فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:75 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • M.H. Fallah Mehrabadi, S.A. Ghafouri *, A. Shoushtari, F. Tehrani, S. Masoudi, M. Abdoshah, S. Amir Hajloo, M. Shabani Pages 1-7
    Newcastle disease causes many economic losses to the poultry industry in most countries. This disease is endemic in Iran. Backyard poultry is considered the reservoir of Newcastle virus; however, there is either no vaccination program against Newcastle, or it is performed in a restricted manner. Commercial live vaccines are inactive and sensitive to temperature; moreover, vaccine delivery to villages and remote areas requires special equipment and high cost to maintain the cold chain. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a thermostable Newcastle vaccine produced by the Razi Institute (ND.TR.IR) on the backyard poultry. In four provinces, at least 4 villages were selected as the treatment group, and the same number was selected as the control group. At least, 30 birds were sampled in each village. In each group, blood samples were collected before vaccination and 2 weeks later, and the serum titer of the samples was examined with the haemagglutination inhibition test. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of the sample titers at the rural level were compared using paired t-test before and after vaccination in each group. Moreover, Repeated Measures ANOVA was utilized to compare the vaccinated and control groups in terms of the titer changes before and after vaccination. In this study, 584 and 389 samples were taken from the treatment (53 households in 20 villages) and control groups (33 households in 14 villages). The mean serum titer values of Newcastle were 4.51±3.03 and 6.64±2.48 in the treatment group before and after vaccination, respectively (P<0.001). The increase in mean titer of the treatment group (2.31 log) was statistically higher than that in the control group (0.66 log) (P<0.001). Out of 584 birds, 517 (88.5%) ones had titer above 3 in the second turn in the treatment group. The thermostable vaccine (ND.TR.IR) produced by the Razi institute is suitable for backyard poultry, which immunizes them against Newcastle disease. Appropriate vaccination programs for backyard poultry should be made; moreover, vaccination of backyard poultry can be effective in preventing the circulation of the field viruses.
    Keywords: Backyard poultry, Effectiveness, Haemagglutination inhibition (HI), ND.TR.IR vaccine, Newcastle disease
  • K. Mirzaie, A. Shoushtari, S. Bokaie *, M.H. Fallah Mehrabadi, S.M. Peighambari Pages 9-16
    Avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 is endemic in Iran and its large-scale circulation in the poultry industry of the country is devastating. This virus was first reported in the industrial poultry populations of Iran in July 1998. Some of the published studies showed that inactivated avian influenza (AI) vaccines are capable of inducing an immune response and providing protection against morbidity and mortality in different countries (Vasfi et al., 2002; Tavakkoli et al., 2011). Low pathogenicity avian influenza subtype H9N2 virus has been reported to have a zoonotic potential and widespread distribution in Iran. Therefore, water-in-oil emulsion vaccines are employed to control the disease in chickens (Nili and Asasi, 2003). This cohort study was conducted during July 2016-November 2017 in broiler chicken farms of Qazvin province, Iran to investigate the serological change trends in broiler chickens in this region. Level of immunity against the H9N2 virus was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Fifteen farms out of thirty enrolled units used AI H9N2 killed vaccines. The minimum of mean antibody titers (MATs) was 4.54-2.42 and the maximum of MATs was 4.54+2.42 on day 3. In addition, the minimum and maximum MATs on day 50 were 0.4-0.64 and 0.4+0.064, respectively. The transfer rate of H9N2 AIV antibodies from the serum of breeders to the serum of chickens was calculated as 60.35% in our study. A significant difference was revealed between the maternal mean antibody titers (MMATs) and the MATs on day 3 (P<0.001). In addition, the difference between the MATs on day 3 and the MATs on day 10 was found to be significant (P<0.01). Moreover, MATs were significantly different between the vaccinated and unvaccinated herds on day 40 (P<0.05), while no significant difference was observed on days 3, 10, 20, and 30 (P>0.05). According to the results of this study, antibody titers in the vaccinated farms did not reach the protective level until the end of the rearing period. Most of the unvaccinated herds experienced a spurt in antibody titers due to exposure to the virus. Consequently, biosecurity measures must be implemented more seriously and strictly in broiler farms.
