فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue: 12, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 23
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  • Farnaz Fekrat *, Zabihollah Azami Sardooei, Hamidreza Alizadeh Pages 1518-1522
    Pasteuria penetrans is a bacterial parasite of some plant parasite of nematodes whichcan attach to the cuticle of nematode. Differences in attachment of P. penetrans spores to the second stag juvenile (J2) cuticle may provide evidence for nematode cuticle diversity even between different ages of J2s. For investigating this purpose, we studied the effect of different ages of the same population of Meloidogyne chitwoodi second stage juveniles (J2) on the attachment of a specific P. penetrans spores. Each 200 freshly hatched, 7 and 12 day old J2 were exposed to 40000 spores of P. penetrans. The J2s-spores suspension were centrifuged and were examined with a microscope and attached spores were counted. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in spore attachment between fresh M. chitwoodi J2 and 12-day-old J2. Although there were no significant differences between spore attachment using fresh J2 and 7day-old J2, the numbers of spores attached to the 7-day-old J2 were lower than the numbers attaching to the fresh ones. From this study we can suggest that age of J2s can affect on spores attachment and this may help to have a successful management program
    Keywords: Nematode's cuticle, Root knot nematode, Pasteuria penetrans
  • Hadi Tavakkoli *, Amin Derakhshanfar, Samaneh Noori Gooshki Pages 1523-1528
    Methenamine salts have been traditionally used in the veterinary and human medicine, but its use is sometimes associated with some side effects.Toxicopathological effects of methenamine salt have always been a major concern. There is scantly information available about the lesions of methenamine compound in embryo. The objective of this study was to determine the teratogenic effects of methenamine in the chicken embryo. Fertile chicken eggs were divided into four equal treatment groups, 10 eggs per each, as fallow: group 1: no injected group. Group 2: needle-injected group; the needle was insert into yolk sac without any injection. Group 3: phosphate buffered saline-injected group; whose individuals were injected with phosphate buffered saline solution. Group 4, whose individuals were likewise injected with methenamine at dosage of 30 mg/egg at day 4 of incubation. The teratogenic effect of methenamine was revealed as cyst formation instead of abdominal and thoracic body structures. Not recognizable organ was existed in abdominal/thoracic cyst. The normal brain tissue was replaced by large cavity with rim of nervous tissue. The feather formation was also defected. Based on these findings, it is concluded that methenamine at above-mentioned concentration are teratogenic for the chicken embryo. Current study also advises caution in the extended use of methenamine compounds. Further studies are needed to clarify the teratogenic effects of this drug on the development of human fetus
    Keywords: Chicken, egg, embryo, Teratogenic effect, Methenamine
  • Maryam Naimi * Pages 1529-1534
    In this research, we investigated basic symptoms of syndrome in illnesses of sick buildings. We designed a questionnaire and asked from male of dormitory residence. Questions of the questionnaire were more about known symptoms of buildings (Shortness of breath, inflammation, swelling and burning eyes, runny nose, malaise and fatigue, drowsiness, headache) exacerbations time intervals in the residence (6 am-2pm; 2pm-10pm and 10pm-6am) Equipment and devices that people deal with it in at least 10% ( Personal computer, copier, printer, gas cookers) and the most symptoms of creating sick building syndrome (Lack of ventilation, proximity to street noise, high humidity, contaminated materials, pollution sources also most of places of syndromes (corridors, rooms, Toilets, kitchen, upper class, almost everywhere)
    Keywords: Sick building syndrome, Eyes
  • Morteza Beiki *, Nematollah Dayyani, SeyedMohammad Hashemi Pages 1535-1542

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three antibiotic alternatives with a control (Antibiotic-free) and an antibiotic diet on performance and gut morphology of broilers reared on litter. 600 day-old ROSS-308 chicks were assigned to 48 pens in a CRD design with 6 × 2 factorial arrangements, in which 2 levels of chick density (5 and 7.5 chicks/m2) and 6 experimental diets (control, virginiamycin, fermacto, bactocell, biostrong and biostrong matrix-value formulated or biostrong-MV) were used. Higher chick density increased starter feed intake and decreased grower feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly (p<0.05). Average daily gains (ADG) were not different among experimental diets except biostrong-MV that was the least. FCR of different diets were equal, both in starter and grower period. Performance traits didn't influenced by Diet × density interaction. Relative weight of digestive organs, especially jejunum, in antibiotic diets were lesser than other diets (P<0.05). The length per gram of jejunum resulted from experimental diets were similar, and so for ileum except that of fermacto that was significantly lesser than biostrong (p<0.05). The result of current experiment (winter and corn-soybean based diets) had shown that antibiotic alternatives not only didn’t have an effect similar to antibiotic but also to control diet. Furthermore matrix-value method of diet formulation with biostrong lessened chick performance

