units can be an effective step in balancing the population and reducing the amount of urban pollution. The optimal place for urban green spaceswas specified in Ardabil city through GAMMA 0/9.

    Conclusion

    In order to achieve the ultimate goal of this study, which is to determine the optimal locating of urban green spaces, suitable locations for urban green space were identified in Ardabil city using the methods used (zones 1, 3 and 4).Suggestions are as follows:• Since inaccurate land use location in cities will cause problems, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) is important for selecting the optimal location for urban land use. According to the results of this study, attention should be paid to locating green areas in Ardabil 3 and 4, as well as area 1 which has significant green space deficiency.

    Keywords: Location, Green Spaces, ANP, Ardabil City
  • Mahin Nastaran*, Farzaneh Pirani Pages 147-164
    Introduction

    Nowadays the world’s population is at an unprecedented level of urbanization. Most of the problems start with the tension of growing population. The rapid increase of population puts a great pressure on cities, especially metropolises. It endangers the needs of future generations and results in an increasing demand for services beyond the city's ability and capacity. Researchers and urban and regional planners in the West have proposed smart city theory in order to guide the use of electronic communication tools to solve urban problems by expanding the concept of electronic city.  City planners and urban managers would assume the idea of smart city as a new approach in urban planning and an unmatched solution to urban problems. Development indicators are an effective factor in targeting, planning and evaluating urban plans. The gap in identifying the development indicators has led to the evaluation of urban plans made without ensuring their validity. According to the extensive studies in the field of urban development, the regional dimension has not received much attention. The lack of smart city indices in line with the indigenous culture of the inhabitants which enables the spatial analysis of regional development is essential. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to identify the smart city criteria and indicators appropriate to the cultural conditions of Isfahan City (esp. the Third Zone) in order to provide corrective actions for smart city.

    Review of Literature

    With regard to smart city indicators and their impacts on the process of the development of zones and the context to build a smart city, little research in this area has been done at the national level, while a great deal of various research has been carried out at the international level. Fallah and Esteghlal (2015) in an article entitled "A Review of Concepts, Indicators and Criteria of Smart City” believe that the construction of smart city is emerging to alleviate the problems generated by rapid urbanization. Eight important elements of smart cities are identified in the following: governance, energy, construction, transportation, infrastructure, technology, health care, smart citizen. This cannot be achieved without considering other influential factors such as culture. To rank smart cities in Europe, Giffinger (2007) measures seventy European cities based on 6 main dimensions, 31 criteria and 70 indicators.

    Method

    In this study, first, by examining the literature on different topics and perspectives in the field of smart city and global experiences, 85 indicators were developed in six dimensions of smart people, smart economy, smart living, smart mobility, smart government and smart environment. To check the cultural conformity of the indices and to ensure that the indices are selected in the best way for measurement through two indices called the content validity relative ratio (CVR) and the content validity index (CVI), which were judged by 30 experts (Isfahan Municipality of the Third Zone, ICT experts, Isfahan traffic and management experts, Deputy Research and Information Technology experts, Isfahan Deputy Research and Studies Experts, and professors). Of all the indicators based on the experts, then approximately 26 indicators were judged by the residents of the Third Zone. Finally, the mean scores of the two groups were analyzed using the statistical test of comparing the mean of two independent samples.

    Results and Discussion 

    In this study, 85 indicators were identified for analysis and evaluation based on six dimensions (people, mobility, governance, living, economics and environment) which have been frequently used in numerous sources; The CVR and CVI indices were evaluated and judged by experts and the degree of residents willingness of Isfahan third zone was evaluated, regarding some indices for cultural adaptation. From this point of view, among the indicators of smart economy, the index "percentage of the number of companies providing electronic services" has the highest rank and in the dimension of smart movement the highest rank is related to the index of "number of fixed and wireless broadband subscriptions". From the dimension of smart people, indices of "citizens' awareness of urban issues" and "percentage of households with access to smart computers and phones" have the highest ranks, indicating that the most concern of the professionals is to involve people in urban issues and ICT skills. In terms of governance, the highest value is related to the index of "equipping the area with technology infrastructure", whereas the index of "residents' satisfaction with bandwidth quality" is the highest value from the dimension of intelligent life. Finally, the consensus among experts and residents using the test of mean comparison for two independent samples showed consensus, and 59 indicators were identified as appropriate indices.

