فهرست مطالب

  • سال دوازدهم شماره 38 (بهار و تابستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • محمد بزرگزاده، مهرناز گلی*، محمدرضا کیخا صفحات 9-28

    عبدالماجد دریابادی از مفسران سنی مذهب قرن چهاردهم و تفسیر او معروف به تفسیر ماجدی از تفاسیر مهم در شبه قاره هند است. دریابادی در قرن نوزدهم میلادی، زمانی که قرآن با شبهاتی جدید روبرو گردید به دفاع و شبهه زدایی از قرآن پرداخت. ازاین رو، تفسیری جدید مطابق با نیاز جامعه بشری در عصر خود به دو زبان اردو و انگلیسی، ارایه داد. درون مایه باارزش این تفسیر، تحقیق و معرفی این اثر ارزشمند را بایسته می سازد. نوشتار حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، ضمن معرفی نویسنده و تبیین جایگاه و اهمیت این تفسیر، به ذکر پاره ای از ویژگی های آن پرداخته و چنین نتیجه می گیرد که تفسیر ماجدی از مهم ترین تفاسیر قرن 14 است که پاسخ به شبهات عصر، دوری از تفسیر به رای، مطالعه تطبیقی قران با کتب پیشین، پاسخ مستدل به شبهات یهود و نصاری، برخورداری از نثری روان و روشن و... از برجسته ترین ویژگی های این تفسیر است.

    کلیدواژگان: عبدالماجد دریابادی، تفسیر ماجدی، تفاسیر شبه قاره، تفاسیر عصری
  • مرجان رادنیا* صفحات 29-48

    یکی از روش های سنجش سهولت تولید و قوانین حاکم بر آن، بررسی فضای کسب و کار در منطقه مورد نظر می باشد. در این تحقیق با استفاده از شاخص های "سهولت فضای کسب و کار"، "رقابت پذیری جهانی"، "آزادی اقتصادی" و "شکنندگی" کشورها، ابعاد متعدد تاثیر گذار بر فضای کسب و کار ایران و کشورهای شبه قاره طی سال های 2010-2018 مورد ارزیابی و مقایسه قرار گرفته است. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر اجرا توصیفی با رویکرد تحلیلی - مقایسه ای می باشد و به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از آزمون های آماری میانگین یک جامعه (t تک نمونه ای) و آزمون تحلیل واریانس یکراهه (آزمون f) استفاده گردیده است. نتایج تحقیق بیانگرآن است که کشور بوتان از نظر شاخص های سهولت کسب و کار و آزادی اقتصادی و کشور هند بر اساس شاخص های رقابت پذیری جهانی و شکنندگی؛ وضعیت مساعد تری نسبت به سایر کشورها دارند. همچنین در رتبه بندی کلی نیز کشور هند در جایگاه اول و کشور ایران در جایگاه چهارم قرار می گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: سهولت کسب و کار، آزادی اقتصادی، رقابت پذیری جهانی، شبه قاره هند
  • علی روانان* صفحات 49-66

    وقتی به اجمال معلوم شود که یکی از چند علت محاط در گروهی معین و محدود زیان را ایجاد کرده است ولی نمی توان به طور قاطع علت وقوع حادثه را معین کرد، احراز رابطه سببیت دشوار است و زیان دیده نمی تواند رابطه سببیت را بین فعل زیان بارو خسارت وارده ثابت کند و سبب در آن مجمل است.دشواری انتساب فعل زیان بار به یکی از اطراف علم اجمالی از یک سو و لزوم جبران خسارت زیان دیده از سوی دیگر موجب شده است. نظریه های گوناگونی ارایه دهند؛ ازجمله مسیولیت تضامنی اسباب مجمل، تقسیم مساوی. سوال اصلی تحقیق اینکه چگونه باید فرد مسیول را از میان مسببان یافت؟ روش تحقیق آنالیز مفهومی تطبیقی است.نتیجه کلی تحقیق، مطالعه تطبیقی مسیولیت مدنی سبب مجمل در سه نظام حقوقی ایران و انگلیس و هندوستان حاکی از آن است که در قوانین و رویه های قضایی این سه کشور اختلافاتی وجود دارد؛به نحوی که در قانون مجازات ایران مسیولیت به تساوی و در حقوق انگلستان مسیولیت به میزان تاثیر و درجه تقصیر و در هندوستان مسیولیت جمعی پذیرفته شده است.لیکن هر سه نظام از جهت گرایش به لزوم جبران ضرر و حمایت از زیان دیده، وجه مشترک دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: سبب مجمل، خسارت، حقوق ایران، انگلستان و هندوستان
  • اسماعیل زارع بهتاش* صفحات 67-88

    رمان «گذری به هند» (1926) نوشته ای. ام. فورستر به همان میزان که گذری است بین نژادها، مذاهب، و عقاید سیاسی، اتصالی میان انسان ها در این دو اقلیم نیز هست. به نظر می رسد فورستر در رمان خود تلاش می کند برای نزدیکی غرب و شرق راه حلی انسانی و متمدنانه پیشهاد کند، اما راز و روش شناختن و نزدیک شدن به شرق چگونه در رمان «گذری به هند» تصویر شده است؟ در مقاله حاضر هدف آن است که به روشی کیفی و هرمنوتیکی با تمرکز بر خود داستان و مطالعه و تفسیر ساختار، درون مایه ها، و نمادهای آن، آنچه در دنیای ذهن فورستر راز شناخت و نزدیکی به شرق بوده آشکار شود. راه حل البته رازی مگو، نهفته، و نایافته نیست، بلکه چنان که در این رمان به تصویر کشیده شده، پیشاپیش به صورت طبیعی در گونه گونی و رنگارنگی طبیعت و فرهنگ هند حضور دارد. ساختار، نمادها و درونمایه های اثر، با به تصویر کشیدن امکان وحدت در عین گونه گونی، همه در خدمت این اند که نشان دهند تقریب مذاهب امکان پذیر است، به شرط آنکه هرکس پایبند اعتقادات خود باشد و به اعتقادات دیگران احترام بگذارد.

    کلیدواژگان: تقریب مذاهب، مسجد، غار، معبد، مدرنیته
  • مهناز سعیدی کیا، نظر دهمرده*، غلامرضا کشاورز حداد، مرضیه اسفندیاری صفحات 89-108

    تروریسم فراملی شکلی از تروریسم است که از طریق انواع اتصالات ممکن، بیش از یک کشور را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد. محدود مطالعات تجربی انجام شده تلاش می کنند بین منشا مرکز تروریسم فراملی و متغیر های شناخته شده رابطه برقرار کنند. لذا با توجه به افزایش جرم و جنایت و حملات تروریستی در سال های اخیر در کشور های مناپ، در این مقاله به بررسی اثرات مکانی این دو متغیر بر مخارج عمومی کشور های منتخب در طی سال های 2003 تا 2016 بر اساس رگرسیون فضایی پانلی پرداخته شد. نتایج بررسی، اثرات سرریز فضایی را تایید می کند به نحوی که افزایش در وقوع جرم و جنایت و تروریسم در یک کشور، تاثیر مثبت و معنی داری هم بر مخارج عمومی وهم بر میزان تروریسم و جرم و جنایت در کشورهای همسایه دارد. از طرفی تفکیک اثرات مستقیم و غیر مستقیم متغیر های الگو نشان می دهد که اثرات غیر مستقیم آن ها بیشتر است.

    کلیدواژگان: جرم، تروریسم، مخارج عمومی، رگرسیون پانل فضایی، کشورهای مناپ طبقه بندی JEL: C33، H56
  • عبدالمجید سیفی*، مهرداد عله پور صفحات 109-126

    دیپلماسی فرهنگی، به عنوان ابزاری کار آمد و قابل انعطاف در سیاست خارجی که نمونه ی بارز و اعلای اعمال قدرت نرم است، شکل نوینی از دیپلماسی قرن است که ضمن بهره گیری از تمامی اشکال دیپلماسی، درصدد برقراری، توسعه و پیگیری روابط با سایر دولت ملت ها از طریق فرهنگ، هنر و آموزش در راستای پیگیری منافع ملی و اهداف سیاست خارجی است. در این بین هندوستان به عنوان قدرت نو ظهور اقتصادی در فضای پس از جنگ سرد و طی سالیان اخیر، در راستای پیگیری منافع ملی و بیشنیه سازی قدرت رو به تزاید خود، درصدد برآمده تا از ظرفیت بالای دیپلماسی فرهنگی بهره گیری حداکثری را به عمل آورد. حال با توجه به موارد فوق الذکر، پرسشی که نگارندگان پژوهش حاضر با رویکردی توصیفی تحلیلی و با به کارگری مولفه های دیپلماسی فرهنگی درصدد پاسخ به چرایی آن بر آمده اند این است که دیپلماسی فرهنگی چه جایگاهی در سیاست خارجی دهلی نو در فضای پساجنگ سرد داشته است؟ طبق نتایج پژوهش حاضر، دهلی نو با توجه به پیشینه مذهبی، تاریخی، فرهنگی و تمدنی خود، از منابع عظیم فرهنگی در مقایسه با بسیاری از کشور های دیگر برخوردار است. این امر به نوبه خود سبب شده تا مقامات دهلی نو پس از پایان جنگ سرد روی به سمت مولفه های ژرف دیپلماسی فرهنگی در سیاست خارجی خود بیاورند.

    کلیدواژگان: هند، دیپلماسی فرهنگی، سیاست خارجی، جهانی شدن، قدرت نرم
  • زهره طهرانی پور، حسن بساک*، رضا اشرف زاده صفحات 127-146

    یکی ازشاهکارهای ادبیات فارسی هندوستان دردوره جهانگیر- پادشاه مغول- داستان «عصمت نامه» یا «مینا و لورک» اثر عبدالحمید کلانوری است. تبیین چگونگی و تحلیل ساختار عناصر داستانی در این منظومه، از پرسش های محوری پژوهش حاضر است. در این مقاله که با روش توصیفی و تحلیل محتوا به انجام رسید ضمن ارایه تعاریف روشن و جامع از عناصر تشکیل دهنده ساختار داستان چون پیرنگ و اجزای آن، شخصیت پردازی، درون مایه، زاویه دید، لحن، گفتگو و صحنه پردازی و قواعد حاکم بر ساختار داستان عصمت نامه تجزیه و تحلیل گردید. با بررسی شواهد این نتیجه به دست آمد که عناصر داستانی دراین منظومه به خوبی در پیش برد داستان به کار گرفته شده و طرحی مبتنی بر روابط علی،  این عناصر را از آغاز تا پایان، به هم مرتبط ساخته است. پیرنگ داستان ساده ولی منسجم است و دیدگاه نویسنده در بیان حادثه، برگرفته از حقایق و رسوم بومی است. پایه احساسی طرح داستان، سیر عشق و عاشقی است که یکی از عوامل جذابیت داستان است. مهم ترین عنصر داستانی این اثر شخصیت است و تاثیر درون مایه داستان بر سایر عناصر آن به خوبی مشهود است.