    Keywords: Bactocell, Biostrong, Broiler, Fermacto, Virginiamycin
  • Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Mostafa Nik Zad, Morteza Sabaee Fazel, Behnam Azizi Gerdeh, Mostafa Shahvardi Pages 1543-1550
    The response of tomato genotype Cal-ji  against five salinity levels (distilled water as control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) were studied at germination and early seedling stages. An experiment with conducted by using a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, seed vigor, mean germination time, germination percentage and rate measured 14 days after germination. Results of data analysis showed that, there were significant differences between salinity stress levels for all investigated traits except mean germination time. Results of data analysis showed that, that the maximum germination percentage during the test was related to the control treatment (Distilled water), and 25 mM. maximum germination percentage at day 14, with an average of 98.76 and 96.57%, were related to the Distilled water and 25 mM treatments. The maximum root length, at day 14 of the test, was from the 25 mM treatment, which did not show a significant statistical difference with the observer treatment. In the entire measured traits, we achieved better results from the control (Distilled water) and 25 mM treatments, in comparison to the 50 mM density, which indicates that the Cal ji tomato genotype could grow properly in low-saline conditions, but this growth faces an extremely significant decrease with the increased salt densities
    Keywords: germination, Seed vigor, Salinity stress, Tomato
  • Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Mostafa Nik Zad, Morteza Sabaee Fazel, Mostafa Shahvardi Pages 1551-1557
    This experiment was conducted to determine allopathic effects of Cyperus rotundus extracts on the tomato germination. It was a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications, carried out in the laboratory of the Agricultural College of University Jiroft during 2011. The various test treatments were extracts of Cyperus rotundus taken from aerial organs, root, and combinations of both plant parts, at densities of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent. Experimental units were Petri dishes in depths and diameters of 3 and 9 cm, respectively. The shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, germination percentage and rate  was measured. The use of the cyperus extract reduced the germination, and it significantly decreased by increasing its in density, such that at the 75% and 100% densities, germination was terminated. Based on the test results, it could be said that the cyperus extract has a severe inhibitory effect on the tomato germination. With time passing, the germination speed decreased over the measurement period, and reached its minimum at day 14. The maximum fresh weight of the root and shoot were achieved from the control treatment (no extract)
    Keywords: Allopathy, Tomato, germination, weed
  • Behzad Babazadeh Darjazi * Pages 1558-1568
    Studies had shown that oxygenated compounds were important in food products. It seems that Citrus species had a profound influence on this factor. The goal of the present study was to investigate on flavor components of two Citrus species. In the early week of June 2012, about 500 g of leaves were collected from many parts of the same trees. Leaf components were extracted using water distillation method and then analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests. The amount of oxygenated compounds ranged from 29.14% to 85.64%. Between two species examined, sour orange showed the highest content of oxygenated compounds. As a result of our study, can be concluded that the species used can influence the quantity of oxygenated compounds present in the oil
    Keywords: Citrus species, Water-distillation, Flavor components, leaf oil
  • Ali Salehi Sardoei *, Gholam Abbas Mohammadi, Parviz Rahbarian Pages 1569-1576
    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) and Putrescine (Put), on cut Narcissus was studied. SA (0, 100 and 200 mg l-1) and Put (0, 150 and 300 mg l-1), their combinations were tested as preservative mixture. This study was conducted in a factorial experiment with complete randomized design on 108 Narcissus cut flowers in horticulture laboratory of agriculture faculty of Islamic Azad University, jiroft branch. The recorded traits included Vase life, Microbial Count, Fresh weight changes and Solution uptake. the results shown using SA and PUT as a preservative significantly increased the vase life, Fresh weight changes, Microbial Count and Solution uptake (P≤5%). The results showed that salicylic acid and Putrescine treatments increased cut flower vase life, while descreased the Microbial Count with total delay of senescence. Maximum flower vase life was recorded in SA 100 mgl-1+PU100mgl-1 treatments. A direct relationship between vase life and, increasing of Fresh weight changes and water uptake was observed as well
