فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 4
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  • Ayoub Adinehvand, Gholamreza Karimi*, Mozafar Kazaei Pages 5-14
    Introduction

    Brain tumors such as glioma are among the most aggressive lesions, which result in a very short life expectancy in patients. Image segmentation is highly essential in medical image analysis with applications, particularly in clinical practices to treat brain tumors. Accurate segmentation of magnetic resonance data is crucial for diagnostic purposes, planning surgical treatments, and also follow-up evaluation. Manual segmentation of a large volume of MRI data is a time-consuming endeavor, and this necessitates employing automatic segmentation techniques that are both accurate and reliable. However, the vast spatial and structural diversity of brain tissue poses serious challenges for this procedure. The current study proposed an automatic segmentation method based on convolutional neural networks (CNN), where weights of a pre-trained network were used as initial weights of neurons to prevent possible overfitting in the training phase.

    Methods

    As tumors were diverse in their shape, size, location, and overlapping with other tissue, it was decided to exploit a flexible and extremely efficient architecture tailored to glioblastoma. To remove some of the overlapping difficulties, morphological operators as a pre-processing step were utilized to strip the skull.

    Results

    The proposed CNN had a hierarchical architecture to exploit local and global contextual features to handle both high- and low-grade glioblastoma. To address biasing stem from the imbalance of tumor labels, dropout was employed and a stochastic pooling layer was proposed.

    Conclusions

    Experimental results reported on a dataset of 400 brain MR images suggested that the proposed method outperformed the currently published state-of-the-art approach in terms of various image quality assessment metrics and achieved magnitude fold speed-up.

    Keywords: Brain Neoplasms, Nerve Net, Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Alireza Sangani*, Nahid Ramak, Leila Azizi, Paria Jangi Pages 15-22
    Introduction

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women with an increasing outbreak. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between defensive styles and Islamic quality of life (QoL) with death obsession in women with breast cancer.

    Methods

    This research was a correlational study. The statistical population of the study included 220 female patients with breast cancer; referring to Cancer Patients Association of Gorgan in 2019. According to Krejcie and Morgan’s table, 136 women were selected from breast cancer patients by simple random sampling. Islamic QoL questionnaire of Mohammad Namaqi et al., defense styles questionnaire of Andrews et al., and obsession with death questionnaire of Abdel-Khalek were applied. Data were analyzed; using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson correlation, and stepwise regression.

    Results

    The results showed that there was a negative significant relationship betweenthe developed defensive style and the Islamic QoL with death obsession (P=0.001).There was a positive significant relationship between the neurotic and undeveloped defensive style with the death obsession (P=0.001). In addition, the results of the regression showed that the Islamic QoL (-0.257) and developed defensive style (-0.196) had the potential for predicting the obsession of death.

    Conclusions

    These results emphasize the necessity of the role defensive styles and Islamic QoL on the death obsession. So, therapists and counseling in the treatment of cancer for reducing obsession may benefit from paying attention to Islamic QoL and defensive styles.

    Keywords: Defense Mechanisms, Quality of Life, Obsessive Behavior, Breast Neoplasms
  • Mojdeh Barati, Hossein Fahimi, Leila Farahmand, Alireza Madjid Ansari* Pages 23-29
    Introduction

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death among women. Recently, extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) has been proposed as a new interfering agent with future therapeutic potentials. Many studies have revealed that cellular processes such as apoptosis in breast cancer are affected by ELF-EMFs. However, more researches are needed to clarify the underlying mechanism of action for these fields. In this study, the apoptotic effect of ELF-EMF on the MC4L2 cell line was examined and the mRNA expression level of the P21 and P38 genes were further investigated.

    Methods

    A triple-positive mouse breast cancer cell line (MC4L2) was purchased from the Genetic Resource Center (Iran). This study was performed on two groups of ELF-EMF exposure (100mT/1 Hz for 5 days, 120 min each day) and sham exposure. Cell viability and apoptosis rate of both the exposure and sham exposure groups weredetermined by flow cytometry. Alterations in the P21 and P38 mRNAs expression levelswere investigated; using real-time PCR.

    Results

    ELF-EMF exposure induced 30% apoptosis in MC4L2 cells compared with the control group. The mRNA expression level of P38 and P21 was significantly increased after ELF-EMF exposure compared to the control group.

    Conclusions

    ELF-EMF induces apoptosis in the MC4L2 triple-positive cell line. Furthermore, this exposure affects important gene expression involved in the cell cycle. Our data propose that ELF-EMF in a specific time, intensity and frequency could be beneficial for breast cancer treatment. However, more studies are required to confirm our findings.

    Keywords: Apoptosis, Breast Neoplasms, Electromagnetic Fields
  • Beuy Joob*, Viroj Wiwanitkit Page 30

    The screening of cancer is important in secondary prevention in clinical oncology. The cervical cancer screening by pelvic examination and Pap smear test is the standard practice worldwide. However, the coverage of the screening is an important consideration in public health. Some specific vulnerable populations are considered to have a low chance of having access to health care services including cancer screening. Here, the authors summarize and present data on cervical cancer screening among migrant workers from a health care center in Bangkok, Thailand.Recorded data on cervical cancer screening in a 1 year period (2018) were reviewed. During this period, there were 1456 cervical screening records.Of these records, 1398 were local Thai and 58 were migrant workers (50 Myanmar workers and 8 Cambodian workers). In our screening, there was no detection of cancer among local Thai females (0 %), however, 2 cases of abnormal cervical cancer screening results (CIN) were found among migrant workers (3.45 %). The incidence of a positive finding was significantly higher among migrant workers than local females. Of interest, migrant workers are an underprivileged group that usually receive limited health cancer services. In fact, migrant workers are limited to receive health screening as a worldwide problem [1, 2]. The low rate of getting cancer screening is well described among migrant workers in the EU [2]. Promoting the care in all clinical aspects and not only cancer screening, is suggested for the migrant workers. Finally, according to our knowledge, this is the first note on the incidence of abnormal pap smear results among migrant Asian workers in Southeast Asia.

    Keywords: cancer, cervix, screening