    کلیدواژگان: عناصر داستانی، کلانوری، عصمت نامه، مینا و لورک، ادبیات هند
  • مجید غلامی، محمود واثق*، محمدباقر قالیباف صفحات 147-176

    هند در جنگ سرد، با راهبرد عدم تعهد، از رقابت های دو بلوک در دو سازمان امنیتی ورشو و ناتو، دور شد اما با فروپاشی شوروی و تغییر شرایط بین الملل، با فعال کردن ظرفیت های ژیوپلیتیکی خود نه تنها به قدرتی نو ظهور در قرن بیست و یکم تبدیل شده بلکه با راهبرد جهانی سازی، هم گرایی با قدرت های برتر بین المللی از جمله سازمان پیمان آتلانتیک شمالی را در دستور کار خود قرار داد. رابطه هند با ناتو و تاثیر آن بر امنیت ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران، موضوع مقاله حاضر است و نویسندگان تلاش دارند به این پرسش پاسخ دهند که گسترش زمینه های همکاری هند و ناتو چه تاثیری بر امنیت ملی ایران دارد؟ با روش توصیفی تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای، اینترنتی و رسانه ای، فرضیه مقاله عبارت است از این که «ناتو با تقویت همکاری و شراکت راهبردی در منطقه جنوب آسیا با هند به عنوان یک قدرت نوظهور اقتصادی و تکنولوژیک، به دنبال تامین امنیت و گسترش هژمونی در این منطقه با هدف کنترل ایران و چین است». یافته ها نشان می دهد که مشارکت ناتو و هند در سه زمینه موضوع، محیط و سطح، به طور همزمان فرصت ها و تهدید هایی را برای امنیت ملی ایران به دنبال دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: ناتو، هند، ژیوپلیتیک، هم گرایی، ایران
  • یعقوب فولادی، محمد بارانی*، مریم خلیلی جهانتیغ صفحات 177-194

    مرزبان نامه به شیوه کلیله و دمنه مشتمل بر حکایات و افسانه های حکمت آمیز است و از زبان انسان ها و وحوش نوشته شده است. این مولفه ها به همراه شیوه نگارش کتاب باعث شده است تا این اثر را تقلیدی از کلیله و دمنه بدانند و اهمیت آن را بیش تر در فن نگارش آن قلمداد کنند، در صورتی که وقتی زیرساخت و ساحت محتوایی این دو کتاب را مقایسه کنیم، در خواهیم یافت که زیرساخت فکری شان به دلیل دیدگاه حاکم بر آنها، بسیار متفاوت است. پژوهش حاضر در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که آیا اندیشه حاکم بر مرزبان نامه تحت تاثیر جهان بینی ایران باستان است و یا فرهنگ و اندیشه هندی حاکم بر کلیله و دمنه؟ یافته های حاصل از این پژوهش که به روش مقایسه ای - تحلیلی و با نگاهی به زیرساخت فکری هر دو اثر، به انجام رسیده، نشان می دهد که دیدگاه حاکم بر مرزبان نامه بر خلاف کلیله و دمنه - دیدگاهی مثبت نگر است؛ به گونه ای که بیشتر داستان های آن، دارای پایان خوبی هستند. زیرساخت فکری مرزبان نامه بر اساس فلسفه مزدیسنا - فلسفه پیروزی نیکی بر بدی - و جهان بینی ایرانی شکل گرفته است و بر همین بنیاد، این اثر نه تنها تقلیدی محض از کلیله و دمنه نیست؛ بلکه تدوینی هدف مند و آگاهانه است.

    کلیدواژگان: مرزبان نامه، کلیله و دمنه، زیرساخت، جهان بینی ایرانی، فلسفه مزدیسنا
  • سعید گراوند*، ثریا میرزایی صفحات 195-214

    وجره یانه یکی از طریقت های راز آمیز بودایی است. در این طریقت یکی از آموزه های مهم مندله است. مقصود ما در این پژوهش نشان دادن اهمیت و نقش معرفت شناسی مندله در منازل سلوک است. مندله در طریقت وجره یانه، نمادی است آیینی که مظهر وجه ازلی و طریق وصول به قلمرو ابدیت است. این وجه ازلی ارتباط میان عالم کبیر و عالم صغیر را نشان می دهد. در واقع در طریقت وجره یانه از طریق فهم مندله است که می توان حقایق عالم را طبق ادراک خدایان شهود کرد. مندله در مناسک دینی و آیین های تشرف جایگاه ویژه ای در مراحل سلوک و تفکر دارد. در طریقت وجره، مقصود نومرید رسیدن به نقطه ی مرکزی مندله و اتحاد با خدای بنیادین است. یافته های این تحقیق نشان می دهد که مندله طریق سلوک و محیط مقدسی را تعیین می کند و آن را از مخاطره نیرو های اهریمنی حفظ می کند. حضور در این قلمرو قدسی، به سالک اجازه می دهد تا نیروهای کیهانی را فرا خوانده، عناصر ناپایدار و شرارت آمیز جهان را به بند کشد. در نتیجه، سالک از طریق مراقبه و تفکر پیرامون مطلق از امور وهمی جهان ناپایدار رهایی یافته، به مقام شکوفایی معنوی و کشف حقایق متعالی نایل می آید. پرسش اصلی این پژوهش نشان دادن نقش معرفت شناسی مندله در منازل  سلوک است که به شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استفاده از ابزار کتابخانه ای صورت گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: اندیشه بودایی، مندله، طریقت وجره یانه، سیر و سلوک
  • سعید محمدی صادق* صفحات 215-234

    هدف از انجام این تحقیق، مقایسه تطبیقی مولفه های توسعه پایدار و احقاق حقوق شهروندی در ایران و افغانستان می باشد که به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام شده است. در خلال سال های گذشته تلاش های بسیار زیادی از سوی صاحب نظران برای اندازه گیری توسعه در غالب شاخص های متعدد صورت گرفته است. به دست آوردن افکار و حمایت عمومی دیگر به آسانی گذشته نیست و برای آن باید با تمام توان تلاش کرد.بر این اساس با توجه به پیچیدگی ذاتی و ابعاد مختلف مولفه های توسعه پایدار در تحقق حقوق شهروندی و تاثیرگذاری آنها، شناخت عوامل اصلی و کلیدی در جهت دست یابی به پایداری ، ضروری به نظر می رسد. سوال اصلی تحقیق این است که  مولفه های توسعه پایدار و از جمله حقوق شهروندی در ایران و افغانستان چه می باشد؟.باتوجه به بررسی های صورت گرفته می توان نتیجه گرفت که در بلند مدت آزادی اقتصادی و سیاسی لازم و ملزوم یکدیگر بوده و توسعه اقتصادی پایدار مستلزم آزادی اقتصادی و هم آزادی سیاسی است.  تجربه نوسازی سیاسی و توسعه اقتصادی ایران در سده گذشته به ویژه در چند سال اخیروکاهش ولواندک تنش ها وتوجهات به محورانسان درافغانستان ، گواه روشنی است بر این حکم ،که در کل بین تمامی متغیرها و مخصوصا آموزش عالی وتربیت نیروی متخصص ومجرب وثبات نظام درکشورهای ایران وافغانستان رابطه وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، احقاق حقوق شهروندی، ایران و افغانستان
  • ثمین مدبر، غلامرضا هاشمی*، زهره طباطبایی صفحات 235-260

    در دوره گورکانیان (932ه.ق/1526م. تا 1274ه.ق/ 1857م.)، بخصوص اکبر شاه توجه بسیاری به اشاعه فرهنگ و هنر نشان داده شد. ازجمله خدمات دوره اکبر شاه ترجمه کتاب های سانسکریت به فارسی و مصور نمودن آن ها بود. یکی از این نسخ، رامایانای مصور موجود در گالری فریر(Freer) به سفارش عبدالرحیم، وزیر اعظم اکبر شاه، داستان نبرد رام چندر، با بزرگ ترین دیو، راون است. بررسی تاثیرپذیری نقش مایه دیو در نسخه رامایانای فریر از متون تصویری پیشین و هم عصرش، به عنوان پرسش اصلی این پژوهش انتخاب شده و هدف تحقیق تطبیق شمایل نگارانه تصویر دیو و جایگاه آن در نسخه رامایانای عبدالرحیم خان با نمونه متن های پیشین و هم عصر در هند بوده است. نتایج مطالعات صورت گرفته به روش توصیفی و تاریخی_تطبیقی حاکی از آن است که نقش مایه دیو در نسخه موردپژوهش به چهار شکل، دیو با عضو تکثیرشده، حیوانی، انسانی و ترکیبی (انسانی- حیوانی) تصویر شده است. همچنین می توان دید که در متون پیشین، دیوها با آناتومی و ویژگی های کاملا انسانی نقش گردیده و در نسخ تصویرسازی شده هم زمان با نسخه مورد پژوهش نیز شخصیت های اصلی حماسه اکثرا به شکل انسانی و شخصیت های فرعی به شکل ترکیبی ترسیم شده اند. درحالی که در نسخه رامایانای گالری فریر اغلب دیوها به صورت ترکیبی بوده و فقط در موارد اندکی به شکل انسانی تصویر شده اند

    کلیدواژگان: گورکانیان هند، حماسه رامایانا، عبدالرحیم خان خانان، رامایانای گالری فریر، نقش مایه دیو
  • بهزاد وثیق* صفحات 261-276

    شناخت نحوه گفتگوی بین دو تمدن در خلال مقایسه تطبیقی برونداد های فرهنگی آن ها امکان پذیر است. مسجد رنگونی ها توسط مسلمانان شبه قاره هند در آبادان احداث شده است. این مسجد دارای ظاهری مشابه با مساجد شبه قاره هند است. تحقیق حاضر در پی آن است تا به مولفه های گفتگوی بین دو معماری ایران و معماری شبه قاره در بنا های مذهبی بپردازد. لذا در قالب مطالعه تطبیقی و بر پایه روش های مورد کاوی و تفسیری-تاریخی، عناصر معماری مسجد رنگونی ها در قیاس با مسجد امام اصفهان و مسجد کوصومبا در بنگلادش بررسی شده است. با توجه به اهمیت شکل و مفاهیم فضا، تلاش شده است فارغ از مباحث کالبدی و ظاهری، مفاهیم متعددی از جمله سلسله مراتب دسترسی، نحوه ارتباط با پیرامون و سازمان دهی فضایی دو بنا مطالعه گردد. نتایج نشان دهنده آنست که مسجد رنگونی ها از لحاظ کالبدی پیوستگی های خود را با فرهنگ معماری سرزمین اصلی، برقرار نموده است با این حال در زمینه نحوه شکل گیری و سلسله مراتب فضا از معماری ایرانی تاثیر پذیرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: مسجد رنگونی ها، مسجد امام اصفهان، مسجد کوصومبا، شبه قاره هند
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  • Mohammad Bozorgzadeh, Mehrnaz Goli *, Mohammad Reza Keykha Pages 9-28

    Abd.Al.Majedi Daryabadi is one of Sunni commentators in the fourteenth century. His commentary known as Majedi's commentary, is of important commentary on the Indian subcontinent. Majedi in the nineteenth century, when the Qur'an was faced with a new challenge, defend and disprove the Qur'an, therefore, a new commentary, in accordance with the humanitarian needs of the present age, provided in both Urdu and English languages. The important content of this commentary, it is imperative to research and present this valuable work. Current essay with the usage of descriptive- analytic method, with introducing the author, and the importance of this interpretation is going to explain Interpretative features and examples, and concludes that Majedi's commentary is of important commentary in fourteenth century, that its important characteristic are: answering the dilemmas of the evening, employing the sciences in the interpretation of the Qur'an, avoiding commentary on the ballot, comparative study of the Quran and the former Qur'an, a well-grounded answer to the doubts of the Jews and Christians, the enjoyment of a clear and psychological passion, showing the superiority of the social system of Islam to other systems.

    Keywords: Interpretation, subcontinent, Majedi
  • Marjan Radnia * Pages 29-48

    One of the methods of measuring the ease of production and the rules governing it, is evaluate the business environment in the related region. In the present research, using the indicators of "ease of doing business ","global competitiveness", "economic freedom" and "fragile state" the countries, Several dimensions affecting the business environment of Iran and subcontinent countries during the years 2010-2018, was evaluated and compared. This study that is applied in terms of purpose and analytical-comparative in terms of method, and at the level of inferential statistics Mean statistical tests of one society (one sample t test) and one-way ANOVA test (f test) were used. The results of the study indicate that Bhutan has a more favorable business environment than other countries in terms of ease of doing business and economic freedom indices and India according to global competitiveness and fragile state indicators. Also in the overall ranking, India is in the first place and Iran ranked fourth.