    Keywords: Antibody titer, broiler farms, H9N2 avian influenza virus, Iran
  • S.G. Mirzaei *, A. Shoushtari, A. Noori Pages 17-22
    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) affect a wide range of birds and mammals, cause severe economic damage to the poultry industry, and pose a serious threat to humans. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) H5N1 were first identified in Southeast Asia in 1996 and spread to four continents over the following years. The viruses have caused high mortality in chickens and various bird species and deadly infections in humans. Multiple conventional methods have been so far introduced for the detection and identification of avian influenza viruses. Traditional virus isolation methods are gold standard protocol in AI detection; nonetheless, virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs (ECE) is not a rapid method for the detection of influenza viruses since it is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Furthermore, the isolation of highly pathogenic viruses, such as H5, needs BSL3 laboratories.  Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RRT-PCR) is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of influenza viruses. The application of these nucleic acid-based techniques has increased our ability to identify and perform influenza virus care programs, especially in surveillance programs. The current study aimed to detect H5 subtype of avian influenza (AI) virus using fast, specific, and sensitive TaqMan RRT-PCR. Notably, single step RRT-PCR was used to prevent possible laboratory contamination. The specificity of this test was evaluated using nucleic acid extracted from several poultry pathogenic microorganisms and negative clinical specimens from AI-uninfected birds. The sensitivity analysis of the RRT-PCR assay was performed using in vitro-transcribed RNA copy and 10-fold serial dilution of standard AI virus with specific titer. The results indicated the high sensitivity of this method and the lowest detectable dilution of this method based on RNA copies and 1:10 serial dilutions of the standard virus was 10 1.9 EID50 /100.
    Keywords: H5, avian influenza virus, Real-time RT-PCR
  • S. Masoudi, L. Pishraft Sabet *, S. Shahsavadi Pages 23-30
    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has a variety of serotypes with relatively limited cross-protection leading the disease to be a major problem in the poultry industry. The IBV 793/B strain has identified to circulate in Iran; therefore, the development of a specific vaccine to protect against the virulent virus has received attention. In this regard, the live IB 793/B vaccine (793/B.08IR) was developed in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. In this study, the immunogenicity of 793/B.08IR vaccine via different routes of vaccination and efficacy of the vaccine were determined in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Three treatment groups of 10 SPF chickens received the vaccine via eye drops, spray, and drinking water. The sera were collected from the chicks at 3 and 6 weeks after the vaccination, and IBV specific antibody was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum neutralization (SN) test. To evaluate 793/B.08IR vaccine efficacy, 10 SPF chickens were vaccinated using eye drops. Moreover, 10 unvaccinated chickens were separately retained as negative controls. The birds were challenged with the virulent virus 3 weeks following the vaccination. Five days after the challenge, the tracheal swab was taken for virus reisolation. In the immunogenicity test, the ELISA titers of three vaccinated groups were significantly higher than the background values obtained in the control group (p<0.0001). The mean value of ELISA titer in the spray vaccinated group was higher than the spray and drinking water vaccinated groups 3 weeks following the vaccination; however, the difference was not statistically significant. No differences were observed in antibody titers among the three vaccinated groups 6 weeks after the vaccination. The results of the SN test confirmed the data obtained from the ELISA. The results of antibody titer and its increasing trend in chickens showed that 793/B.08IR vaccine induce proper immunity against the virus. In the efficacy test, IBV was isolated from 90% of the unvaccinated controls and 10% of vaccinated groups. The results of the recovery of the virus after the challenge showed that 793/B.08IR vaccine can provide a significantly improved protection against the pathogen in SPF vaccinated chickens.