    Conclusion

    The results of the study indicate that there is equality between the views of the two groups, and 59 out of 85 indicators were identified as suitable. Therefore, it is suggested that benchmarking studies and indices be carried out for other less developed, developed and underdeveloped areas of Isfahan so that we can achieve sustainability goals in a smart way in accordance with the conditions of each zone with careful planning.

    Keywords: Development Indicators, Electronic City, Intelligent City, Smart City, Third Zone of Esfahan City
  • Sedigheh Kiani Salmi*, Mohsen Shaterian, Fatemeh Sheikh Zadeh Pages 165-184
    Introduction

    In line with his quest to achieve purposes such as becoming familiar with the historical realities of the past, utilizing natural resources, and escaping from life routines, modern man regards tourism as a proper tool that transforms humans’ way of life whilst playing a significant role in employment as one of the most profitable industries. Regardless of travelers’ intention or destination, they need a place to stay and rest; consequently, hotels are important, effective parts of the tourism industry in a variety of forms in terms of building structure such as hotels, apartment hotels, motels, inns, villas, local houses, camps, etc. These services are considered as the secondary needs in the tourism sector required by any tourist city or place. Proper designs can be considered as tourist attractions which, in turn, plays significant role in increasing tourists’ duration of stay. Because of the diverse financial and diversity of tourists, the city needs a variety of hotels in varying degrees, which can play a major role in satisfying tourists with principled investment. The city of Kashan has unique geographic and historical conditions, rituals and special occasions, such as rosewater extraction industry and hundreds of other attractions. In recent years, renovations, restoration and conversion of them to traditional residences have been carried out in the private sector in the field of tourism development, responding to the needs of residents of tourists. Given the fact that traditional residences have a significant number of tourist resorts in Kashan City, the need for an assessment of the desirability and quality of this type of residence is essential. In this research, it has been attempted to study the utility of old houses for changing the use of traditional residences from economic, socio-cultural, managerial-service, physical, functional aspects, access and infrastructure, facilities and equipment. In the following, the effect of the desirability of traditional residences on the satisfaction of tourists has been evaluated.

    Review of Literature

    The following are the most important studies conducted on examining the relation between the extent of the utility of accommodations and tourists’ level of satisfaction:In his study of the role of old houses in tourism development of Tabriz city, Sharifi (2012) argues that in case the old houses of Tabriz are renovated via suitable operations along with a proper change of use, then it would lead to tourism development in the city. Sarlak and Mehdizadeh (2014) compared the sense of place between modern hotels and inns located in historical sites. The survey conducted between Amir Kabir five-star hotel of Arak and traditional inns of Arg Gogad located in Golpayegan showed the interest to return to the traditional location in more than 55% of travelers. In his evaluation and analysis of the quality of services in traditional hotels using importance-performance analysis tools through the views of domestics tourists in Yazd traditional hotels, Assaadi, Azar, and Naghavi (2015) identified 7 effective factors on the quality of services in traditional hotels: physical facilities, sports and recreation facilities, traditional food and drinks, staff behavior, health, traditional inner spaces, response system, and service provision.Foreign researchers have also studied the problem of tourist accommodations; Chou et al. (2008) investigated the multi-criteria fuzzy decision-making model for choosing a location for international hotels. In this study, 21 criteria were employed to identify a location for an international tourism hotel in Taiwan in order to demonstrate the calculation procedure and the effect of fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making system proposed in the paper. Mohajerani and Miremadi (2012) examined customer satisfaction model in the hotel industry in the case of Kish Island, Iran. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between mental image, customer expectations, quality of services, perceived value, and customer faithfulness. According to the results of both domestic and foreign studies, it is apparent that researchers have examined and analyzed the subject through a variety of different approaches. However, there has been no studies on the area of quality analysis and explanation of the utility of traditional accommodations in Kashan and its role on tourist satisfaction. Following the examination of the related literature, the present study seeks to conduct such a study for the first time in Kashan using as systematic approach whilst taking into account the mechanism of the effect of tourists’ satisfaction over such services.