    1- Introduction

    The business environment means a set of policies, legal, institutional and regulatory conditions that affect the functioning of the economic units, and managers or owners of units cannot change or improve it. The quality of the business environment can directly affect the amount of costs incurred by business activities, the risk of starting a new business, the interaction between firms and financial partnerships, and consequently on investment decisions, job creation the level of productivity, production and economic growth of the country will also be affected. In other words, improving the business climate means improving the investment climate and, as a result, stimulating economic growth (Hans, 2018: 67). The business environment is one of the prerequisites for achieving sustainable economic growth, and its development allows long-term competition in global markets to develop a standard of living and economic freedom for any country (Głodowska, 2017: 192). In other words, the business environment in a wider way reflects the quality of the country's economic conditions and its gradual improvement as an important motivating factor in business; the best way to support economic organization, especially in small and medium-sized enterprises. Be On the other hand, the performance of the efficient economy is also the essence of the quality of the business environment, and it can be said that there is a mutually binding relationship between them (Kaderabkova, 2008: 476). Therefore, evaluating the business environment of countries and recognizing its components can be effective in economic decision making. Considering the importance of the business environment and its impact on key variables such as employment and production, this study attempted to assess the business environment in Iran and subcontinent countries based on international standards related to the business sector. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to study the business environment in Iran and subcontinent countries using the relevant combination indexes. Also, the subsidiary objectives of the research are comparative and separate comparison between Iran and the subcontinent countries' business space in terms of ease of business index, global competitiveness index, economic freedom index and fragile state index.

    2- Research methodology

    The present research is applied in terms of purpose and analytical-comparative in terms of method, and using the indicators of "ease of doing business ","global competitiveness", "economic freedom" and "fragile state" the countries, Several dimensions affecting the business environment of Iran and subcontinent countries during the years 2010-2018, was evaluated and compared. In order to analyze the data, the level of inferential statistics Mean statistical tests of one society (one sample t test) and one-way ANOVA test (f test) were used.

    3- Discussion

    Stern (2002) considers the business environment as a set of policies, institutions, and behavioral environments that are effective on the returns and risks of investors in a particular location and the economic growth of that area affects itself. This general definition includes three broad categories. The first category involves macroeconomic aspects; the latter includes the infrastructure needed for productive investment and the final category, including governance, institutions and political stability. Since the majority of internal and external studies, the basis for assessing the business environment, is the only index of ease of doing business provided by the World Bank, this study attempts to examine and combine the various standard indicators provided by International institutions will assess more dimensions of the business environment of the countries and their status. Therefore, it is possible to use the combination of business combination over the time period and ranking of the countries studied, including the innovations of this research.

    4- Conclusion

    Considering the comparison of the situation of the countries during 2010-2018 and the analysis of variance of one way, it was found that Bhutan compared to other countries in terms of ease of doing business and economic freedom and India according to the indicators of global competitiveness and fragile state is more favorable. Also, based on the combined business combination index during the study period, they were ranked by one-sample t-test, respectively, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Iran, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Looking at the statistics and the results, it can be said that all countries of the desirable region are significantly different from the global statistics, and this necessitates the need for more countries to address the bottlenecks and constraints on business development. The flexibility of the banking system in providing facilities and defending and improving institutional and governance components through policies to facilitate exports, protecting the rights of investors, and motivating them to improve quantitative and qualitative production, Reduce the opposition to the flow of innovation, eliminating production restrictions, more attention to the property rights of individuals, create a secure environment for domestic and foreign investment activities and strengthening the production infrastructure can have a significant impact on improving the business environment of the countries. Adopting macroeconomic policies that include employment, price stabilization, increased productivity, and improved production and economic growth, especially for Iran, suffering from high rates of unemployment and inflation, has helped greatly improve the business environment.

    Keywords: Ease of doing business, Economic freedom, Global competitiveness, India Subcontinent
  • Ali Ravanan * Pages 49-66

    When it is generally approved that one of some available causes in certain and limited group has developed the loss but it is not possible to define certain cause of event, obtaining the causality relation is difficult and the victim is not able to prove the casualty relation between damaging act and incurred loss and is cause in that concise . Difficulty of assignment of a damaging act to a part of collective knowledge from one hand and requirement of compensation for the victim on the other hand has caused developing different theories including joint and several liability of concise cause, and equal division. The main question of the research is that how is it possible to find a liable one among causes? Research analysis method is of conceptual-comparative. General results of research, comparative study of civil liability of concise cause in three law systems of Iran, England and India, indicates that there are some differences in the laws and judicial procedures of these three countries so that in criminal law of Iran, England and India, liability is accepted equally, in regarding the rate of effect and fault and collective liability, respectively. However, all three systems are common in the terms of requiring compensation and supporting the victim.

    1- Introduction

    With a glance at the controversy of the opinion of the prosecutors and judges of the three countries, we find that the causal relationship has been compounded by the concept of causality and its complexities in all three legal systems of Iran, England and India. This complexity and ambiguity has progressed so far that neither Iran nor the United Kingdom nor India have been able to fully overcome this legal barrier with a full satisfaction and reach a consensus solution. The complexity and applicability of the subject are among the important factors that make this article. In Islamic law, to determine the responsibility for compensation of various methods, such as the principle of the practical alteration in the case of science, a lot of damages from the general budget ... It is suggested that at the beginning of the case, assuming the absence of a causal relationship, assuming that the summary of responsibility is based on But later on the collective responsibility of the perpetrators was raised, which was aligned with the legislature's innovations in the penal code of 1392, for the liability of the total causes. But in the legal system, the general law is proportionate to the type of responsibility and the positive aspect of the issue is of great importance. But in the Roman-Germanic legal system (written rights), liability is a form of guarantee. But in all systems, they share the same direction in terms of the need for redress and protection. The most important issue surrounding the issue is a summary of how liability and damages are imposed, which, with the silence of the Iranian legislator, remains unresolved, and in order to find a ruling, inevitably, one must refer to the experience and other laws of the legal system, and The answer to this basic question is: 1. How should the responsible person be found among the perpetrators? 2. What is the fair solution to compensation in other legal systems? The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between causality and the rights of Iran, England and India.

    2- Research Method

    The Moore method is used in this research to be descriptive-analytic. After collecting information that will be carried out in a library, it will be based on the compilation of resources, including books and valid scientific articles, to analyze the subject under discussion.

    3- Discussion 

    The mere existence of a verb cannot be the responsibility of the owner of the verb, but in order to fulfill the responsibility, there must be a customary relation between the verb and the harm. The relation between causality is conceptually and in terms of a lot of ambiguities, and its definition is not very clear, and its examples are not precise. The causal relationship is an external and material relationship and must be realized in the outside world. No scholarly and philosophical theory can decisively govern various issues of causation, what matters is that someone is responsible for the existence of a causal relationship between his work and the harm of a relationship, in a way that can be said between it There are two common conventions. The basic jurisprudential strategy of civil responsibility is to provide justice and justice, and what is important in this regard is that there is a common causal link between the wage and the work of the steward, and the best standard of arbitration. There are differences of opinion about the quality of determining the liability of the perpetrators of damage if the damage is caused by several verbs. Some believe that multiple actors should pay the same damage. (Legislator of Iran in the Islamic Penal Code approved in 2013). Others believe that one should pay attention to the extent of the fault of each of the factors in causing damage, and in the event of a difference in the amount of the fault, each one must pay proportionally the amount of the fault. In the British legal system, there are three pillars needed to fulfill the responsibilities of unreasonableness, firstly, of duty and care. Secondly, the said assignment is Breach of duty. Thirdly, damage has arisen from a breach of duty (Damage) in English law. It is necessary to refer to controversial issues in this regard. One of the ideas expressed by Western thinkers, inspired by the new ideas of responsibility in the 20th century, is the theory of "relative causal relation." Using relative incentives, we can combine the concepts of liability without blame, such as the responsibility of production and hazardous activities for Covering wider areas. In Indian law, civil liability is generally based on the theory of danger. In creating civil responsibility, two elements are considered necessary to create responsibility: action and mentality. The action points to the physical element, while the mind is the mental element. Generally intention or fault are considered as an essential element of liability. But according to the Supreme Court, some of the losses of high-risk activities are considered to be absolute responsibility as civil liability. In the joint debate on the joint responsibility of India, according to the laws of England, they are jointly liable for compensation, in which the Supreme Court voted in favor of England.

    4- Conclusion 

    The difficulty of assigning a grave recipe to one of the immediate science of the one hand, and the necessity of compensating for the loss of life on the other, has led various countries to resolve it and provide various theories, including the responsibility for ensuring the integrity of the law, the division of responsibilities between Injury, payment of damages from the general budget or bite-el-Mal, determining the responsible person by lot, etc. Any one of the main goals of each of these theories is the fair compensation of the harm that has been recorded, however, each with its own disadvantages. A comparative study of civil liability has been compounded in the three legal systems of Iran, Britain and India, which shows that there are differences between the laws and procedures of the three countries, but all three systems tend to compensate for losses and support the lost, Have a common. In English law m

    Keywords: concise cause, Law of Iran, England, India
  • Esmail Zare Behtash * Pages 67-88

    A Passage to India, written by E. M. Forster, is not just as a passage among races, classes, religions and political ideas, but it is also a connection among human beings within the two Lands: lands of East and West. Forster endeavours to offer a humane and civilized solution to get these two lands together, but how? The present study tries to shed light on the text and with resort to a qualitative and hermeneutic approach discover the themes and symbols presented in the text to unveil the mystery lodged in the mind of the writer. The solution to this reconciliation is not so mysterious or unachievable, but it is already present in different forms and colors in Indian culture. The narration, symbols, and themes of the work are all together doing their best to show that proximity of religions is feasible and despite difficulties of living in the Universe, the human race is in search of a more lasting home. And that proximity of religions is achievable provided that each respects the other.

    Introduction 

    Passage to India, written by E. M. Forster in 1926, is not just as a passage among races, classes, religions and political ideas, but it is also a connection among human beings within two lands: Land of East and Land of West. Forster endeavours to offer a humane and civilized solution to get these two lands together, but how? The solution to this reconciliation is not so mysterious or unachievable, but it is already present in different forms and colours in Indian culture. The narration, symbols, and themes of the work are all together doing their best to show that proximity of religions is feasible and that despite difficulties of living in the Universe, the human race is in search of a more lasting home. Added to that, they indicate proximity of religions is achievable provided that each sticks to his own convictions and respect the canons of others.

    Research Methodology

    The present study tries to shed light on the text by employing a qualitative and hermeneutic approach to discover the themes and symbols presented in the text to unveil the mystery lodged in the mind of the writer. To fulfil this, the researcher has adopted methods leading to the perception, understanding, and interpretation of the text per se. Forster does not render his text by oriental viewpoints but by employing realistic elements mingled with modernist components, though orientalism is hidden one way or another in the text.

    Discussion 

    The word “passage” carries different layers of meaning. It denotes, of course, the physical passage of Europeans to India, the move from the familiar to the Unknown. The word also connotes “rites of passage”, a move from a simple to a more sophisticated form of existence and finally getting to a self-discovery. The title of the novel has been taken from Walt Whitman’s poem, A Passage to India, celebrating the opening of the Suez Canal. A Passage to India, as a product of 1920s and modernism, is highly structured to create patterns, repetitions and rhythms with a three-part structure of ‘Mosque’, ‘Cave’, and ‘Temple’. The novel gives its readers a short description of Chandapore, a city along the Ganges River, whose local section is as filthy and undescriptive as one can imagine, whereas the section belonging to the English seems beautiful and fertile. The story opens up and ends by posing the question of whether it is possible for an Englishman and an Indian to ever be friends, at least within the context of British colonialism. To accomplish this, the novel falls into three sections with three symbolic representations as follows: Part One: Cold Weather, Muslim ‘Mosque’; Part Two: Hot Weather, Christian ‘Caves’; and Part Three: Rains, Hindu ‘Temple’. Mosque refers to the mosque where Dr Aziz meets Mrs Moore. It provides the space for religious hope and aspiration in the Indian spring. The second section moves to the caves. If the moon was a dominant motif in the first section, it is the sun in the second section on disillusion and racial division in the Indian summer. These caves are ‘extraordinary’ and are like nothing else in the world. They allude to Christianity. Darkness rather than emptiness dominates the caves; nothing is visible. Only when a visitor strikes a match, does the cave spring to life signifying consumption of love. Miss Adela Quested hears a loud echo, which causes her such confusion that the innocent Dr Aziz is arrested for assaulting her; still, the writer leaves the source of the echo unexplained in order to break with the realist conventions and adopts the ambiguity typical of modernism (Lewis, 2014: 69). The final section starts after a time space of two years inside the temple. A religious celebration is taking place during India’s rainy season signifying spiritual and emotional cleansing. The dominant mood here is reconciliation and forgiveness at the height of the rainy season. For Aziz and his friends, ‘Mosque’ is an embodiment of religious aspiration and human intimacy, and retreat for Muslims, a place for reconciliation for all faiths.