    Keywords: IBV vaccine, 793, B strain, Immunogenicity, Efficacy, SPF
  • H. Habibi *, S. Firuzi, H. Nili, K. Asasi, N. Mosleh Pages 31-37
    Newcastle disease (ND) is a major threat to poultry industry production throughout developing countries. The Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) infecting industrialized and indigenous poultry in Iran are velogenic strains and responsible for the frequent outbreaks of ND in poultry farms even in vaccinated flocks causing serious economic losses in the commercial and indigenous poultry. However, vaccination is the only way to protect against endemic ND, and the conventional vaccines are not heat stable and consequently require complex cold-chains to be transferred to users leading to not much resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of thermostable NDV strain I-2 in broiler chickens vaccinated via drinking water and coated on oiled wheat grain. The horizontal transmission of I-2 strain and transmission of disease from vaccinated to unvaccinated chickens were also evaluated in this study. The obtained results showed that both routes of administration, following primary and/or secondary dose, provoked the production of necessary antibody titer and adequate protective immunity in broiler chickens. Moreover, the horizontal transmission of I-2 strain from vaccinated to unvaccinated chickens housed together induced an antibody response and protected unvaccinated chickens against a local field isolate of a virulent strain of NDV (The intravenous pathogenicity index 2.46, mean death time 59 h). Nevertheless, all unvaccinated and Newcastle challenged broilers chickens against the NDV died in this study. It is noteworthy that the transmission of the virus from challenged broiler chickens was very low to induce clinical signs in susceptible chickens. The obtained results of this study revealed the efficacy of NDV strain I-2 coated on the oiled wheat and via drinking water as it protects broiler chickens from highly virulent NDV.
    Keywords: Newcastle disease, Thermostable strain, Strain I-2, Broiler chicken
  • A. Hosseini Chegeni, M. Tavakoli, G. Goudarzi, Z. Telmadarraiy, M. Sharifdini, F. Faghihi *, M.K. Ghanbari Pages 39-46

    The present study was conducted as the first molecular detection of Anaplasma species in tick samples based on the sequencing of major surface proteins 4 (msp4) gene fragments in different parts of Iran. A total of 130 tick specimens were collected from Hormozgan, Lorestan, and Guilan, Iran, within 2015 to 2017. Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) species were identified in different geographical regions. An amplicon of 464-bp msp4 of Anaplasma was amplified using polymerase chain reaction in various tick species. Three sequences, including one Anaplasma marginale from R. (Boophilus) species and two Anaplasma ovis from Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were obtained after sequencing. It is concluded that bovine and ovine anaplasmosis agents are present in tick samples in Iran. The use of the gene families of six major surface proteins for the detection of various Anaplasma species is recommended.

    Keywords: Anaplasma, Phylogenetic tree, msp4, Iran, Tick
  • S. Zarrabi Ahrabi, R. Madani *, B. Shemshadi, S. Ranjbar Bahadori, H. Hashemzadeh Farhang Pages 47-54
    Echinococcosis caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is known as an important zoonotic disease in various parts of the world, including Iran. The genetic diversity of this parasite is very high, particularly in areas where the disease is endemic. It has been suggested in the literature from different parts of the world that diverse factors, such as parasite life cycle, transmission pathways, pathologic disease, immunization, and disease control can be affected by the genetic diversity of the parasite. Various studies indicated sheep strain G1 as the most common genotype throughout the world. This strain is commonly found in the liver and lung repeatedly causing echinococcosis in humans, sheep, and cattle. The present study was conducted to determine the genetic affinity between the protoscolex of E. granulosus in humans and sheep in East Azerbaijan province, Iran for the first time. A total of 120 hydatid cyst samples were collected, 60 of which were from people who referred to the hospitals of East Azerbaijan and 60 were from the sheep slaughtered in Tabriz slaughterhouse. Following DNA extraction, certain regions of the cox1 gene were amplified and evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction. The replicated parts in all isolates had the same size of 450 bp. Electrophoresis was followed by selecting a total of 60 suitable samples, including 30 human samples and 30 sheep samples and sending them for genome sequencing. The overlap of the samples was investigated using the BLAST software. The results of BLAST, sequencing, and overlap demonstrated a genetic linkage of approximately 91.76% between the protoscolex of E. granulosus in human and sheep.