    Keywords: Cut flowers, Fresh weight changes, Narcissus, Vase life
  • Narges Zand *, MohammadReza Shakiba Pages 1577-1582

    A field experiment was conducted in 2010, to evaluate the effects of plant density (D1, D2 and D3: 8, 14 and 20 plant/m2) on field performance of Sorghum under different nitrogen application rates (N1, N2 and N3: application of 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha Nitrogen, respectively). The experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design in three replicates. Results indicated that as plant density increased tillers per plant, Steam diameter and days to 50% flowering decreased, the effects of N application rate on these traits were not significant. While tillers per unit of area increased as more plant density. Plant height not affected by both treatments. As plant density and N application rates raised grain yield increased. Thus, N application and plant density increases can raise yield of grain sorghum

    Keywords: Plant density, Nitrogen, Grain yield, Sorghum
  • Bijan Kahrariyan, Farhood Yeganehpoor *, Vahid Beyginiya, Farideh Samadiyan Pages 1583-1589
    A Split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was conducted in 2012,Treatments were included the time of foliar application with 3 levels (tillering stage, heading stage and no spray (control)) as main factor and cultivars in 4 levels (Sardari, Rijav, Biseton and Rashid) as the second factor. Plant characteristics such as plant height, length of the peduncle, length of stamen, diameter of node, the number of node, and spike of length Fe and leaf area index were considered. Results showed that the time of Fe foliar application had a significant effect on studying traits. With respect to Duncan's Multiple Range test, mean comparison results revealed that the Fe foliar application at tillering stage and treatment control (no application) had the greatest and the least effect on traits respectively. Also there was significantly different among cultivars, as among cultivars the maximum and minimum mean of traits was obtained for Rijav and Rashid respectively. The interaction of foliar application × cultivar for plant height and leaf area index was also significant. Highest the wheat height and LAI were observed at foliar application in tillering with Rijav cultivar and the lowest means to control with the Rashid it can be concluded that the most suitable application of Fe solution for improvement morphological and physiological properties of different dry land wheat cultivars (in the same climate condition) was tillering stage, since more impression of Fe was observed in early growth stages
    Keywords: Fe foliar application, Leaf area index, Rijav cultivar
  • Alireza Ekrami * Pages 1590-1600
    Gonabad located at Khorasan Razavi and coordinates 580 30’ N 34o 35’ E. The highest point of the zone belongs to Peak of Siah Mountain (height of 2,863 meters above sea level) and the lowest place has height of 810 meters above sea level, which is located in North West in salt desert. The mean temperature of the warmest and coldest of year is 29.3 and 3.9 respectively. Moreover, mean of rainfall is 142.4 Millimeters. In current research, we studied in Gnabad’s zone in Khorasan province.  In Gonabd’s zone growth 210 species and subspecies belonging to 131 genera and 34-plant family
    Keywords: Flourine, Gonabad, Khorasan province, plant species
  • Ashkan Nabavi Pelesaraei, Ahmad Sadeghzadeh, MirHossein Payman, Hassan Ghasemi Mobtaker * Pages 1601-1613

    The objectives of this research were to investigate influences of energy inputs and energy forms on output levels and evaluation of CO2 emissions for hazelnut production in Guilan province of Iran. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis was done by marginal physical productivity (MPP) method for energy inputs and energy using linear regression. Initial data were collected from 120 orchardists in September and October 2012. The total energy of 2862.62 MJ ha-1 was calculated for gardening in one year. The results of energy forms analysis revealed the share of non-renewable and indirect energy was more than renewable and direct energy, significantly. The ratio of energy output to energy input was approximately 3.93. Total CO2 emissions of hazelnut production was calculated as 77.66 kgCO2eq. ha-1. Also, the diesel fuel had the highest share of emissions among all inputs with 33.84%. Econometric model estimation indicated that the impact of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel and pesticides energy inputs were significantly positive on hazelnut yield. The sensitivity analysis was presented that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) value of pesticides, farmyard manure and diesel fuel energy were the highest with 9.43 and -4.86 and 0.97, respectively. In energy forms econometric models, impact of direct, indirect and renewable energies were significantly. Furthermore, direct and renewable energies was the most sensitive groups in energy forms with MPP value of 0.98 and 1.19, respectively