    Conclusion 

    E.M. Forster is a modernist writer and his well-known work of A Passage to India is a product of 1920s. The symbols used are not ambiguous but containing different layers of meaning. The writer tries to juxtapose three different religions together and acts his own presentence in the role of Mr Fielding to show how it is possible to get these religions closer through abiding by their own conventions and respecting one another. A Passage to India symbolizes the failure of human beings in the twentieth century to communicate not only among different races, classes, and genders, but also among their own race. The novel is in fact concerned with the difficulty of living in the Universe, whereas the human race is in quest of a more lasting home. However, it shows that proximity of religions is feasible if each respects the other. Mrs Moore’s representation of ‘love’ and ‘faith’ and her death on her way back by sea to England close to Arabia prove this claim; and for the local Indians, the memory of Mrs Moore lives on in a ‘mythologized’ form, always respecting Islam.

    Keywords: Proximity of religions, Mosque, Caves, Temple, Modernity
  • mahnaz saeedikiya, nazar dahmardeh*, Gholamreza Keshavarz Hadad, marzie esfandiari Pages 89-108

    Transnational terrorism is a form of terrorism that affects more than one country through a variety of possible channels. Few empirical studies conducted in this scope attempted to establish a relationship between the source of the source of transnational terrorism and other known variables. Therefore, due to the reemergence of crime and terrorist attacks during the recent years in MENAP member countries, this paper attempted to examine the spatial effects of these two variables on the public expenditures of the selected MENAP member countries during 2003 to 2016 using spatial panel regression analysis. The results of the study confirmed the effects of spatial spillovers, meaning that the increase in crime and terrorism in a country has a positive and significant impact on both public expenditures and terrorism and crime in neighboring countries. On the other hand, the distinction between direct and indirect effects of the variables in the model confirmed the greater effects of the indirect determinants.

    Introduction 

    A crucial factor in economic development and welfare is social security. Security is not only a part of the welfare of society but it also is a critical basis for investment and economic growth. However, crimes and terrorism are detrimental to security, leading to a decline in investment and growth on the one hand and imposing high costs to the private and public sectors on the other hand(capaso,2004). Evidence in Global Terrorism Database about the terrorism and crime level in the world and the MENAP region show a sharp increase in the frequency of terrorist attacks and crimes in the world and the MENAP region since 2004. For example, the number of terrorist attacks in the Middle East has increased by 45 percent in 2012 versus 2011 so that they account for 28.6 percent of total terrorist attacks in the world. The UN reports that the number of arrested criminals is increased in the MENAP region so that the highest rate of crime in Libya was 309 individuals per thousand in 2004 and the lowest for Yemen was 0.30 for the years from 2003 to 2006. Since the state is responsible to supply security in all countries and according to what was explained about the status of terrorism and crime in the countries of the MENAP region, the present study aims to answer the question as to whether the spatial spillover of crime and terrorism affects public expenditure of these countries.

    Methodology 

    The present work is an applied study in terms of objective and a descriptive-analytical study in terms of inference methodology. Also, it is retrospective in terms of research design whose results can be directly used in decision-making. This is an experimental field study in terms of data collection methodology. It uses panel data from the temporal trend and different countries. The statistical population is composed of the countries of the MENAP region. The sample is composed of the selected countries of this region (Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, the UAE, and Yemen) whose data are collected on a yearly basis in the time period of 2003-2016 given the availability of data. The econometric method of the study is of spatial econometric type, and data are analyzed with the Stata software package. To get to know the literature and theoretical framework, the publications are reviewed.

    Discussion

    The basic economic analysis of terrorism posits that terrorists are reasonable actors that maximize the utility function from the internal perspective. It is assumed that their behavior is profitable and the disposition that they adopt is likely to have more profits than costs (kyllan,2006). Crime is a social phenomenon that has been studied in many disciplines, such as law, sociology, psychology, economy, and biology. Article 2 of the Islamic Penal Code defines crime as ‘any conduct, including action or omission, for which punishment is provided by law’. Also, according to any school of thought, the unilateral or reciprocal connections of a crime with other influencing and influenced factors are examined (Sadeghi et al., 2005). The phenomenon of “dynamic insecurity” has important implications for the concept of “security” and its supply. The enhancement of awareness of an issue and its potential goals in order to improve the systematic resilience and the capability to minimize the adverse impacts of an event can be close to the concept of security. The impact of personal security investment is partially dependent on the security investments of the other factors. Decisions to invest in security have a reciprocal effect on the expected actions of other factors. The consequences of an insecuring attack depend on personal behavior. If an investor does not show a willingness to take action against insecurity, the chain of the likely consequences will be disrupted and vice versa (fruter,2003). The second inhibitor of the concept of security supply is the nature of security as a public commodity. Since security produces a lot of public benefits for the community, some investors may avoid personal involvement in the hope for its public procurement, and this, in turn, complicates the economic calculations of security and confrontation with insecurity. Terrorism and crimes are intrusive of security and since security is a public commodity whose supply is the responsibility of the state and public sector, so it is quite reasonable to address the relationship of terrorism and crime with public expenditure. This is the aim of this paper.

    Conclusion 

    An instance of transnational terrorism is those terrorist groups whose members are attracted from different countries or whose field of action covers different countries. The experimental studies attempt to establish a relationship between the origins of a transnational terrorist center and the known variables. Given the increased number of crime and terrorist attacks in the countries of the MENAP region in recent years, this paper examines the effect of spatial impacts of these two issues on the public expenditure of the selected countries in the 2003-2016 period using a panel spatial regression. The results of the spatial regression reveal that both crime and terrorism influence public expenditure of the studied countries positively and significantly. This implies that crime and terrorist attacks in one country increase these variables and public expenditure in neighboring countries and that the impacts of spatial spillover of these variables are confirmed in the studied countries. The nature of terrorism has a self-strengthening mechanism both temporally and spatially. First, terrorism experience entails new terrorism – i.e. temporal transmission. Second, if a country or region is suffering from terrorism, the other and neighboring countries are usually influenced by its consequences too – i.e. spatial transmission. For example, emerging terrorist groups use the experiences of older groups in neighboring countries. In addition, the cooperation of terrorist organizations with one another reduces their expenses. For example, knowledge sharing enhances the probability and extent of achievements by inherent synergy and by resorting to more fierce actions. Therefore, because temporal and spatial closeness plays a significant role in cost and profit considerations of violence generation, it is recommended to the government to consider regional conditions in assigning public expenditure and its composition. The results of the spatial regression for the direct and indirect impacts reveal that the indirect impacts of organized anti-security actions are much more than their direct impacts. Some examples of the detrimental impacts of organized anti-security actions include the disruption of demand order, unexpected changes in and discontinuation of supply chains, the costs arising from the use of more stringent security policies, and macroeconomic variables. Furthermore, the governmental institutions and enterprises are responsible to identify these factors and the dynamics of the impacts and vectors in order to get involved in constructive intervention.

    Keywords: crime, terrorism attacks, public expenditures, spatial panel, MENAP CountrieJEL: C33, H56
  • Abdul Majid Seifi *, Mehrdad Alepour Pages 109-126

     Cultural Diplomacy, as a flexible and efficient instrument in foreign policy, is a basis for promotion of relations between states. It can be provided the proper background for mutual understanding between humanity through extension of cultural interactions, increasing of educational-Scientific cooperation, etc. The dissolution of the Soviet Union and ending of ideological dispute between two blocs create a new era for growing the role of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy. India, as the world’s largest democracy, tries to use cultural diplomacy to promote its status in the international system. The main question of the article is «what is the status of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy after end of the Cold War? ». By using the hypothesis of this article is «with regard to historical, cultural and civilizational background, India is promoting the role of cultural diplomacy in its foreign policy». This article aims to address the status and role of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy. This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical method. 

    Introduction

    Cultural Diplomacy, as a flexible and efficient instrument in foreign policy, is a basis for promotion of relations between states. It can be provided the proper background for mutual understanding between humanity through extension of cultural interactions, increasing of educational-Scientific cooperation, etc. (Haghighi, 2009: 343). The dissolution of the Soviet Union and ending of ideological dispute between two blocs create a new era for growing the role of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy (Kolaee and Vaezi, 2011: 249). The recent history of China, the United States, Russia, the Britain and France show that the great powers use of diverse kinds of diplomacy including cultural diplomacy (Taheri, 2017: 157). India, as the world’s largest democracy, tries to use cultural diplomacy to promote its status in the international system. The main question of the article is «what is the status of cultural diplomacy in India’s foreign policy after end of the Cold War?» 

     Research Methodology 

    This study has been carried out in the descriptive-analytical method. The main objective of this type of research is to describe the state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is going on. In this type of research, all kinds of survey method are utilized including comparative method. On the other hand, the researcher has to use facts and information which are available and after collecting these data the researcher can analyze and make a critical evaluation on the materials in the method of analytical research.

    Discussion

    In contemporary Period, Cultural diplomacy is a significant instrument of foreign policy. It helps in promoting international links with countries and people in the world. India has recognized the importance of cultural diplomacy as a part of its soft power strategy in promoting its national interests and establishing itself as a dominant regional and global power. (Pratab, 2015: 55) India for fulfillment of cultural diplomacy in its foreign policy uses some ideational and cultural sources like ancient history and its famous leaders. However, the use of cultural diplomacy as instrument of foreign policy face some challenges like the image of India in International politics, increasing poverty and miserable situation of children.

    Conclusion

    Cultural diplomacy “creates an additional space which softens the sharp edges of foreign policy thus fostering a favorable public opinion impacting foreign policy”.  In light of above discussion, it can be said that the use of culture as a diplomatic tool by India does not have a bleak future, but India has to face challenges and solve them in order to make intensified use of cultural diplomacy which is a sub-variant of soft power, as unlike hard power even intensified use of soft power will not spur the anger of other powerful countries because it does not involve coercion or the use of military arsenal to get other countries to move them in the direction of its interest (Pratab, 2015: 61).  In post-cold War Era, pragmatist approach of India toward international system lead to New Delhi use smart power and cultural diplomacy has important role in this view. For instance, while India is not member of Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), but emphasis on global disarmament and utilize native music, Bollywood, and its culture to show the dangers of nuclear proliferation. However, India is situated to some issue in its foreign policy like Kashmir crisis and relations with Israel. Kashmir crisis damage the India’s peaceful feature. Also, Israel does not any positive feature among Muslims and many nations in the world, thus, the India-Israeli relation mar the prestige of New Delhi.

    Keywords: India, Cultural Diplomacy, Foreign Policy, Globalization, International Relations
  • Zohreh Tehranipur, Hassan Bassak *, Reza Ashrafzadeh Pages 127-146

     One of the masterpieces of the Persian Literature in India, during Jahangir era –The Mongol King- is the story of Esmat Nameh or Mina and Lork. Therefore, the clarification of the manner and analysis of the structure of the fictional elements in the epic poem, Esmat Nameh, written by Abdolhamid Kalanvari, are among the central questions in this study. In the current study, which was conducted using descriptive and content analysis methods, comprehensive and clear definitions are offered regarding the constituent elements of the story such as the plot and its components, characterization, theme, point of view, tone, conversation and setting, and the rules governing the structure of the story of Esmat Nameh, and such elements were analyzed. Considering the evidence, we concluded that the fictional elements have been employed very effectively for advancing the story and a plot, based on causal relationships, has linked such elements together from the beginning to the end of the story. The plot is simple yet coherent, and the author’s viewpoint in narrating the events is derived from the native facts and customs. The emotional basis of the plot is a love story which is one of the effective factors in making the story appealing. The most important fictional element in this story is the characterization and the effect of the theme on other elements is well obvious.