    Keywords: DNA extraction, Genetic affinity, Hydatid cyst, PCR, Sequencing
  • H. Babaei, N. Razmaraii *, A. Mohajjel Nayebi, Y. Azarmi, G. Assadnassab, D. Mohammadnejad, A. Azami Pages 55-62
    Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the secondary metabolites of Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius. It is a common and effective chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of different diseases, including lymphoma, leukemia, breast cancer, and solid tumors. However, this medicine causes cardiotoxic side effects, which limit its clinical application. The present study examined the cardiomyopathy induced by DOX via echocardiography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The main objective was to evaluate the capacity of echocardiography and TEM as diagnostic tools for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Moreover, the correlation between intracellular and functional changes due to cardiotoxicity was assessed in a rat model. Cardiomyopathy was induced in rats by two cumulative doses of DOX. Group I received DOX 12 [i.e., 12 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP)] and group II received DOX 15 (i.e., 15 mg/kg, IP) in six equal doses over two weeks. Group III as the control (Ctrl) group received normal saline as a vehicle. Mortality during the study was only observed in the DOX 15 group. The echocardiographic assessments revealed significant changes in ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and heart rate in the groups which received DOX. In addition, severe cardiac arrhythmia was evident in DOX-treated groups. Remarkable adverse effects, such as moderately degenerated cells and inflated mitochondria were observed in the TEM analysis of rat hearts in the DOX groups. The present study indicated that rat models are suitable for investigating DOX-induced cardiomyopathy, especially at the dose of 12 mg/kg. Furthermore, echocardiography and TEM examinations were found to be valuable methods for the determination of cardiotoxicity in rats due to DOX.
    Keywords: Cardiomyopathy, Doxorubicin, Echocardiography, Electron microscopy, Rat Heart
  • R. Khadivi, V. Razavilar, A. Anvar *, B. Akbari Adreghani Pages 63-73

    There is a growing concern regarding the recurrent observation of aflatoxins (AFs) in the milk of lactating animals. Regarding this, the present study was conducted to assess the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1)-binding ability of three species, namely Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, and Saccharomyces boulardii, inAFM1-contaminatedmilk. The mentioned species were administeredatthe concentrations of107 and 109 CFU/mLto skimmed milk contaminated with 0.5 and 0.75 ng/mL AFM1 within the incubation times of 30 and 90 min at 4°C and 37°C. Lactobacillus rhamnosus was found to have the best binding ability at the concentrations of 107 and 109 (CFU/ml), rendering 82% and 90% removal in the milk samples with 0.5 and 0.75 ng/ml AFM1, respectively. Accordingly, this value at 107 and 109 CFU/ml of L. plantarum was obtained 89% and 82% with 0.75 ng/ml of AFM1, respectively. For S. boulardii at 107 and 109 CFU/ml, the rates were respectively estimated at 75% and 90% with 0.75 ng/ml of AFM1. The best AFM1-binding levels for L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, and S. boulardii were 91.82±10.9%, 89.33±0.58%, and 93.20±10.9, respectively, at the concentrations of 1×109, 1×107, and 1×107 CFU/ml at 37, 4, and 37°C, respectively. In this study, the maximum AFM1 binding (100.0±0.58) occurred while a combination of the aforementioned probiotics was employed at a concentration of 1×107 CFU/ml at 37°C with 0.5 ng/ml AFM1, followed by the combination of L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum (95.86±10.9) at a concentration of 1×109 CFU/ml at the same temperature with 0.75 ng/ml AFM1. It was concluded that the use of S. boulardii in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. plantarum, which bind AFM1 in milk, can decrease the risk of AFM1 in dairy products.