    Method

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the desirability of traditional residences in Kashan and its impact on the satisfaction of urban tourists. The collected data were analyzed using a questionnaire using SPSS software and were presented as a model using Amos software. The number of questionnaires (sample size) was calculated using the Cochran formula of 310 people and were distributed randomly among the tourists who stayed in or visited the traditional residences of Kashan. The research instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire identifies respondents with 13 general categories of descriptive information. The second part is designed to define the operational variables of the research. The independent variable of the research includes the desirability of traditional residences in Kashan City, which has been evaluated using 47 items. The dependent variable is the satisfaction of the tourists, which is evaluated with 4 items. To ensure the validity of the research tool, the questionnaires were provided to university faculties, tourism experts and hotel directors and tourism agencies. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used. The alpha coefficient in this research is calculated to be 0.906.

    Results and Discussion

    Research results show that 57% of male participants and 43% are women. More particularly, 68% were married and 32% were single. Answers about how to get acquainted with Kashan's residences show that 59% of tourists were recommend by friends, 21% via the Internet, 8% by their purchased tour packages in Kashan. The structural equation modeling capabilities were used to identify the factors explaining the desirability of traditional Kashan residences. The six indicators that affect the utility of residences include facilities and access infrastructure, managerial services, physical, functional, socio-cultural and economic perspectives. The index of facilities and equipment in traditional residences with a factor of 0.99 is the most effective factor in explaining the desirability of traditional residences. Finally, the research model shows that the desirable effect of traditional residences on the satisfaction of tourists with factor load is 0.64 and the significance level of zero is confirmed. It can be stated that there is a direct and significant direct relationship between the independent variables of the desirability of traditional residences and the satisfaction of tourists. Therefore, the tourist satisfaction increases as the desirability of traditional residences increases.

    Conclusion

    This research was conducted to identify the desirable dimensions of traditional residences and its effect on the satisfaction of tourists. Factor load of 0.99 for equipment indicators indicates that the factor has the highest impact on the satisfaction of tourists using traditional residences. Subsequently, indices including access, infrastructure, and management-services had significant effects on explaining the utility of traditional accommodations. As the final significant index, the economic latent variable index set had the lowest correlation with the utility of traditional accommodations; the quality of services and equipment was more important to the tourists. The results of the study by Feyz et al. (2013) showed that the price factor was less important compared to other effective factors. The significant factor of the presence of narrow alleyways with a regression weigh value of 0.37 suggest that as opposed to the locals who regard the index as a factor that reduces the local population in the old urban texture, it has not been the case according to the tourists. Furthermore the utility of traditional accommodations are enforced by factors such as the sense of identity, higher levels of interaction with the locals and sense of security, interest in experiencing traditional life, local cousins, use of handmade crafts to decorate accommodations and the affordability of service prices. The obtained significant roles of the entire examined factors in tourist satisfaction are in line with the results of studies by Sohrabi et al. (2013) and Assaadi et al. (2017) in terms of explaining cost and price criteria, facilities, and services. The significance of the effect of traditional accommodations’ utility on tourist satisfaction was confirmed with a value of 0.64 and significance level of zero. This also complies with the results of the study by Sahrifi (2012) on the role of old houses in Tabriz in tourism development.

    Keywords: Traditional Quarters, Old House, Satisfaction, Kashan, Structural Equation Modeling
  • HamidReza Mashayekhi, SeyyedAli Alavi*, Safar Qaed Rahmati Pages 185-206
    Introduction

    Having house and shelter as one of the most essential human needs has always been at the forefront of human desire. Smart homes are of the latest achievements of the housing industry in the present era. Some of the most important features and capabilities of smart housing, welcomed by consumers are: security and safety, convenience, the ease of management, management and saving of energy consumption, the promotion of health promotion. In fact, the phenomenon of smart housing in our Iran in recent years, especially in Tehran, has been increasingly used by consumers, but different dimensions of this phenomenon have rarely been studied by academic centers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is investigating the phenomenon of smart housing and the impact of its indicators on reducing the vulnerability of urban housing in District 1of Tehran.