    1. Introduction 

    The analysis of the fictional elements in Esmat Nameh epic poem is the subject of this study. The authors offer comprehensive and clear definitions of the constituent elements of the structure of the story such as the plot and its components, characterization, theme, point of view, tone, conversation and setting, and the rules governing the structure of the story of Esmat Nameh and such elements will be analyzed. The word story is generally used to refer to all forms and styles of story writing. “Popular fiction is also used to refer to all fictional, entertaining and informative narratives which are common among people as prose, poetry, written or as prose alongside the formal literature” (Zolfaghari, 2015: 72). India is one of the richest countries in the world with respect to the fictional literature and Esmat Nameh is an epic poem written by an Indian writer, which is unique in structure, and the study of the poem is conditioned upon the study of the constituent elements and understanding the relation among the components. The basis for analyzing any story is based on the fictional elements. The fictional elements which play a pivotal role in evaluating a work include: plot and its components, setting, tone, theme, and the verisimilitude which is the intellectual basis of the stories, either prose or poetry. The quality of the use of the constituent elements of the story make the reader enjoy the literary work and order their thoughts in a way to reach the writer’s ultimate goals. Study of the fictional elements in Esmat Nameh, introduction to the fictional elements and study of the effects of employing fictional elements in Esmat Nameh are among the aims of this study.  The research questions include the following: 1. How does Abdolhamid Kalanvari employ the fictional elements in Esmat Nameh epic poem? 2. What are the plot components in Esmar Nameh epic poem? 3. What is the main fictional element in Esmat Nameh? 4. What is the theme of Esmat Nameh? The necessity and significance of this study is the discovery of story writing techniques as well as the quality of the use of elements, which are in turn the reasons for an accurate understanding of the story, arranging the reader’s thoughts to reach the writer’s ultimate goal and reaching a literary enjoyment.

    2. Research Method

    The method of research in this study is descriptive and based on content analysis of Esmat Nameh epic poem. The theoretical resources of this study consist of the resources for criticism and analysis of fictional literature and the poems in the epic poem of Esmat Nameh, written by Abdoljamid Kalantari, constitute the sample of the study. The data have been collected and classified through library research method and the results have been classified based on inductive reasoning from part to whole. The evidence in Esmat Nameh demonstrated that the fictional elements have been employed effectively for advancing the story and they are reinforced from the beginning to the end of the story by a plot based on causal relations.

    3. Discussion

    One of the masterpieces of the Persian Literature during Jahangir era –The Mongol King of India- is the story of Esmat Nameh or Mina and Lork. It is one of the oral romantic stories and myths of India which was first composed into Indian poetry, as Mina and Lork, by Moulana Dawood in 622 Hijri. It is also known as Mina and Satin and Chendayen, as well as Lork and Chenda. Later, a writer named Sadan and then a poet named Abdolghodus Gongoohi, wrote it into Persian poetry, which is not available now; it is also known as Roshd Nameh. Later in 1016 Hijri, Abdolhamid Kalanvari collected it into Persian poetry and titled it Esmat Nameh. The summary of the story is as follows:  Mina is a beautiful daughter of one of the Indian kings. Lork, her husband, has fallen in love with another woman, named Chenda; he abandons Mina, and she is constantly in great distress due to this separation. Another young man, named Satin, falls in love with Mina. Since he cannot directly express his heartfelt feelings to Mina, he lures a procuress to do so by giving her some money. According to the Hindus’ rituals and traditions (Baramasi), Mina must react to his husband’s separation during the twelve months and three seasons of rain, winter and summer, and during this period, she is constantly subject to the temptations put in her way by the procuress to forget her husband. However, she does not forget her vow as a result of her love and affection for her husband as well as her feminine modesty and chastity, and does not accept the love of Satin. Thanks to the patience of Mina, the will of God helps her and Chenda, Satin’s love, dies and he comes back to his first wife, Mina, and Mina is rewarded for her chastity, purity and patience (Kalanvari, 1985: 1-41). Epic poems are a record of morality, culture, tradition, national and ethnic history. A better study of such works help better preserve and propagate them. The evaluation and analysis of each story is based upon the fictional elements, some of which we will point out. The plot signifies the foundation and basics of the design and structure of events. In fact, “plot is the dynamic part of a narrative, since the development and advancement of the story take place through the plot” (Okhovat, 1992: 85) and “it organizes the theme, events, characterization, time, location and setting of the story and gives artistic unity to the work” (Roozbeh, 1987: 33). This epic poem has a simple, coherent and strong plot which is linear and is often short as cuts of the protagonist’s life; and the majority of the short and semi-long popular stories are the same. The events of the story have a causal relationship and they are not intertwined and vague.    The conversations in the story are the sentences exchanged as dialogues between the protagonist (Mina) and the procuress, and they cover a big part of the story; since the most important responsibility of the procuress is to encourage Mina to marry Satin. The setting of the story is India and the historical period is Jahangir era as mentioned before. The time the story took place is not exactly known, and the story might have taken place at any time. In general, the story setting is a closed and restricted setting and the time of the events have been stated generally, and the time passing is described by passing of the months. Sunrise in Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo (refer to Kalanvari; 1985: 19-35).

    4. Conclusion 

    The study of the fictional elements in Esmat Nameh epic poem, written by Abdolhamid Kalanvari, indicated that: the writer has established a good relationship among the fictional elements including the plot, characterization, setting, mood, and their link to the verisimilitude, and strengthened the relationship between the structure and the content. The writer’s viewpoint in narrating the story is derived from native traditions and facts and is based on observations and experiences. The appellation of the story, Esmat Nameh, shows that the writer took into consideration the whole poem and by this choice of name, has tried to familiarize the reader with the basic subject of the story. The beginning of the story is attractive as in the romantic and classic stories. The theme of the story has a simple yet solid structure and is based on causal relations. The fictional elements and structures including the fictional events, nodes and crises, suspension, conflict and resolution have been employed properly in the story; the plot is explanatory, and the protagonist is highlighted more than the fictional events. The emotional basis of the plot is a love story as well as the obstacles in the way of the lover and the beloved which are the factors effective in attracting the readers. The characters of the story are also remarkable. The protagonist (Mina) is a princess and a lover who has a stable, introvert and positive character. She is a role model as a perfect lover and an example of a traditional, good and modest woman. The point of view is the third person omniscient through the whole story. The theme of the story is “love and affection”; however, there are also ethical, mystic and cultural (stating the rites and rituals) themes. The writer adopts two approaches; one is the value-oriented approach towards love, chastity and purity and the other is the social and moral culture of the society he lives in. The tone of the story does not vary much because there are not many characters in the story. The tone of the story in description and expression of emotions and feelings is romantic and sometimes the burning and griefs of love; complaint of the life; infidelity and separation of the beloved render a sad and melancholic tone. Generally, the setting of the story is restricted and closed, the time the events take place have been stated vaguely, and the setting is in India. The poet is competent and precise in describing the scenery, events and characters and this signifies his proficiency. Since the content is real, the events and characters are believable so that the reader is depressed with their grief and happy with their happiness. At the end, the protagonist joins her beloved and the story has a happy ending for the protagonist. 

    Keywords: Fictional elements, Kalanvari, Esmat Nameh, Mina, Lork, Indian literature
  • Majid Gholami, Mahmoud Vasegh *, Mohamad Bagher Ghalibaf Pages 147-176

     During the Cold War, India adhered to the non-alignment strategy and got away from the two-bloc rivalries in Warsaw Pact and the NATO. But after the collapse of the Soviet, by activating its geopolitical capacities, this country has not only become an emerging power of the 21 century, but also by using strategy of globalization, has put convergence with international powers including NATO on its agenda. The relation of India and NATO and its impact on the national security of the Iran is the subject of the present article. The authors tried to answer this question: What is the effect of the expansion of the fields of cooperation between India and NATO on Iran’s national security? Hypothesis of the article is that by partnership with India as an emerging economic and technological power in the South Asia region, NATO is seeking security and expanding hegemony in the region with the aim of controlling Iran and China. This article has used a descriptive-analytical method. Also the authors have used library resources for data collection. The findings show that participation of NATO and India in three areas of the subject, environment and level simultaneously creates opportunities and threats for Iran’s national security.

    1- Introduction

    During the Cold War, India adhered to the non-alignment strategy and got away from the two-bloc rivalries in Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). But after the collapse of the Soviet Union and change of the international environment, by activating its geopolitical capacities, this country has not only become an emerging power of the twenty-first century, but also by using strategy of globalization, has put convergence with superior international powers including NATO on its agenda. The relation of India and NATO and its impact on the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran is the subject of the present article. The authors tried to answer this question: What is the effect of the expansion of the fields of cooperation between India and NATO on Iran’s national security? Hypothesis of the article is that “by strengthening of strategic cooperation and partnership in the South Asia region with India as an emerging economic and technological power, NATO is seeking security and expanding hegemony in the region with the aim of controlling Iran and China.” This article has used a descriptive-analytical method. Also the authors have used library, internet, and media resources for data collection. The findings show that participation of NATO and India in three areas of the subject, environment and level simultaneously creates opportunities and threats for Iran’s national security.

    2- Research methodology

    This is a fundamental research whose data have been collected using library and Internet resources, media, and NATO documents. The method of analysis in this research is qualitative analysis due to its descriptive-analytical nature. Theoretical framework of the research is written based on the new security concept of NATO for the second decade of the twenty-first century and the subject of convergence.

    3. Discussion 

    If the relation of India and NATO is divided into three parts of the environment, level and subject, then some important dimensions of this relation will be clear that can affect the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The relation of India and NATO affects the environment of the Islamic Republic of Iran in far and near borders including Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Russia and Central Asia. If close relation between India and NATO in Afghanistan provides stability and security to this country, it can be an opportunity for Iran’s national security. But at the same time promoting India’s political, economic and cultural approaches as a model of Western democracy and liberal democracy in the region will be one of the most important threats that the Islamic Republic of Iran will face with it. On the other hand, if the relation of India and NATO leads to the mediation of NATO and especially the United States in the relation of India and Pakistan, it will not only solve one of the most important historical problems of this geographic region, but will also lead to security and peace in Pakistan, which is directly related to interests and national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Now the political instability in Pakistan and the historical disagreements of India and Pakistan, which have led to armed peace between these two countries, are potential threats to Iran given the nuclear weapons of both countries, and especially the presence of numerous jihadist extremist groups in Pakistan. Finally, the growth of relations between NATO and India will provide an opportunity for India to expand its presence in the Central Asia more than before, because not only NATO and most Western organizations are pushing for promotion of democracy and free market approaches in the Central Asia, and in the meantime the best option is an Eastern democracy and successful economic system like India, but also India’s presence in Central Asia will be a major obstacle to the influence of the China, Japan, Russia and even Iran in this region. The presence of India on behalf of Western countries in Central Asia is not only a serious obstacle to the effective presence of the Islamic Republic of Iran in this region due to differences in political, economic, security and cultural perspectives, but also in practice prevents many geopolitical opportunities of Iran like transit and traffic. Also, the relations between India and NATO on the level affect the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran; the convergence of the two sides, which began in the fields of economics, military exercises, and logistics, nowadays is expanded to the security, intelligence, military and political dimensions, and the growth of this trend will add new dimensions to this convergence; the above mentioned cooperation continues strenuously. In this regard, Iran’s interests and national security will undoubtedly be endangered by the various dimensions existing at the level of relations between India and NATO. In this context, given the contrast between the interests and goals of Iran and NATO and numerous grounds of convergence between NATO and India, the growth of relations between these two actors will jeopardize the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Obviously, in case of membership of India in NATO or the official joining of this country in one of programs or plans of NATO, the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran will be endangered more than ever, because by these measures not only the territory of NATO formally enters the eastern borders of Iran, but also continuous cooperation of India to NATO as one of the main priorities for NATO membership or one of its plans will impose numerous political, security, economic and ... damages on the country. Moreover, NATO attempts to highlight differentiation points between India and Iran and to introduce Iran as a threatening country for the region and the world. This is a strategy that has been specifically emphasized in some of declarations of NATO.