    Keywords: AFM1, Milk, decontamination, Saccharomyces boulardii, lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum
  • A. Ahmadi, M. Moazeni, M. Shaddel * Pages 75-81
    Hydatid disease is an economic and public health concern in many countries. Currently, surgery is the main treatment option for hydatid disease. In the surgical treatment of hydatidosis, the use of scolicidal agents is very important due to inactivating live protoscoleces and preventing the recurrence of infection. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate newscolicidal agents and novel medications with higher safety and efficacy. In the previous in vitro studies, the scolicidal effects of the methanolic extracts and aromatic water of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) have been demonstrated. Consequently, in this study, the impact of the nanoemulsion of Z. multiflora essential oil on subcutaneous hydatid cysts was compared with albendazole (ABZ). Fifty laboratory male mice were inoculated with 300 viable protoscoleces subcutaneously on the two sides of the abdomen. Following five months of infection, the remaining infected mice (n=42) were allocated into two treatment and one control (without treatment) groups containing fourteen animals each. Group A received ABZ at the dose of 50 mg/kg for 60 days, group B received the nanoemulsions of Z. multiflora at the dose of 50 mg/kg in drinking water for 60 days, and group C was considered as the control group. All the infected mice were euthanized and necropsied two months post-intervention. Afterwards, the cysts were cautiously collected and their number, size, and weight were compared between the mice of different groups. The mean number of hydatid cysts indicated that the nanoemulsion of Z. multiflora essence had a relative superiority to ABZ. On the other hand, the therapeutic effect of ABZ was higher than the nanoemulsion of Z. multiflora essential oil in terms of the mean weight and mean size of hydatid cysts. However, no significant difference was observed between the groups (P>0.5). Overall, the number, weight, and size of cysts were not significantly different between the groups in this investigation. The lack of satisfactory therapeutic results in this study might be due to the location of hydatid cysts in the subcutaneous space.
    Keywords: Albendazole, essential oil, Nanoemulsion, Subcutaneous hydatid cyst, Zataria multiflora
  • S. Moshkelani, A. Asghari*, A. Abedi, A. Jahandideh, P. Mortazavi Pages 83-91

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on testicular ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. In total, 50 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 received no injection (control); however, group 2 was subjected to 2 h of I and 24 h of R. Subsequently, group 3 was subjected to 2 h of 1, and after 1 h of I, 125 mg/kg MgSO4 was injected intraperitoneally followed by 24 h of R. Groups 4 and 5 were subjected to the same process as group 3, whereas the rats were injected with 250 and 500 mg/kg of MgSO4, respectively. After 24 h, the left testes of all rats were removed for histological analysis and antioxidant activities. According to the results, there was a significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) among I/R rats (P<0.05), whereas MgSO4 decreased I/R-induced MDA (P<0.05). Furthermore, experimental I/R diminished glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels significantly (P<0.05). Moreover, MgSO4 (250 and 500 mg/kg) increased GPx and SOD activity significantly in I/R rats (P<0.05). Furthermore, seminiferous tubules degenerated, and few spermatocytes were observed in the testis tubules of the I/R rats. Regarding pathological parameters, seminiferous tubules and spermatocyte were normal in the testes of MgSO4 (250 and 500 mg/kg)-treated experimental I/R-induced rats. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the beneficial effects of MgSO4 on testicular IR injury in rats.

    Keywords: Ischemia, reperfusion (I, R), Magnesium sulfate, rat, testis
  • N. Askari, S. Mashhad Rafiee *, K. Amini Pages 93-99
    Salmonellosis as a zoonotic disease in dogs is not fully understood, and various reports have pointed to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant salmonella from dogs to humans. The current study aimed to evaluate the serologic and bacteriologic prevalence of Salmonella spp. in stray dogs placed in animal shelters around Tehran, compare the results to those of asymptomatic dogs, and determine the serotype of isolated species, as well as their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. A total of 100 fecal swab and blood samples were obtained from symptomatic and apparently healthy dogs (clinically) placed in four animal shelters around Tehran, Iran. Fecal and blood culture, as well as dog food culture, tube agglutination test, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed on the samples. Fever, lethargy, diarrhea, and abdominal pain were observed in all the dogs in the case group, and bloody diarrhea was the least commonly detected symptom in clinical examination. A number of 11 and 4 collected fecal swabs from the case and control groups were positive for Salmonella spp., respectively. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also confirmed the laboratory tests results. Blood culture on the selective medium was negative for all the cases. Moreover, 60% and 100% of dogs in the case and control groups showed inflammatory markers in their blood test. The tube agglutination test was positive for 12% of the samples from the case group, while it was positive only for 5% of cases in the control group. The highest and lowest antibiotic resistance was observed against gentamicin and ciprofloxacin from the case group, respectively. Salmonella spp. infection in stray dogs placed in animal shelters is a great public health concern. In this regard, it is recommended that these animals be regularly monitored since they serve as Salmonella carriers.