    Review of Literature

    The concept of housing encompasses the entire residential environment, including all the necessary services and facilities needed for better family living and employment, education and health plans. In fact, housing plays a central role in protecting human beings and their property against natural and human disasters as the body of urban space. The issue of protecting human lives, their belongings, urban facilities and equipment against natural and human hazards is so important that it has led to the formation of new approaches and theories such as smart housing in urban planning. In fact, smart housing is closely linked to the concept of security and safety derived from architectural materials and types. Today, we see the development and expansion of smart materials in the construction industry have been put on the agenda by planners and designers. Smart index is a new term for materials that are capable of understanding and responding to environmental events and processing them. Indicators of smart housing vulnerability assessment are: population density, building materials, age of residential units, residential units infrastructure, area faults, land slope, area land use, and roads of Tehran. Many international and national studies have been conducted to identify the benefits and applications of smart housing. Lobacarro, Carlucci, and Löfström (2016), Nguyen and Aiello (2013), and Robles and Kim (2010) examined the subject and the potential of smart home, feature and optimization of this type of home. At national level, there is no comprehensive research on smart housing so far. Only researches such as Sobhani Noodsheh (2016), Rahmani Node, Garoosi, and Garoosi (2015), and Taqvai and Ranjbar (2014) investigated the advantages of smart housing especially in the area of energy and housing management.

    Method

    The research method is descriptive-analytical according to the nature and goals of the research. The main purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate the impact of smart and new housing indicators on the physical vulnerability of urban housing in the Tehran area. To assess the research hypothesis, the opinions of 30 experts in housing sector were collected and analyzed by questionnaire. In addition, the physical vulnerability of residential units in district 1 of Tehran has been investigated to complement and improve the research work using data obtained from relevant centers using AHP hierarchy technique.

    Results and Discussion

    According to the descriptive and analytical data of the study, district 1 of Tehran was identified as one of the most vulnerable residential areas of Tehran against various disasters because of a very large fault in north of Tehran, its traditional and historical texture, high-rise, unprofessional constructions and high slope due to proximity of Alborz mountains. This means that most residential units in the Tehran are vulnerable and severely affected by natural and human hazards. According to eight smart housing indexes and expert opinions, fire alarm and smoke control intelligent systems index with 16% high score, 46% high score and 23% moderate rating had the greatest impact on the respondent community in reducing physical vulnerability of urban housing in the district 1 of Tehran. In order to answer the question whether the indicators considered in our study were effective in reducing the vulnerability of urban housing, it should be said that the Welfare and Ease Index have the most direct and positive effect on reducing the vulnerability of urban housing.

    Conclusion

    The present study was conducted to determine the impact of smart housing on reducing physical vulnerability by citing scientific resources in one district of Tehran. In this regard, the question of the effect of smart indicators on reducing the vulnerability of urban housing in the study area was raised:Studies using the AHP hierarchical approach have shown that many residential districts of Tehran District 1 are highly vulnerable and because of crossing a very large fault in the north of Tehran, its traditional and historical texture, unprofessional constructions and high slope due to closeness to Alborz mountains is one of the most vulnerable residential areas of Tehran against various disasters.The results also show that smart indices have a positive and significant effect, either directly or indirectly, on reducing physical vulnerability of Tehran's urban housing. The most important and influential variable is security. In other words, all measures to reduce vulnerability are summarized in housing security and safety that require prompt action and attention of officials to improve it for citizens.Therefore, it can be said that the definition and representation of smart housing, its acceptance and existence in the country and the study area, the impact of smart housing on physical vulnerability and so on are the most important findings of this study.

    Keywords: Planning_Intelligent Housing_Physical Housing Vulnerability Vulnerability Indicators_District 1 of Tehran
  • Mehdi Mododi Arkhudi*, Sajad Ferdowsi, Esmat Najafi Arkhudi Pages 207-222
    Introduction

    Loyalty is a substantially important concept in the hotel industry, because the majority of sectors in this industry have reached saturation (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2003); and given the expansion of global market competitions, many hotels are now facing numerous challenges in retaining their customers (Ganesh, Arnold, & Reynolds, 2000). In this regard, leading the customer loyalty through an approach of creating relations with the customer has transformed into a market strategy for the majority of services offered by hotels. Meanwhile, Mashhad is the biggest and most important pilgrimage city in Iran with more than 25 million tourists travelling to the city per year for pilgrimage and visiting tourist destinations. Given the considerable capabilities of the city in tourist attraction as a result of Imam Reza Holy Shrine’s location in the city, paying attention to the needs of tourists in line with retaining them is of utmost importance. Accommodation is one of the most important issues with regards to the loyalty and length of stay of tourists. Considering the few number of high-quality, five-star hotels in Mashhad, it is important for these establishments to focus on their customers’ return in the future. Consequently, the present study seeks to analyze the effective factors on loyalty and length of stay of tourists at Mashhad’s five-star hotels.

