فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue: 10, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Fahimeh Shojaie * Pages 1157-1164
    There are many claims that quantum mechanics plays a key role in the origin and/or operation of biological organisms. The mechanism of the meiosis, mitosis and gametes life cycle from the view-point of quantum for human has been represented. The quantum gates have been used to simulate these processes for the first time. The reason of several hundred sperms has been explained in the male too
    Keywords: Entanglement, Quantum Mechanics, Gametes life cycle
  • Fakhraden Hasaloei *, Khald Dodman, MirMasom Sohrabi, AmirMohamad Amini Pages 1165-1169

    There is a substantial evidence that plyometric training significantly increases muscular strength and vertical jump. Due to the vigorous nature of this type of training, however, there is a risk of incurring musculoskeletal injuries. Therefore, conducting plyometric exercise programs in an aquatic environment might lead to significant improvements in vertical jump with possibly a lower risk of injury. To examine the effects of an aquatic-plyometric training (APT) program on vertical jump height compared with land based plyometric training. The subjects were 120 amateur boy Taekwondow players of 10 to 14 year  old in  Oshnavieh City. Twenty six boy Taekwondow players (12/19 ± 1/80 yr, 41/5 ± 1 kg, and 156/49 ± 4 cm) were randomly divided to aquatic plyometric(n=13) and control groups(n=13).All groups participated in pretest vertical jump. Experimental groups performed six weeks of plyometric exercise twice weekly and 45-55 minutes every session, in addition to traditional Taekwondow training either in water pool or at gym. In addition, after 4 weeks of practice, exercises to overload the 4 was  increased to 10 duplicate. In 3 groups vertical jump height) first session, after 4 week and after 6 weeks of training .but control groups performed only normal exercise and also of total groups  in post-test had modeled of vertical jump and muscle soreness. ( =0.05). The statical analysis of variance analysis were used for repetition and size to describe the raw data and to test the hypotheses from descriptive and inferential statistics largely dependent and independent T and anova were used for analysis. ( =0.05). The results displayed significant increases in vertical jump height after six weeks of training in APT group.The aquatic plyometric training that can cause to improve athletes vertical Jump ( =0.05)

    Keywords: Aquatic plyometric training (APT), Vertical jump, Taekwondowpleyers
  • Mohsen Kiani, Amin Farnia, Morad Shaban * Pages 1170-1178
    This experiment was lay out in order to evaluate the effects of different biofertilizers on seed yield, protein and oil of rapeseed in Iran. The experiment was a factorial design with three replications. Treatments were four nitrogen biofrtilizers (control (N1), Nitroksin (N2), Azotobacter (N3) and Supernitroplat (N4)) and three phosphate biofrtilizers ( control(P1), Biosfer phosphate (P2) and Phosphate barvar2 (P3)).In this study seed yield, seed protein, seed oil, protein yield and oil yield were determined. Results showed that that there were significant differences in the response of rapeseed to the effect of treatments on seed yield seed protein, seed oil, protein yield and oil yield. However, seed yield, seed protein, seed oil, protein yield and oil yield significantly higher in application of Azotobacter treatments. The highest among the phosphate biofertilizers, seed yield, seed protein, seed oil, protein yield and oil yield were belonged at application of Phosphat barvar2. Interaction between NÎP shows that N3P3 treatment has the highest seed yield, protein yield and oil yield and the N1P1 treatment has the lowest seed yield, protein yield and oil yield and the differences were significant. In final results of this study reviled that application nitrogen and phosphate biofertilizers specially Azotobacter and Phosphat barvar2 increased seed yield, seed protein, seed oil, protein yield and oil yield under Iran environmental condition
    Keywords: Bio fertilizer, oil, Protein, Rapeseed
  • Morad Shaban * Pages 1179-1184
    A field experiment was performed in order to evaluate the effects of irrigation and application of K fertilizer on seed storage proteins  in chickpea, ILC-482 cultivar. Experiment was performed in factorial using randomized complete block design with three replications. In this experiment, two factor consist of irrigation in three levels (I1= non irrigation and I2= irrigation in flowering stage), K fertilizer in six levels (K1=0, K2=25kg/ha, K3=50kg/ha, K4=75kg/ha, K5=100kg/ha and K6=125kg/ha) was studied. The results showed that the effect of irrigation on seed storage proteins and protein yield was significant. Also results showed that effect of K fertilizer on seed storage proteins and protein yield was not significant. In non irrigation treatment seed storage proteins was increased compared to irrigation treatment and protein yield decreased. Also, results showed that no effects treatments (irrigation and K fertilizer) on protein banding patterns. Also, results indicated that not obvious any new band and not deleted any bands in all treatments
    Keywords: K fertilizer, Seed storage protein
  • GholamReza Rahdari, MohammadReza Rahdari *, AliAkbar Fakhireh, AliReza Shahryari, Hassan Khosravi Pages 1185-1198