    Keywords: energy consumption, Hazelnut production, CO2 emissions, Cobb-Douglass function, Sensitivity analysis
  • Dr. Ahmed *, M. Saeed Pages 1614-1627
    Due to the fact that many application processes take place at different temperature, better examining and understanding of swelling properties as a function of temperature is essential for such application. The temperature effect on the swelling properties of commercial polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel beads was investigated as a function of time and temperature. Gel bead size, swelling equilibrium capacity, diameter, weight, water retention, swelling ratio, welling degree and fractional hydration were studied to investigate the swelling properties of hydrogel bead at a given temperature. Diffusion type and its related parameters were studied and calculated. The kinetic model was applied on experimental data using second order model, the kinetic parameters were calculated. The maximum swelling ratio was calculated as 233.7 at 40 ˚C. In experiment of the swelling non- Fickian diffusion was found
    Keywords: Swelling properties, Temperature effect, Polyacrylic acid, Commercial hydrogel
  • Fatmeh Rafiei *, MohamadReza Naderi Darbaghshahi, Abdolmajid Rezai, Bahram Majd Nasiri Pages 1628-1638

    The experiment was investigated to survey of yield and yield components of sunflower cultivars under drought stress in 2012 in Kabootatabad of Esfahan farm. An experiment was conducted in split plot and was designed in randomized complete block with three replications. Irrigation was as main plots in 3 levels (control (normal irrigation), irrigation of 130 mm evaporation from pan evaporation, irrigation of 180 mm evaporation from pan evaporation) and cultivars as subplots was at 5 levels (Zaria, Hysun 36, Favorit, Lakumka and Master). The results showed that the effect of irrigation regime on biological yield, grain yield and harvest index were significant, so that the maximum and minimum values of these traits were observed in the control and irrigation treatment after 180 mm evaporation from pan respectively. Significant effect were observed amount cultivars in biological yield and oil percentage, so in two traits that the highest biological yield and oil percentage obtained in Favorit cultivar and the lowest was obtained in Zaria cultivar. Also the interaction between stress × cultivar was significant on the grain yield trait and oil percentage, and Hysun 36 cultivar at an irrigation level of 180 and 130 mm evaporation from pan had the highest and lowest yield, respectively. Also Master cultivar had highest seed oil percentage with control and Master cultivar had lowest seed oil percentage of irrigation level of 180 mm evaporation of pan, also a Master cultivar at control showed the highest amount of oil present and Master treatment showed the least amount of seed oil at an irrigation level of 180 mm evaporation from pan least

    Keywords: Oil present, Stress, Hysun 36 cultivar
  • Hamid Kasnavi Yazdi *, Narjes Safari Pages 1639-1644
    There have been few longitudinal studies on sick building syndrome (SBS), which include headache, fatigue, and runny nose. We considered effect of sick building syndrome with illnesses like headache, fatigue and runny nose. Thus, we designed a questionnaire and asked from male of dormitory residence. Questions of the questionnaire were more about known symptoms of buildings (headache, fatigue, and runny nose). Following, we divided lifetime to 3 periods (6 am-2pm; 2pm-10pm and 10pm-6am) and our target places for asking questions in the questionnaire were corridors, rooms, Toilets, kitchen, upper class, almost everywhere and results indicated that significant relationship exists between headache, fatigue and runny nose with sick building syndrome. Other things should be mentioned that is some equipment and devices which students use of them like (Personal computer, copier, printer, gas cookers) at least 10% of their time can be effective on prevalence of the symptoms
    Keywords: fatigue, Sick building syndrome, Neurological signs, WHO
  • Habibollah Barazesh *, Mohammad Boujar Pour, Somaye Salari, Tahereh Mohammad Abadi Pages 1645-1651