    Review of Literature

    Given the extensive interpersonal relations between service providers and customers within the services sector, loyalty plays a substantial role. Customer loyalty results in increased market share, increased capital return rate, and higher profitability for service providers (Baloglu, 2002). Accordingly, a number of questions are posed by researchers and marketing agents with respect to hotels’ capital return via expenditure in line with increasing the quality of services and customer satisfaction (Zeithaml & Parasuraman, 1996). Normally, customers are always seeking quality, regardless of how much they intend to spend to receive such a quality (Gitomer, 1998). Researchers believe that increasing the quality of services and customer satisfaction are factors that lead to higher customer loyalty and their second return to the hotel (Runting, 2004). Therefore, satisfaction directly influences loyalty, because the level of one’s satisfaction affects their future intents on reviewing a certain destination or recommending it to others. (Rajaratnam, Munikrishnan, Sharif, & Nair, 2014; Romão, Neuts, Nijkamp, & Shikida, 2014; Song, van der Veen, & Chen, 2012; Ţabkar, Brenčič, & Dmitrović, 2010; Yoon & Uysal, 2005; Seyyed Hassan Motiei Langeroudi, Ferdowsi, & Shahmohammadi, 2017).

    Method

    The inquiry is a quantitative study in which data collection was carried out using library data and surveys (questionnaires). Field studies were carried out. The total population of the study included tourists staying at five-star hotels in Mashhad during the aforementioned period. Using Cochran’s formula, the sample population was indicated as 354 individuals. The availability sampling method was used for questionnaire distribution. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using combined reliability. The validity of the questionnaire was assed via convergent and divergent validity. For data collection, structural equation modelling with the partial least squares regression method was employed in addition to the use of descriptive statistic indices such as frequency distribution. The examined variables in this study included general factors, credibility, assurance, accountability, empathy, and loyalty,

    Results and Discussion

    The study showed that the first hypothesis was confirmed with a path coefficient of 0.788 and significance value of 38.636. The second hypothesis for evaluating the effect of credibility on tourist loyalty and length of stay had a path coefficient of 0.823 and significance value of 40.809 which demonstrates its positive, significant effect on said variables. Moreover, the third hypothesis was also confirmed with a path coefficient of 0.703 and significance value of 19.768. The fourth hypothesis on the effect of accountability was confirmed as well, with a path coefficient of 0.717 and significance value of 20.698. Additionally, the fifth hypothesis had a path coefficient of 0.640 and significance value of 15.739, showing the effect of empathy on tourist loyalty and length of stay. Finally, the sixth hypothesis was confirmed with a path coefficient of 0.725 and significance value of 22.882.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that general factors involving indices such as satisfaction over hotel restaurants, rooms, adornment, and transportation had a significant, positive effect on tourist loyalty and length of stay. The credibility component which encompasses indices such as hotel peacefulness according to expectation, the extent of satisfaction over hotel services compared to the advertised materials, reception of all expected services, and proper behavior of hotel staff has a positive and significant effect on tourist loyalty and length of stay. Moreover, the assurance component with indices, including the behavior of hotel staff in line with encouragement, accommodation and trust towards organizational structures has a positive and significant effect on tourist loyalty and length of stay. Accordingly, the accountability component with indices including the personnel’s urgent addressing of issues and requests with appropriate behavior and their welcoming attitudes to grievances and criticism has a positive, significant effect as well. The empathy component with indices such as responding to requests outside regulations, personnel’s respectful behavior towards guests, and expressing all mental concerns related to the hotel and its personnel’s behavior has a positive, significant effect on tourist loyalty and length of stay. Ultimately, the loyalty component involving indices such as choosing the hotel for the second time given the present travelling conditions and choosing other hotels in case of a second trip to the city has a positive, significant effect on tourist loyalty and length of stay.