    4. Conclusion 

    Selection of numerous geopolitical strategies, including  globalization and development of neighborhood by India, and geopolitical strategies of presence outside the region and participation with emerging powers by NATO have made these two actors close partners in the second decade of the twenty-first century. The broad change in India’s approaches to foreign policy and new ideas of NATO about strategic concepts have provided the grounds for convergence of NATO and India, and both sides have entered into a new era of strategic relations in the form of convergence and participation. In the present article the authors have tried to examine these relations. It was said that although during the Cold War the immediate impact of the geopolitical factors had made the relations between India and NATO to be divergent, but with change in grand strategy of the two actors after the Cold War, nowadays these geopolitical factors again have caused convergence to be the most important characteristic of the relations between India and NATO. Although India has no relation with NATO in the form of formal membership or formal presence in strategic plans of NATO, but development of cooperation with NATO in the areas of combating terrorism and extremism, security of Afghanistan, security of energy, countering piracy, controlling China, presence in Central Asia and ..., are signs of formalizing this relation in the future. In this regard, the present article has examined the effects of this convergence on the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran and by introducing the relations of India and NATO in three main areas of the subject, environment and level, has described these areas. It was said that, by focus on the close relations of NATO and India, in addition to the many threats that can be conceived of because of the conflict between discourses of the Islamic Republic of Iran and NATO, the opportunities of this convergence should not be neglected. At the end, it is suggested that: 1) The authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran should attach importance to the presence of NATO in all of the maritime and territorial borders of Iran, because this presence undoubtedly undermines the national security of Iran due to the conflict between discourses of NATO and Iran. Also by formal dialogues, scientific conferences and programs, and … the authorities of Iran can use capacities of India and other formal and informal partners of NATO that Iran has a better relationship with them. Instead of the strategies of silence or opposition, In the dialogues and conferences Iranian officials can talk with these countries about expansionist policies of NATO in the Southwest Asia and by using other capacities like Shanghai Cooperation Organization and a centralized and coherent strategic management can compete with NATO; and (2) by using existing opportunities and policies and by extracting and focusing on the needs and commonalities with India in bilateral and regional relations, authorities of Iran can prevent official membership of India in NATO.    

    Keywords: NATO, India, Geopolitic, Convergence, Iran
  • Yaghoub Fouladi, Mohammad Barani *, Maryam Khalili Pages 177-194

    Same as Kelileh & Demneh, Marzban Nameh has also been created including anecdotes, allegories and philosophic myths which have been said with the language of humans, animals and birds. These factors beside the composition method of the book have led authors to treat it as a mere imitation of Kelileh & Demneh and take its importance in the composition method and art of its author. But, when we compare the intellectual foundation and atmosphere of Marzbannameh and Kelileh & Demneh, we find that as a result of their dominant viewpoint, they have egregious difference in their intellectual foundation. In the present study, using the analytical-comparative method and by looking at the intellectual substructure of these books, we have shown that Marzban Nameh, unlike Kelileh & Demneh, has an optimistic dominant viewpoint; in a way that most of its stories have good ending. The findings of the study show that the intellectual substructure of Marzban Nameh is based on Mazdyasna philosophy –victory of goodness against badness- and the Iranian worldview, and according to this, Marzban Nameh is not a mere imitation of Kelileh & Demneh; but, it is a deliberate and purposeful composition.  

    Introduction

     Story-telling and narration are of distinguished literary styles among Iranian and the Indians that beside their amusement aspect, they have had a great role in educational and tutoring fields. On top of these allegorical anecdotes with a comprehensive framework, is Kelileh & Demneh. Iranian poets, imitating Kelileh & Demneh, created a complex of stories with a special moral framework, called Marzbannameh. This is one of the most valuable artworks of the Persian literature that has been written by Espahbad Marzban-ebn- e Rostam-ebn- e Sharvin in Tabarestani language in the fourth century (A.H), and Saad al-din Varavini translated it to technical Farsi Dari in the first half of the seventh century (between years 617-622). (see: Safa, 1990, vol. 2: 1005-1008; Bahar, 1994, vol. 3: 14-20; Williams, Marzban-nama). Most of the Iranian poetry systems after Islam and prose books as Marzbannameh are connected to the anecdotes and myths of before Islam and people believe that Marzbannameh has roots in the culture and literature of pre-Islamic era (Moein, 1946: 6-7; Ripeca, 2003: 336-337 and Rezaei, 2011).

    Problem statement 

    This research is investigating the answer to the question: Are the contents and deep structure of Marzbannameh the same as Kelileh & Demneh as in its allegorical, fictive structure and narration of some stories? Or only their surface structure is similar?

    Research history

    Few researches have investigated the fundamental and mental issues of the work. Mohammad Moein is one of the pioneers in Youshat Fariyan and Marzbannameh book (Moein, 1946). Also, Sirus Shamisa in his article “Marzbannameh and Khatereh-ye shekast-e Divan” (Shamisa, 1982), concludes that the chapters “Div-e Gavpay and Danaye Dini” are symbols of battle between the Aryans and the natives of Gilan. Other researches include “Marzbannameh Yadegari Az Iran-e Ahd-e Sasani” (2009) by Mahdi Rezaei which declare the history of the work in the pre-Islamic era.

    Necessity and importance of the research

    Importance of the present study is showing that Marzbannameh is not a mere imitation of Kelileh & Demneh; but their mental structure is totally different and Marzbannameh has been created according to the ancient Iranian thought and a special moral system.

    Discussion 

    With a brief look to Marzbannameh, we discover that although the patterns of the work are loaned from Kelileh & Demneh, but the main thought and viewpoint of them are totally different; an optimistic viewpoint that results in a good ending for more than eighty percents of the stories. This is according to that optimistic viewpoint which the stories directly taken from Kelileh & Demneh or stories indirectly affected by Kelileh & Demneh have good endings or their ending in Marzbannameh has been changed to good ending.  For example, the story “the farmer with wolf and snake” is in concordance with the story “the man who scaped from the furious camel” in Kelileh & Demneh:   “a man suddenly saw a wolf; he rapidly climbed a tree. On the branch of the tree was a sleeping snake. He thought by himself that if I shout, the snake would get up and kill me, and if I go down I cannot fight with the wolf. He relied on God and kept patient. Suddenly a farmer arrived from the field. The wolf escaped and the man got down the tree; he prayed to God and continued his way” (Marzban-ebn- e Rostam, 1985: 233-234).   “the man who escaped from the furious camel” from Kelileh & Demneh: “A man escaped from a furious camel and went into a well. He took two branches on top a stood on a place. When he looked more precisely, he found that his feet are on the heads of four snakes and at the bottom of the well a big dragon was waiting for him. On top, some black and white mice were chewing the branches. While he was thinking a way to survive, he saw a honey beehive. He started to eat honey and forgot to find a way to survive. Finally the mice chewed the branches and he fell down into the mouth of the dragon” (Monshi, 1967: 57-58). The core idea of the story “farmer with wolf and snake” is also taken its roots from the mentioned story of Kelileh & Demneh. Both are symbolically narrating the world and life and human facing them. In both of them, a person has got a problem and relied on something, but in his safe place also got a new problem. The difference between the stories is their ending: the story in Kelileh & Demneh has bad ending (the man is neglectful and falls into the dragon’s mouth), but in Marzbannameh the man survives by relying on God and being patient. plot and pattern of Marzbannameh is like Kelileh & Demneh; but its deep structure is different; since Kelileh & Demneh is an Indian book and its stories are according to the Indian’s culture and worldview. But Marzbannameh has been created based on the culture and thoughts of the ancient Iran. The winning of goodness and giving the right to the deserved one in the deep structure of Marzbannameh takes its roots from the thought of Mazdisna which is the basis of the Iranian worldview in the Sassanid era.

    Result

    It is true that marzbannameh is created according to Kelileh & Demneh from the aspects of structure and formation and its content, like Kelileh & Demneh, is about moral and educational issues and a tool for inspiration of socio-political concepts; but taking into account the mental and fundamental structures of the two books, Marzbannameh is not a simple and mere imitation of Kelileh & Demneh. Totally, the author of Marzbannameh has taken some steps from Kelileh & Demneh in its formation and literary style; but not in contents. The viewpoint of the two books is completely different; because Marzbannameh is according to the Iranian worldview and thoughts of Iranians; but the mental source of Kelileh & Demneh is the culture and worldview of Indians.            

    Keywords: Marzban Nameh, Kelileh & Demneh, substructure, Iranian worldview, Mazdyasna philosophy
  • Saeed Geravand *, Sorayyta Mirzaei Pages 195-214

     Vajrayana is a kind of  Magical  Religions Buddhism . in Vajrayana Mandala is one of important doctrine. in this research our porpuse  is showing Importance of mandala and its epistemological role in travelling in the vajrayana. Mandala  in Vajrayana way  is a  ritual symbol that showe  the presence  of god and way of  eternity and absolute. This eternal face in Vajrayana showe the relation between macrocosm and microcosm. In fact  in Vajrayana Way  though the mandala  can be understand the low dwon according  the understanding of gods. Mandala in ritual symbol and travelling  and thought  concerning  absolute in the vajrayana has a basic role. In Travelling  in Vajrayana way the porpuse of mystic is attainment to centric mandala and unity with principal god. The finding of the research show that mandala determine the way of travelling and sacred environment and preserve its from non cosmic saktas . the presence  in the sacred environment In Travelling  in Vajrayana allow to burble to call cosmic factors and embay  the  evil factors. Finally burble though contemplation and thought  redeem from material world and attaine to moksa and the understanding of eternity and absolute.  this research has been provided with descriptive-analytic  method, by citing firsthand and classical texts.

    Introduction

    Vajrayana is one of the most mysterious forms of Buddhist practices and intellectual traditions whose followers hold different kinds of rites and ceremonies to reach salvation. In these ceremonies, they benefit from a variety of signs and symbols. Among them is Mandala which is one of the most important symbols in achieving salvation and has a high position in transcendental and religious rites. Some of the questions that we presented here and tried to provide appropriate answers are: 1)  What is the semantic realm of Mandala and its role in Vajrayana tradition? 2) What is the epistemological role of Mandala in Mystical Travel in Vajrayana practice? 3)What Mandala symbols are there in Vajrayana tradition? The importance of this study arises from the significance and credibility of Mandala and its epistemological role in stages of   mystical journey and methodology of comparative mysticism. Besides, the lack of a study would examine Mandala in Vajrayana and could determine its realm in mystical Journal emphasizes its importance.

    Methodology 

    This study is carried out in a descriptive-analytical method and is documented by original books and  sources from libraries. It is also based on classical texts.

    Discussion 

     The term “Mandala” literally means “circle” and it has a high position in mysticism and the ceremonial and religious rites of various religions, especially Hinduism, Buddhism and Vajrayana practice (Saunders, Buddhist Mandala, 1987:9/155). But, idiomatically, it is a visual symbol that includes some concentric or multicentric circles surrounded by a square. It has four gates in four main directions, and its center is the position of the central god who is usually accompanied by his wife. In each of four directions, four Buddhas are placed, each of which accompanied by his goddess. The other circles represent Bodhisattvas and the low-ranked gods. As the distance of godsfrom the center increases, their credibility and importance reduce. In the center of Mandala, there might be images of gods or their signs or images of lilies. Also, it is possible that an image or figure of Buddha is placed in the center to represent the ritual sex of Shiva and Shakti. The component elements of Mandala are symbolic and reflect the mortality of the worldly life and the temporariness of human lifespan (Conze, 1993:65-6).  The central point of Mandala is the origin from which everything emanates and returns to. What is essential in Mandala’s image in eastern mystical traditions is the central point, and the goal of the yogi is to reach it. In Vajrayana practice, Mandala mainly means the realm of a god who is in the center, and its various parts belong to various gods, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. It reflects the world in accordance with a deep cognitive perception of gods. Mandala is both a domicile for them and a reference to those that reside in it (Williams, 2002: 227-8). Therefore, Mandalain Vajrayana thought creates a sacred area and protects it against parsing forces. It is an area that should be kept pure for ritual and benedictory purposes. There are different symbols of Mandala in Vajrayana practice. Among them are Yantra, Temple, Mudra, Man, and so on. The human body is the most superior kind of Mandala because Mandala represents the relations between the major and the minor worlds; that is, between the universe and the human body.  Since the human body represents the cosmos and yogi unites himself to god by it in order to activate his latent divine forces and reach the joining stage, the body and its different levels are considered as a Mandala that is embedded in human nature. This type of Mandala can only be created by Yogis. The body Mandala has special characteristics that help the wayfarers achieve salvation through observing the ultimate truth. For this reason, it is the most sacred type of Mandala.