    Keywords: Salmonella spp, Stray dogs, shelters, Zoonotic diseases
  • H. Al, Mutar *, L. Younis Pages 101-108
    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the GDF9 gene and reproductive performance variables, such as fertility and sterility in Awassi sheep. Forty pairs of ovaries from a total of 40 slaughtered Iraqi Awassi ewes were used in this study. Twenty of the ovaries were collected from sterile ewes and the other 20 ovaries were taken from fertile ewes for genomic DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing to detect GDF9 gene polymorphism. Follicles and oocytes of all the 40 ovaries were evaluated and compared with the results of genotyping. Furthermore, histopathological and microscopic evaluations were performed for 40 ovarian tissues of the two groups. The sequence analysis revealed that exon I had three SNPs, including T(114)C, G(129)R, and G(199)A. The first two SNPs were silent mutations and the last mutation was missense responsible for the substitution of glutamic acid with lysine at position 67. The current study showed a significant increase (P≤0.01) in GG, AA, CC, GA, and GG genotypes at G(129)R,  G(199)A, T(114)C, G(129)R, and  G(199)A loci, respectively. Moreover, the TT genotype in locus T(114)C was recorded to significantly augment (P≤0.05) in the fertile ewes. Mutant GA genotype of the G(129)R locus led to a significant (P≤0.05) increase in the percentage of follicles (4-8 mm) and oocytes number, compared to wild GG. On the other hand, a significant decrease was recorded in the mutant AA genotype in G(199)A, compared to wild GG. Differences between CC and TT genotypes at T(114)C locus were not significant. Histopathological examination revealed hypoplasia in the ovarian tissue of sterile ewes accompanied by fibrous connective tissue invasion and follicles degeneration. However, in the fertile ewes, the ovarian tissues were normal with the presence of numerous corpus albicans and degenerative corpus luteum. According to the findings of this study, the homozygote mutation in fertile ewes minimized the number of follicles and oocytes leading to sterility, while the heterozygote mutation was reported in the fertile Awassi ewes.
    Keywords: fertility, Heterozygote, Homozygote, Infertility
  • M. Gholizadeh, J. Fayazi *, H. Zali, Y. Asgari Pages 109-121
    The transition from normal forage to a highly fermentable diet to achieve rapid weight gain in the cattle industry can induce ruminal acidosis. The molecular host mechanisms that occur in acidosis are largely unknown. Therefore, the histology and transcriptome profiling of rumen epithelium was investigated in normal and acidosis animals to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease. The rumen epithelial transcriptome from acidosis (n=3) and control (n=3) Holstein steers was obtained using RNA-sequencing. The mean values of clean reads were 70,975,460±984,046 and 71,142,189±834,526 in normal and acidosis samples, respectively. In total, 1,074 differentially expressed genes were identified in the two groups (P<0.05), of which 624 and 450 genes were up- and down-regulated in the acidosis samples, respectively. Functional analysis indicated that the majority of the up-regulated genes had a function in filament organization, positive regulation of epithelial and muscle fiber concentration, biomineral tissue development, negative regulation of fat cell differential, regulation of ion transmembrane transport, regulation of cell adhesion and butyrate, as well as short-chain fatty acid absorption that was metabolized as an energy source. Functional analysis of the down-regulated genes revealed effects in immune response, positive regulation of T-cell migration, regulation of metabolic processes, and localization. Furthermore, the results showed a differential expression of genes involved in the Map Kinase and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. The IL1B, CXCL5, IL36A, and IL36B were significantly down-regulated in acidosis rumen tissue samples. The results suggest that rapid shifts to rich fermentable carbohydrates diets cause an increase in the concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids, tissue damage, and significant changes in transcriptome profiles of rumen epithelial.