    Today one of the ecological crisis is the phenomenon of desertification that affecting the world. Desertification is more related to social and anthropogenic issues than natural causes and it becomes more important over the time. Monitoringis the systematic collection and analysis of information as a project progresses. In this study, using AHP method and GIS techniques has been to assess desertification process with IMDPA model in 5.7864 acres of Southeast region in the Iran. The results of the analysis showed that desertification benchmarks and indicators in the three periods had a nonlinear trend of desertification process in the region so that the numerical value is equal to 2.73 in the period 2001-2004 but In the period 2004-2007 the figure has decreased that is show decreasing trend of desertification in recent years and In the period 2007-2010 the numerical value is 2.55 that observed a increasing trend of desertification. Among the indicators studied, aridity and annual precipitation indicators were maximum effect with values 3.81 and 3.4 And SAR values ​​has 1.17 that the least impact on desertification. After analysis of data we understanding that in the many years we had in warning about indicators but we located in not warning years in 2007 and 2008 with climate benchmark. We find that region is not in warning about SAR indicator in all years of study and we are in warning about precipitation indicator in all years except 2007 in region

    Keywords: Monitoring, Desertification, EWSs, IMDPA, Iran
  • Behrouz Beiranvand, SeyedJafar Navabi *, Omid Beiki, Hajar Kashefi, Sodabeh Eskandari, Zia Obeidavi Pages 1199-1203

    Herbicide toxicities are considered as an important issue in public health programs of developing countries. This investigation aims at studying epidemiologic toxicities caused by Paraquat herbicide and comparing factors influencing these patients’ causality in Kermanshah Imam Khomeini Hospital. In a descriptive-survey study, 9 patients poisoned by Paraquat herbicide were considered statistically. They visited Kermanshah Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2002-2013. Needed information obtained from patients’ medical files. SPSS21 software was used for data analysis. From 9 patients who were involved in this study ,5 of them died. 8 patients were male and just 1 of them was female. 66.7% of patients were single and 33.3% of them were married. 8 patients were poisoned intentionally. 77.8% of these patients were dialyzed. 5 of them had eaten more than 30cc. there was a significant relation between consumption amount and toxicity consequences (p=0.014). Results obtained from this study indicated that most of toxicities were intentional. These results recommend paying attention to risky factors and toxicity consequences among population

    Keywords: Toxicity, herbicide, Paraquat, Causality
  • AmirHossein Hashemian, Behrouz Beiranvand *, Mansour Rezaei, Abdolrasoul Bardideh, Eghbal Zand Karimi Pages 1204-1212

    Cox regression model serves as a statistical method for analyzing the survival data, which requires some options such as hazard proportionality. In recent decades, artificial neural network model has been increasingly applied to predict survival data. This research was conducted to compare Cox regression and artificial neural network models in prediction of kidney transplant survival. The present multi-center retrospective study was conducted on the medical records of 756 kidney transplant recipients undergoing kidney operations at two treatment centers from 2001 through 2012. The data was randomly divided into two educational and experimental (validation) groups. Then, Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazard, and three-layer artificial neural network models were used for analyzing the data. To compare the prediction of both models, the area under the curve in the characteristic function was applied. Post-operative creatinine and relative family are among the factors of influencing kidney transplant survival. Moreover, the survival estimates of the transplanted kidney for periods of six months, one year, three years, and five years were 89, 87.4, 80, and 75 percent, respectively. ROC areas under the curve, for multi-layer perceptron neural network model and Cox regression, were 81.3% and 71%, respectively.If a structure with high prediction ability is obtained in neural network, we may detect risk patients through the method and consider more treatment resources for them