    Conclusion

    Vajrayana is the third cycle of Buddhist thought and one of the most complicated types of religious traditions in East. The followers and proponents of Vajrayana practice hold different rites and ceremonies to reach the truth. In these ceremonies, various kinds of symbols and signs are used to show the truth. Mandala is one of those symbols and signs. The results of this study indicate that Mandala is one of the symbols that have a high position in meditations and transcendental rites. And it is ultimately a way to reach salvation. The main question of this study associates with the semantic realm of Mandala and its role in Vajrayana practice. To answer this question, it should be pointed out that Mandala is a Sanskrit word meaning “circle”. Idiomatically, it refers to a set of concentric or multicentric circles surrounded by a square. At the same time, it depicts an image of the universe and the secret temple of all gods as well as the four main directions. In Vajrayana tradition, Mandala is a place where the main god is located in the center. It is the domicile of gods as well as a reference to gods, Buddhas and bodhisattvas. The fundamental part of Mandala is the central point or the point of creation which is the descension place of universe axis. Whosoever reaches it, he will associate with the basis of the universe which is the connection point of human’s origin and the universe. The second question is concerned with what religious and mystical interpretations of Mandala are presented.  The answer is that Mandala in Vajra practice is a religious and mystical symbol that acknowledges representation as existence. It’s both a representation of truth and the way of truth. For this reason, Mandala is the main point of journey in the way of Vajra, and each of its circles represents one of the stages and levels of Vajra practice. Consequently, the wayfarer (seeker) needs to pass them one after the other to reach the joining position. The last question of the study deals with those symbols of Mandala which are used in Vajrayana tradition. To answer this question it needs to be said that there are different forms and kinds of Mandala among which we can refer to Yantra, map of the Universe, Chakra, temple and the human body.  The human body is the most superior type of Mandala because Mandala represents the relations between the major and the minor worlds. Therefore, Yogi inspects the regression of creation in his own existence and creates Mandala in his body by his particular attitude toward the universe. This shows the dissociation from the minor world and unity with the main origin. 

    Keywords: Buddhist thought, Mandala, vajrayana, travelling
  • Saeed Mohammadisadegh * Pages 215-234

    The purpose of this research is comparative comparisons of the components of sustainable development and the recognition of citizenship rights in Iran and Afghanistan, which has been conducted through a descriptive-analytical method. Measurement and measurement of development has always been one of the most important issues of interest to many economic and development experts as well as policymakers and planners. Because every country wants to know its position as compared to other countries in terms of development and economic growth and its trends over the past years. For this reason, over the past years, many efforts have been made by experts to measure development in most of the indicators. Voting for sustainable development there are several ways in which regional management exists, and this management can be effective when accompanied with public acceptance and transparency. With the development of communications and the instantaneous awareness of human beings about the events surrounding them, all governments and societies have inevitably faced with a transnational analogy that did not exist in the past. Therefore, gaining public opinion and other support is no longer easy, and it must be done with all its power.

    Introduction

    Sustainable development is a development that addresses the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. If we accept that economic development is the process of improving the quality of life of all people, then economic growth will be the core of economic development. But economic growth is a sustainable process that increases the production capacity of the economy over time and increases the level of national income. The main components of sustainability in the semantic system of development can be considered as follows: first, economic sustainability (profitability), secondly, social sustainability (compatibility), environmental sustainability (non-degradation of ecosystems), and fourth, structural and organizational sustainability (having the authority and competence, and the efficiency and effectiveness of the management structure), the fifth technological sustainability (the appropriateness of technology) and the sixth balance sustainability (dynamic coordination) in sustainable development, one of the main areas emphasized and a fundamental role in the realization of sustainable development with institutional capacity. Institutionalism is not just about the methodology, approach, and theory of studying political institutions. In fact, institutional analysis in contemporary studies of political science and government involves, on the one hand, legal constitutional investigations, and, on the other hand, the domain of the state administration. (Bahram zadeh, 2003) In Iran, the rights of citizens in the basic Law have conferred 120 articles, the rights of whose consistency and lack thereof cause the loss of a person or personality. Modern welfare is the fourfold of a lawyer, duty, partnership and security. (Gholipour, 2010, 71) In Afghanistan, civil rights mean the residence of a country for a specified period, meaning a collection of individual and social legal information. (Fayez, 28, 2013)

    Research purposes

    -Reporting the Components of Sustainable Development in Respect of Citizenship Rights in Iran and Afghanistan -Setting the characteristics and components of sustainable development

    Research questions

    what are the components of sustainable development and civil rights in Iran and Afghanistan? How can the components of sustainable development and citizenship rights be realized in these two countries?

    Research Methodology 

    the present research is descriptive-analytic. It describes the issue of the subject in a descriptive way, and the requirements of the subject are analyzed. In this research, the library method is used and the resources are digested by not taking. 3-Discussion In order to compare the components of sustainable development and citizenship rights in Iran and Afghanistan, the following items were collected and derived. Among the indicators of sustainable development and citizenship rights in Iran can be mentioned: (Bahram zadeh, 2003, 45) 1-Education and University2-Industry3-Government4-Knowledge5-Communication One of the problems of education and university in the lack of development of countries can be seen in the inefficiency of methods and quality of education, the solution to which can be found in the “learning styles" in the first step. (Sa’ee1995: 127) Industrialization is known as the best way to put an end to technical and economic retardation in the shortest possible time with the least dependence on the outside and a means to change the traditional social relations of the society and the application of scientific and technological achievements in order to increase productivity of production and work efficiency,. (Tadayon, 2005, 89) The continuation of the current conditions and direction of knowledge ultimately will divide the world into the "conscious world, the unknowing world, the world of the scientist and the world of workers” (Aligholian, 2006, p. 97), while many thinkers and brains of the backward countries have a major contribution to the production of this knowledge. The phenomenon of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), due to the wide range of capabilities and potential has provided the appropriate conditions for the utilization of technology in all aspects of human life (Taqavi, 85/2017) Indicators of sustainable development in Afghanistan include: 1) Elimination of poverty 2) Elimination of hunger 3) Weight loss 4) Quality education 5) Gender equality 6. Clean water or access to safe drinking water. 7. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure 8. Reducing inequality9-Sustainable cities and communities’ 10-Production and consumption by authorities

    Conclusion

    Sustainable development is human-centered and, given the wide range of topics and capabilities, has quickly become one of the most important current debates and one of the 21st century's most important challenges. In the third millennium, the process of growth and development was restored within the framework of sustainability. In sustainable development, humans are the focus of development and deserve the health, security, culture, education, knowledge and development of communications and information. Achieving a number of these indicators suggests that the government of Afghanistan, contrary to its critics' comments, has not only addressed the affairs of the state, but wants to abandon its legal mandate. In the absence of a healthy administrative system that Afghanistan has experienced for many years, such achievements are not achieved anyway, but it should be said that the Afghan government still has a long way to go and meet the Millennium Development Goals. Regular scheduling and transparent operation Government agents can make these indicators accessible to the country. In order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, Afghanistan needs to determine its degree of influence in order to develop a strategy based on the level of influence. It also fights for widespread corruption so that it can implement the strategy. The change in intellectual dominant discourse is another issue that the Afghan government must pay attention to. If a single discourse is not at least dominant in the functioning of the state, development will be impossible. In Iranian society, two main factors influencing the failure to establish a social contract for sustainable development were: first, "Iran" is not focused on the thoughts of some statesmen and, consequently, on them. Rather than thinking and planning to serve a better life, sometimes decisions in the field of foreign affairs, and even domestic issues, have not been focused on Iran. The second factor is the lack of understanding between citizens. Social understanding takes place in order to reach the point of development in which all the communities in the society can speak and social contract can be formed, which, of course, can be found in an evolutionary aspect in which the role of the social thinkers and the departure of their own islands of thought is inevitable. In some historical periods, we have witnessed the lack of parallelism in the path of the movement of scholars, academics and elites with the realities and distance from the Iranian society. In order to achieve sustainable development, the fundamental laws of the countries, including the constitution of our country, especially Article 26 Recognition of the formation and activities of parties and Civic engagement enables citizens to share with each other common cultural, political, and economic aspirations, and, as a massive mass, to strive to pursue their citizenship in a variety of scenes. Also under Article 27 of the Constitution, when expressing demands or objections or defending their citizenship rights, they are permitted to form civil society organizations to attract public opinion to observe and protect their legal rights.

    Keywords: sustainable development, Citizenship Rights, Iran, Afghanistan
  • Samin Modaber, Golamreza Hashemi *, Zohre Tabatabaee Pages 235-260

    During the Gurkanian (1526-1857), especially in Akbar Shah period, was gaven much attention to the spread of culture and arts. One of the services of Akbar Shah era was the translation of Sanskrit books into Farsi and illustrating of them. One of this manuscripts, illustrated Ramayana book that is available at Freer's Art Gallery is the battle story of Ramchander, the seventh manifestation of Vishnu with Ravana, who is the greatest demon. The examining of influence of the motif of the demons in the Ramayana manuscript of the Freer Museum, both previous and contemporary texts have been selected as the main question of this research. The purpose of this research is to carry out the iconographic matching of the image of demon and its place in the Ramayana manuscript of Abdul Rahim Khan with the sample of previous and similar texts in the India. Study was conducted by descriptive, historical-comparative method and the results indicate that the motif of the demons in the research manuscript, have been depicted in the four forms of the demon with recurred members, animal, human, and combination (human-animal).In previous texts, demons are portrayed in a combination form. In the simultaneous texts, the main characters of the epic are most often depicted in the form of humans and other characters in a combination form.

     Introduction

    Demons as evil and harmful creatures have always played a significant role in the myths and cultures of different nations. In the Indian texts too, we see from the outset a strong presence of various demons and the struggle of the gods for their destruction. In the epic era, Raksheses are the biggest demons which have introduced in the three epics of Mahabharata, Puranaha and Ramayana. Among the most popular of the Indian epics, Ramayana is the story of the Battle of Ramchandra, the seventh manifestation of Vishnu, with the great demon of the time, Raven. This version was prepared by Abdul Rahim Khan Khanan(1557-1626)  (mansouri 1394:192). During the Gurkanian period (1526-1857), especially in Akbar Shah period, interfaith relations expanded, which also gave rise to interactions in the art of this period. The Ramayana version of the Washington Freer and Sackler Gallery is one of the works that show the extent of Persian language and Muslim services influence on the Indian religious culture (seyller, 1999: 46). Its paintings are notable for their widespread presence of demons and a great variety of their character designs. Studying the demons can reveal the realities of the unknown periods of human life, cultures, beliefs, and... The Ramayana paintings of the Freer Gallery are an example of the bold presence of demons in the Islamic period. Research questions include: What is the position of demons in the Indian texts? What was the impact of the demon's role in the Ramayana's version of Freer's gallery of earlier and contemporary visual texts? What are the characteristics and similarities and differences of Ravenna's images in the Ramayana version of the Freer's gallery and other prior and contemporaneous manuscripts? The purpose of the present study is to study the iconography of the image of the demon and its place in the Ramayana version of Abdul Rahim Khan and to examine the similarities and differences of the demons in the sample of earlier and contemporary texts in the Indian land with the demons in the selected version.

    Research Method

    The present study is fundamental research and has been done by descriptive and historical-comparative method. The method of data collection is library-based, with text reading, capturing and collecting images and its analysis is qualitative. The authors have introduced and described the features of the twenty-two main demons of the Ramayana epic, illustrated in forty-four illustrations of this edition. To examine the similarities and differences between these demons and demons in earlier texts, motifs of the Ramayana in various temples of India were selected from approximately 600 BC to the 12th century, and contemporary texts with selected text depicted in the 17th and 18th centuries, were also used.

    Discussion

    Ramayana is the story of fight of the seventh manifestation of Vishnu, Ramchandra with the great devil, Raven. The appearance of the demons in the Ramayana version of the Freer Gallery can be divided into four categories: 1. Demons with repeated members.in this version, Raven and Tersera depicted with reproduced organs. 2. The animal-shaped demon, that Mariche is the only demon depicted in the animal form. 3. human-shaped demon, which is only Indrajit, depicted in one image with a completely human anatomy and appearance and  4-hybrid demons that most demons in this version are in the form of hybrids (human-animal).The appearance of the demons in the pictorial texts before the Ramayana version of the Freer Gallery, given the prominent templates, indicates that the majority of the text demons before the study version have anatomical and fully human features, and demons with hybrid feature were not found. Due to the appearance of the demons in the visual texts at the same time as the Ramayana version of the Freer Gallery- most of them are in Rajput styles-most of the main demons are in the form of the human. Raven is the main demon of the epic. He is depicted in most pictures with a plurality of two members of the head and hands, all of them have human figures and their number is ten. The number of hands in the samples varies. In all the texts studied, Raven is depicted with two human legs.