    To study the effect of herb ginger powder on performance, carcass characteristics and blood parameters of broilers used from 192 broiler chicks (Ross ) in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates ( each replicate of 12 chicks ). All treatments, including different levels of ginger powder ratios of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 percent respectively called T1, 2T, T3 and T4 that were added to the basal diet for 42 days. The results showed that increasing levels of dietary herb ginger powder caused a significant reduction in food intake and weight gain in broilers. So that the entire period, birds fed diets containing 1% lower feed intake and diet ginger powder 0.5% of total period of greatest weight gain were regarded ginger powder. Best and worst feed conversion was significantly related to treatment with 1% ginger and control group. Rise to the level of the herb ginger powder 1.5 percent, decrease abdominal fat in broiler chickens will increase the percentage of ham and stock, while on other carcass parameters were not significantly affected. The results showed that the blood parameters of glucose, HDL and LDL levels treated 1.5 percent ginger powder showed no significant difference compared to control. And other parameters such as cholesterol and triglycerides in number (in treatments 1 and 1.5 percent) powdered ginger to the control group showed a tangible decrease was not significant. From this experiment we can conclude that treatment with 1% (T3) and 1.5 percent (T4) ginger powder showed better performance and carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broilers
    Keywords: Ginger, Chicken, Performance, Blood parameters
  • Fazel Almasi *, Mohsen Sari, Somayeh Salari, Morteza Chaji Pages 1652-1659
    Effects of different levels of cadmium (0.1, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 mg/l of culture medium) were evaluated using gas production technique. In the glass vials used to measure gas production 30 mg of buffered rumen fluid (2:1 ratio of rumen fluid: buffer) poured in glass and cultured at 38.6 temperature. Volume and pressure of produced gas were measured with syringes and digital pressure meter at different times and exponential model were used to determine the gas production parameters. The results of the experiment indicated that using different levels of cadmium sulfate caused a significant reduction in b parameter, partitioning factor, metabolizable energy and digestion of organic matter. Addition of 0.1, 1, 2, 4 and 16 mg cadmium/l did not affect c parameter in comparison with the control treatment. The results of this study suggest that cadmium in higher levels of 8 mg per liter had strong inhibitory effect on rumen anaerobic microorganisms’ activity
    Keywords: Cadmium, Rumen fermentation, Gas Production, Dual continuous culture
  • Negar Afaghi *, Asad Modarres Motlagh, Seied Sadegh Seiedlou, Ali Hasanpour Pages 1660-1668
    The moist sample shrinks during drying and the non-uniformity shrinkage involves stresses in the body. The aim of the present work is simulating deformations and drying-induced stresses of carrot slice during a convective drying. The effect of shrinkage on the heat and mass transfer profiles were considered. Non-constant physical and thermal properties were also incorporated in the model and the Experimental conditions were as follows: a drying temperature of 333 K, relative humidity of 11% and air velocity of 1.2 m/s
    Keywords: Drying-induced stresses, Shrinkage, Carrot
  • Atefeh Afshar *, Ali Neshat Pages 1669-1678
    The agricultural regions are running into difficulties, which are restrictive availability of water, successive appearing draughts, and overuse of ground water resources for supplemental water requirements. As a sample which is got from the farm is sent to the laboratory for testing and the laboratory works need devices. Hence, conducting farm experiments are expensive and time consuming to optimize the amount of water use, and desirable plant performance.Therefore, aqua crop computer model was used to determine water use efficiency, performance and evaluation of potato. This research project was completed in the form of random complete blockdesign in the strip plot model with three times in the farm experiment which was located in VakilAbad of Jiroft in 2010. In this study, the effect of three irrigation level i.e.100, 75 and 50 percent plant water requirement was assessed on the performance and water use efficiency of potato. The results of this study suggested that the amount of water requirement, behavior and water use efficiency simulated by Aqua crop computer model had well adaptation and correlation with field measures
    Keywords: Aqua crop model, Under irrigation, Water use efficiency, Yield of potato
  • Zahra Ghanei *, SeyedKamal Kazemitabar, Hamid Najafi Zarini Pages 1679-1685

    The main objective for plant breeding is to increase genetic diversity. Mutation induction is a method to increase genetic diversity associated with selection, recombination, or a combination of these approaches in plant breeding. The present research was aimed to compare efficacy of different doses of Gamma rays (150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy and zero dose control) on the sesame morphological traits. Results of cluster analysis of single branch Naz variety to M1 showed that mutations were classified into 8 groups of genotypic and single branch Naz variety exhibited more variation as a result of mutation. The maximum scatter in the measure traits is related to yield per plant, number of capsules and capsule length with coefficients of variation of the 55.29, 47.64 and 39.61 respectively. Thus, these study can introduce a new source of germplasm in breeding programs to classical methods to be evaluated and exploited subsequent generations