    Keywords: Satisfaction, Tourist, Loyalty, Length of Stay, Hotel
  • MohammadTaghi Razavian*, Sohrab Moazzen, Morteza Ghourchi Pages 223-237
    Introduction

    One of the most important views of contemporary urban planning is sustainable urban development, which has been developed since the Brunt land Committee report and is now widely seen as an integral part of the social, economic, and environmental scopes. According to this definition, sustainability debate in the field of energy is also considered as one of the requirements of urban life It is necessary to pay attention to energy sustainability in cities due to the high volume of energy consumption in them. In recent years, attention has been given to issues related to climate and urban energy. Therefore, this trend reflects the recognition of the need to address energy issues in cities. Moreover, one of the important and influential dimensions in urban planning is the use of urban land use. Urban land use planning enhances the urban system and directs its development by determining the use of urban land, determining the density and providing appropriate access to types of utilities. Therefore, planning to create cities that are energy efficient is one of the most important goals of urban planning and urban land use planning. Regarding these issues, addressing energy-saving policies in land use planning has been on the agenda of developed countries for many years and different policies, programs and laws have been prepared. Based on the country's requirements regarding energy consumption, the need to analyze and evaluate the use of urban land based on the energy efficiency approach in the process of urban land use planning is essential and of great importance.

    Review of Literature

    Energy sustainability means supplying energy to meet the needs of the present generation without compromise of the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The main strategies for achieving energy sustainability in communities are reducing fossil fuel use, implementing energy consumption control methods and reducing energy demand which is achieved through using renewable energy sources and applying energy efficiency practices. Energy efficiency is the optimal and efficient use of energy that aims to reduce the growth of energy demand, reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, as well as increase the supply of renewable energy. In other words, energy efficiency is the supply of the same levels of energy services by applying small amounts of energy. Energy efficiency includes some benefits for government and users such as economic growth, CO2 reduction, sustainable energy systems and … which shows its importance in urban planning. Energy efficiency is a key for countries to change their development path into zero CO2 economy growth. There are some factors that affect energy efficiency in cities including: urban form, buildings, urban spatial structure and urban land use.

    Method

    This is an applied research. The method is descriptive-analytic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the land use of the Velenjak neighborhood of Tehran based on the energy efficiency of sustainable development. After evaluating different models and methods in this regard, the LEED model was selected to evaluate the energy efficiency of the study area. The data for the LEED model index were calculated quantitatively and qualitatively by observing the weight given to each indicator. The method for collecting data in this research is based on library studies and field surveys. The data were summarized through available statistics and information such as censuses, per capita energy, detailed plans of the region etc., obtained from documentary projects and other information sources.

    Results and Discussion

    Taking into account the current status of Velenjak neighborhood, among the mentioned indicators of LEED, the following criteria were selected for application in the study area: Situation and smart communication Criterion (4 indices), Neighborhood Unit Pattern and its design (6 indices) and green construction and technology (4 indicators). Then, the selected indicators were scored, so that first the purpose of the indicators is expressed and expressed according to the purpose of the index, the needs and the manner of ranking the index, and then analyzing each of the indices in the neighborhood is dealt with and The amount of earned scores is calculated for each indicator for the neighborhood. The results indicated studied area condition is moderate (not good, not bad). In addition, according to the LEED model the efficiency of the area could be increased by changing some elements of the area.  

    Conclusion

    The present study showed that to achieve energy efficiency at the neighborhood level, measures should be taken such as promoting mixed land use, increasing density and compactness, hierarchical distribution of services, developing transit-oriented networks, creating integrated and interconnected networks, and changing energy consumption patterns. For this purpose, in order to evaluate energy efficiency at the neighborhood level, the energy efficiency of the Velenjak neighborhood of Tehran was studied. Neighborhood assessment based on the LEED model showed that the area is in a relatively moderate (not good, not bad) situation, which with applying some changes can increase energy efficiency in the neighborhood. Based on the results of the research, neighborhood-level suggestions were given according to the model, which indicated that energy efficiency could be increased by different policies and programs. In general, urban energy efficiency is important because not only we have a global shortage of energy, but also addressing this issue will improve the quality of life in most cities. Thus, energy-related measures appear to be necessary to reduce energy consumption and achieve energy efficiency.

    Keywords: Land Use Planning, Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Development, LEED Model, Velenjak Neighborhood of Tehran