    Conclusion

    The answer to the first question is that demons as harmful creatures have been present in Hindu religious and epic texts from the beginning. The main demons in the Indian texts are: the Asuras, the Danves, the Ditias, nagas, Pishachas and the Raksheses.To answer the second question, you should refer to the results of the surveys:The demons depicted in this edition are divided into four groups: the demon with numerous organs, the demon with animal form, the demon with human form, and the demon with hybrid (animal-human) form.According to statistics, most of the demons have been depicted with hybrid organs, and the demon with the goat and human head, followed by the demon in the form of cats and hybrids, followed by the demon with the head of the dragon, more than others. All demons have human hands. The most prolific form of the eye is human eye, followed by the dragon. They are sometimes depicted with the animal eye. Most demons have two horns. The most frequent form of ear is in the form of a goat ear, followed by an elephant. Most demons have tails and in some cases do not. The most frequent form of legs is the human foot and the bird's claw. Of course, some of the demons are depicted with elephant legs or compound legs of elephant feet and bird's claws. Most of the demons have depicted with their teeth out.In the previous texts, epic demons can be divided into three groups of repeated member demons, demons in animal form, and demons in human form.Studying contemporaneous pictures with the selected version revealed that most of the main demons were depicted in a fully human anatomy and the demons fighting for the Raven had a human-animal hybrid form. Also the hybrid demons in this edition all have fully human organs and animal or hybrid heads. So, in answer to the second question, it can be said that the painters of Abdul Rahim Khan's workshop did not influence by the previous demon samples in designing of hybrid demons and because of their different design than their contemporary ones, they may not only have influenced from them but also influenced them.Raven's images in the earlier and concurrent examples were not significantly different from those in the case study, and the differences are only in details. He is depicted in most images with a plurality of two members of the head and hands, and the heads are all in human form, often in numbers of ten, and in other specimens have less numerous. The head style of the most texts is five heads to the right and five heads to the left, but in some cases this style changes. In the all of the texts which studied, Raven is depicted with two human legs. So, in answer to the third question, it can be said that the artists of all three texts have been faithful to the story text in the design of Raven's character with its reproduced members. Since the examples of demons, creatures and deities with repeated members are abundantly found in Indian art and civilization, it seems that the artists in the study and simultaneous manuscripts have been influenced by the earlier examples of Ravenna's character design.
     

    Keywords: Gurkaniyan, Ramayana epic, Abd al, Alrahim Khankhanan, Freer Gallery Ramayana, Demon Motif
  • Behzad Vasigh * Pages 261-276

    A comparative comparison between two civilizations and cultures can be made by comparing two cultural products. The Rangooniha mosque was constructed by Muslims in the subcontinent of India in Abadan. The mosque is similar to the mosques of the Indian Subcontinent. The present research seeks to address the components of the dialogue between two Iranian architectures and the architecture of the subcontinent in religious buildings. The research has been carried out on the basis of a comparative study and a case-study and historical interpretation method. The architecture elements of the Rangooniha mosque are compared with Imam Mosque of Isfahan and Kusumba Mosque in Bangladesh. Regardless of the importance of space shapes and concepts, it has been tried to study several concepts, including access hierarchy, how to communicate with the periphery and the spatial organization of the two buildings, regardless of the physical aspects. The results show that the Rangooniha mosque is linked to the architecture of the mainland in term of form. However, Iranian architecture influence the Rangooniha mosque spaces by hierarchy of space.

    Introduction 

    Architecture grows through interaction between different cultures and nations across the whole globe. Migration is one of the reasons for the interaction between different cultures. Migration has contributed to the richness in diversity of cultures and ethnicities. Migration has helped improve people’s lives in both origin and destination countries and has offered opportunities for millions of people worldwide to forge safe and meaningful lives abroad. When people migrate from one nation or culture to another they carry their knowledge and expressions of distress with them. On settling down in the new culture, their cultural identity is likely to change and that encourages a degree of belonging; they also attempt to settle down by either assimilation or biculturalism. One of these migrations in the contemporary era is the immigration of Indigenous peoples from the Indian subcontinent to Iran. The migration of Bengali and Indian Muslims from the subcontinent to Iran has been a factor in the interaction between the Persians and the Muslim of subcontinent. Muslims have lived in Myanmar (also known as Burma) since the 11th century AD. There are a variety of Burmese Muslim ethnic minorities, including the Chinese-Muslim Panthay in northern Myanmar, Shan Muslims, and Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine. In this article we emphasis on the role of Rohingya Muslims. The    Rohingya Muslims    developed    a    distinctly regional style of architecture that had popular appeal. By   infusing   their   own   methods   and   teachings   of construction new life was given to forms that   already existed   and   were   well   known   in Bengal   and   in neighboring areas such as brume and India.Throughout the Islamic period this tradition continued, assimilating the changes brought about   by   Muslim   rulers   in   their   construction. Indian Muslims and brumes have built religious buildings in Iran based on the way of their culture and the native art, the most important one is the Rangooniha mosque. Authors are trying to find the method of interaction between Persian and Hindi culture across architecture studies. It is hoped that through this comparative comparison, the components of intercultural dialogue can be identified. So, at the first, by examining and comparing the case studies, the question was answered: “what is the relationship between religious architecture of Iran and Bangladesh”. Perhaps this question can be answered by examining the decorations and the form of building and organizing the spaces.The authors attempt to introduce the roots of the formation of the architectural form by introducing the Rangooniha mosque in Bengal, Brume and Iran. In this article, we discuss important considerations in the development of a research question and hypothesis and in defining objectives for research. By the end of this article, the reader will be able to appreciate the significance factors to find similarity and difference between the Rangooniha mosque and the mosques of subcontinent and Iran. It is important to note the question: “Which spaces and ornament in Rangooniha mosque have been transformed based on Iranian architecture and which spaces have been constant to Bengali architecture in terms of interior decoration and organization??" 

    Research methodology

    The research method in this paper is based on the comparative case study approach (CCS). Case study methodology is widely used across multiple disciplines and fields. The approach engages two logics of comparison: first, the more common com-pare and contrast logic; and second, a “tracing across “sites or scales. We consider the comparative case study approach to be a heuristic. Data collection techniques and data are collected from multiple sources. Data collection techniques include direct observations and relevant documents. For comparison, the Rangooniha mosques with Iranian mosques and Indo-Bengali mosques, Imam Isfahan mosque and Kusomba Mosque in Bangladesh have been studied. Most historical mosques are not stand-alone buildings but it should be noted that the Imam Isfahan Mosque has been chosen as a religious building with a dominant discourse in Islamic-Iranian architecture and the Kusomba Mosque Mosque has been chosen based on its history.

    Discussion 

    Historical documents show the continuous cultural relationship between Iran and Bengal (Chuamin, 2004: 286). The impact of Iranian architecture on the India and Bangladesh is significant (Hasan, 1978: 21). With the entry of Britain into Iran a large part of labors included Indians and Bengalis built a mosque in Iran, Abadan. These Muslims were from Rangoon and therefor the name of this mosque was Rangooniha. The mosque has a courtyard and gathering hall (shabestan). There was also a garden surrounding the mosque. Today, the garden is demolished. (Karimian, 2008: 54-55). Triple divisions is the dominate strategy in space formation which is drawn from the architecture of the Indianan Buddhist temples (Dizany, 2018: 81). The vast majority of Muslims in Myanmar are Bengali, the Bengali mosque's architecture is prevalent in this country (Chuamin, 2004: 283). KousumbaMosque is one the most important building that is made by this kind of spatial organization. This mosque belongs to the 16th century and has never been restored (Dani, 2018: 4). It is seem that kousumba mosque is a prototype for mosque builders in Myanmar and Bangladesh. The mosque has three different section including: open space. Green field and a part of building is built without borders. On the other hand, the mosque of Imam Isfahan is chosen as the prototype of the Iranian mosque. One of the reasons for this is that today there is a minor changes can be saw in construction time line from initial construction to current era. The next reason is the importance and reliability of this building in terms of architectural and structural value and the main role of architects from Isfahan during the economic prosperity of Abadan. Eventually, the period of construction of this building and its continuous use, especially in recent times, have been of interest in the impact of this type on the architecture of other regions of Iran. The Masjid-i Imam, formerly known as Masjid-i Shah, was built on the south side of Isfahan's maydan, the royal square of Isfahan that had been built under Shah 'Abbas. The Imam mosque of Isfahan belonged to the beginning of the 11th century AH (Hillenbrand, 2008, 151), and construction type of this mosque is four-porch (chahariwani) (Pirnya, 2013: 76). Following the Iranian traditional mosque plan, the Masjid-i Shah has a court (50 by 67 meters) surrounded by a two-story arcade on four sides with four iwans, one at the center of each side, and a domed sanctuary behind the southwest iwan, oriented towards Mecca. However, the mosque's plan presents an interesting variation: behind each lateral iwan (on the northwest and southeast) is a domed chamber. In this way, the building is formed around the central courtyard, and four porches in the four walls of the rectangular courtyard are located and in the direction of the Qibla there are Domes and Shabestan (Molazadeh, 1999: 53). It seems that with the analysis of these mosques and their comparative comparisons, the Rangooniha mosque could be the genealogy of the mosque's architecture. The comparative study is formed by analyzing the macro-organization, how private spaces are communicated, how to provide the hierarchy of entry, how to access the Shabestan, how to get light and ventilation, way to use the nature and privacy system. 

    Conclusion

    The results of comparative study show that subcontinent architects have been influenced by the Iranian architecture. These can be described as follows: Although the Rangooniha mosque is similar to the Kousumbamosque in the form and decoration, but it is similar to the imam mosque of Isfahan in the field of circularization and creation of space, too.   a. Enclosure and confidentiality Passing from outer space to the courtyard and indoor space, while feeling confident, the feeling of narrowing of space is reduced. While in the Kousumbamosque, entering the open space into a closed space causes a feeling of lack of open space and confidentiality.   b. Open and closed spaces In the mosques of Rangooniha and Imam, the closed space and the outer space have a separation section. While the mosque has a direct connection between indoor and outdoor space.   c. Private-public spaces: The Rangoon mosques and the Imam mosque of Isfahan have a more private space than the KousumbaMosque. Passers by the KousumbaMosque can see the shabestan completely.   d. Arrivals In the Rangooniha mosques and the Imam mosque of Isfahan Outdoor spaces (outdoor, without borders), enterance (sardar) (closed and restricted space and separator), Outdoor courtyard (open-air separated from the open space) is  connected with shabestan (closed hall for gathering) but There is a connection between the outdoor mosque and the open space in the KousumbaMosque. e. Access to Shabestan: In the mosque of Rangooniha and the Imam mosque of Isfahan, access to the main entrance is from the “sardar” to the courtyard and then the shabestan, but in the mosque there are several main entrances. f. Space Function In the Rangoon mosque and the Imam, the place of study and education is located on both sides of the “Mihrab”, but is located on the right side of the Mihrab at the KousumbaMosque. There is a separation between the place of teaching of worship in Imam Mosque of Isfahan and Kousumba, but this is not the case in the Rangooniha mosque. g. Lighting into space The illumination of the Rangooniha mosque and the Imam mosque of Isfahan are from the main courtyard and Shabestan surrounding the courtyard, and the free area around the mosque has major shading areas, but in the mosque there is an unobstructed light and air conditioning.  h. Gardening The plant does not exist in the main courtyard of Rangoon mosques and Imam Mosque of Isfahan, and its cultivation has been done in the courtyards and surrounding gardens. In the mosque of Kousumba, around the mosque is completely covered with plants and trees. i. Space Concealment Passers by the presence of the courtyard cannot see the space inside the mosques of Rangooniha and Imam. But passersby have seen the Kousumbamosque in a relative way. 

    Keywords: Rangooniha mosque, Imam Isfahan mosque, Kushumba Mosque, Indian