    Keywords: Sesame, Mutation, morphological characteristics, cluster analysis, gamma ray
  • Morad Shaban * Pages 1686-1691
    The physiological process of germination depends on several environmental factors such as temperature, water potential, light, nutrients and smoke. Water and temperature are determinant factors for seed germination. Both factors can, separately or jointly, affect the germination percentage and germination rate. The effect of temperature on germination and water potential on germination canoften be described by the thermal time and hydrotime models, respectively. The germination and growth behavior of different seeds under the influence of different physical parameters have been explained by different models. Thermal-time describe effect of temperature on seed germination. The ability to germinate rapidly at low temperatures has been proposed as one of many mechanisms thatconfer a competitive advantage to this species. Previous studies of this phenomenon, however, have been limited to relativelysimple comparisons of total germinability and germination rate under selected constant-temperature treatments.Hydro-time models describe effect of water potential  on seed germination as have been combined to form hydrothermal-time model that can describe seed germination patterns. Historical patterns of seedbed microclimate and predicted germination response may be useful in assessing and optimizing alternative field planting scenarios. Inclusion of weather forecasting and seedbed modeling may providereal-time management options for improving rangeland seeding success
    Keywords: Hydro-time, Seed, Termal-time
  • Morad Shaban * Pages 1692-1697
    Influences on viability and germination of seeds have been studied intensively for many years, particularly for the numer-ous commercially important agricultural, ornamental, and timber species. High germinating seed lots may differ substantially in field emergence when sown at the same time in the same field, and/or may differ in performance after storage in the same environment or transport to the same destination. Knowledge of the availability and abundance of viable seeds in tundra soils is important to an understanding of community processes in a stable or in a changing environment. This includes the actual recruitment from this seed bank into seedlings, juvenile and then adult population. Seed storage is very important to secure good quality seeds for planting programs whenever needed. Seed longevity, vigor and viability depend on genetic and physiological factors as well as storage conditions. The most important factors that influence storage are temperature, moisture, seed characteristics, micro-organism geographical location and storage structure. It is necessary to improve methods that increase potential seed longevity, vigor and viability in storage. Seed viability can be extended by cold or dry storage at seed moisture content below 5%
    Keywords: Seed, Viability, Vigor
  • Fatemeh Soltanpour, Gholamali Moghaddam * Pages 1698-1704
    Semen collection evaluation and addition of preservatives to increase storage period of sperm are essential for successful artificial insemination. This study was conducted on 4rams (2 Ghezel Merinos and 2 Merinos Moghani) to evaluate the effect of two diluents in Khalatposhan research station. Average age of rams was 3 years. Rams were trained to serve the artificial insemination and semen samples were collected weekly. It was started from October 2011 to June 2012. After collection semen samples were mixed with diluents. They were stored in liquid nitrogen. After diluting and storage semen was assessed after 0, 1, 2 and 3 day for pH, viability and progressive motility. Frozen straws were thawed individually at 37 °C for 20 s in a water bath for evaluation. Effect of diluent and storage day on pH, viability and progressive motility of sperm were significant (P< 0.01). With the increasing storage day pH, viability and progressive motility of sperm decreased. The success of these diluent has been attributed the tris which may act as a buffer against changes in pH and tonicity. Fructose and citric acid are energy source. Egg- yolks protect the cell membrane during cooling. Glycerol protects the spermatozoa against membrane damage during freezing. This study showed that diluents containing of 7% glycerol and 20% egg-yolk had better sperm protection ability than extender containing 5% glycerol and 5% egg-yolk  according to sperm motility, pH and sperm viability
    Keywords: Artificial insemination, diluent, Ram, Semen