    Keywords: Acidosis, Cattle, Ruminal epithelial tissue, Transcriptome
  • A. Karnwal *, M. Kaur Pages 123-130
    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are well known for their nutritional and medicinal values. A. bisporus is a source of protein (about 40% on a dry basis), ergosterol, several minerals, carbohydrate, and fat. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of A. bisporus S-II extracts on human pathogenic bacteria in-vitro condition. Totally, three human pathogenic bacterial strains (MTCC culture type) were procured from the Institute of Microbial Technology, India. Out of these three bacterial strains, one was Gram-negative (namely P. aeruginosa MTCC741), and the other two were Gram-positive (B. cereus MTCC9786 and S. aureus MTCC740). Microdilution assay was applied for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in methanol extract (26.5%) against S. aureus MTCC740, compared to ethanol extract (17%). Similar results were obtained for P. aeruginosa MTCC741 (21.8%) and B. cereus MTCC9786 (15%) in methanol extract. Least microbial growth inhibition observed for B. cereus MTCC9786 (13.82%) followed by P. aeruginosa MTCC741 (14%), compared to control in ethanol extract. The highest antimicrobial activity up to 17% with ethanolic extracts recorded against S. aureus MTCC740. The MIC results in microtitre plates showed the growth inhibition of P. aeruginosa MTCC741 and S. aureus MTCC740 at extract concentrations of 15 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml, respectively. However, no MIC detected for B. cereus MTCC9786 below 20 mg/ml extract concentration. Regarding minimum bactericidal concentration, the bactericidal value for P. aeruginosa MTCC741 and S. aureus MTCC740 was obtained at 10 mg/ml concentration. The present study indicated that the extracts of the A. bisporus S-II mushrooms had promising antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms.
    Keywords: Antibacterial, Bacillus cereus, Button Mushroom, Human pathogens, Mushroom extract
  • U. Khan, Z. Selamoglu * Pages 131-136

    This review paper aimed to provides precious information about the function and use of different enzymes in dairy food applications. An enzyme is called a protein and catalyzes a specific reaction. Every enzyme is intended to initiate a particular reaction with a specific outcome. Moreover, numerous enzymes are present in the human body. Dairy food applications include the use of different enzymes, such as protease, to lessen the allergic properties of bovine milk products and lipase to improve the flavor of the cheese. Caseins, which are acid-soluble, are free from a flavor and can be suitable for addition to beverages and acidy foods by the limitation of proteolysis. The hydrolysates of casein are better to use in foods based on milk proteins for newborn children with allergy to bovine milk. Lipolysis makes a significant role in the flavor of Swiss cheese. The peppery flavor of Blue cheese is produced by short-chain unsaturated fats and methyl ketones. Many minor enzymes with limited application in dairy processes are sulphydryl oxidase, lactoperoxidase, glucose oxidase, catalase, lysozyme, and superoxide dismutase. Both catalase and glucose oxidase are utilized in food preservation processes. The scope minor enzymes in milk products needed for better production of dairy products and for the future of dairy technology. The worldwide market for the production of microbial enzymes used in dairy products processing is impressively increasing; however, there are a limited number of enzyme-producing industries in the market. The production of proteinase, lactase, lipase, and microbial rennet is increasing in the laboratory and small scales. In near future, the need for these enzymes will be undoubtedly significantly increasing essentially due to the requirement of significant nutritional valuable dairy products in the country to overcome malnutrition and obesity and shift toward low-fat and healthy foods.

    Keywords: Dairy industry, Enzymes, Dairy products, dairy food technology