    Keywords: Artificial neural network, Survival analysis, Kidney transplant, Cox regression
  • Javid Imanpour Namin *, Taravat Molayemraftar, Mina Rajabpour, Sanam Heidary Pages 1213-1219
    Length weight relationships of Vimba vimba persa were studied. For this purpose 174 fish samples were collected by gill nets, beach seine and purse seine from March through June 2008 at two Guilan fisheries catch stations of Guilan located in Anzali- Kiyashahr regions. Samples were immediately transferred to the laboratory of fish biology at University of Guilan for further analyses. Length, weight and other external features of all samples were measured. Total Length and weight ranged from 140 to 220 mm and 24.7 to 97.6 gr respectively. Significant difference was observed among mean weight of fish in Anzali 48.01±9.33mm and Kiyashahr regions 51.25±19.9mm (p<0.05). Comparison of condition factor (CF) in fish Samples showed higher condition factor in fish from Kiyashahr region (p<0.05). Our results showed that growth pattern of Vimba vimba in Guilan with regard to their weight and length relationships is allometric (non- homogeneous) and negative which considering fishing pressure, pollution and deterioration of its stocks could be of special concern
    Keywords: Length-weight, Vimba vimba, Condition factor, Caspian Sea, Allometric growth
  • Keivan Khalili, Farshad Ahmadi *, Yagub Dinpashoh, Ahmad Fakheri Fard Pages 1220-1235
    One of the most important hydrological time series task is to determine if there is any trend in the data and how to achieve stationarity when there is nonstationarity behavior in data. Detecting trend and stationarity in hydrological time series may help us to understand the possible links between hydrological processes and global climate changes. In this study yearly, monthly and daily streamflow data records of Baranduz Chai, Shahar Chai and Nazlu Chai rivers and Urmia synoptic stattion in the west of Lake Urmia, located in the West Azarbaijan of Iran, used to trend and stationarity analysis. Trend analysis with Mann-Kendall and seasonal Kendall tests showed that most annual and monthly flow series had significant negative trend at 1% and 10% . Five common methods named ADF, DFGLS, ERS, KPSS and PP have been used to examine nonstationarity of river flows. Results demonstrated that most annual, monthly and daily series appear to be stationary after removing trend component from series. Also results illustrated, that mean air temperature of this region increased significantly at 1% level. Increasing air temperature causes changing most of precipitations to rain in the replace of snow that maybe the main reason of river flow decreasing and Lake Urmia depletion in recent years. Furthermore, studied rivers have high dependence on snow melt water, therefore are affected by temperature changes. This showed obviously effect of global warming on the decreasing river flow discharges in the west of Lake Urmia
    Keywords: Climate change, Mann-Kendall test, Stationarity tests, Trend, Lake Urmia
  • Jalal Bayati Zadeh *, Zahra Moradi Kor Pages 1236-1245

    Responses to sugars in dry or liquid formvary from study to study. When fed in proper amounts, sugars should not depress ruminalpH, and there is some evidence that they actuallyhelp toprevent a drop in pH after consuming largemeals of concentrate by maintaining a highernumberoflactate-fermenting bacteria. Adding sugars doesprioritize the need for rumen degraded protein (RDP).we all know, sugars are rapidly and extensively fermented. Also, it pretty well established that there is an optimum feeding rate between 2.5 and 5% supplemental sugar. Carbohydrates are the main components in the dairy ration, comprising roughly 60 – 80% of total dry matter (DM) and could supply to 70% net energy lactation (NEL) for high yielding dairy cows. The relatively high rate of absorption of ammoniaby ruminants (Huntington, 1990) suggests thatenergy availability, or lack of synchrony betweenenergy and nitrogen supplies, limits the use ofavailable nitrogen by ruminal microorganisms

    Keywords: Sugers, Starch, Utilization, Ruminants
  • Leila Mosleh *, Naser Zamani Miandashti Pages 1246-1252

    Green belt is defined as a narrow green area surrounding an urban area. Shiraz green belt has been developed through 9 projects with a variety of purposes since 2005. The development of green belt is being considered in a number of Iranian cities, and therefore, investigation of Shiraz green belt’s purposes and challenges could contribute to an appropriate planning by decision makers. The main purpose of this study was to study the objectives and problems faced by Shiraz green belt. Data were gathered through in-depth interview with 5 project managers and the person in charge of the whole project, documents provided by Shiraz Organization of Parks and Green Areas, and direct observations. Data gathered through interviews were analyzed through coding and classification. The main objectives of the project were associated with environmental purpose, and economic and social purposes placed in lower priorities. Preventing urban area extension, improve air quality within urban area, conservation of resources, greening urban area, provision of employment opportunities and developing recreation areas were reported by the respondents as the objectives. Most of the problems stated by the interviewees were related to planning and environmental issues, followed by cultural, legal and technical issues. Inappropriate planning, drought and lack of access to water, and inadequate environmental knowledge and awareness among citizens were reported as the main problems, followed by, budgeting difficulties and soil related issue

    Keywords: Green belt, Land use, environment, Shiraz, Greening
  • MohammadNaeim Kazempour *, Nima Kazempour, Ghodrat Adeli, AmirHossein Askari Pages 1253-1262

    Given the role that knowledge management can play consistently on the changes and the need to develop human resources in the implementation of knowledge management on the one hand and important position of cooperative sector In country economics, on the other hand, led to that the researchers study the relationship between knowledge management and human resource performance of the agricultural cooperatives of East Azarbaijan Province. the information were collected by a questionnaire that with on Cronbach alpha 92/7 percent. 207 questionnaires were distributed. The results of this study show that the relationship between knowledge management and human resource performance in the agricultural cooperatives of East Azarbaijan Province is significant and positive correlation. and increase or decrease components of the knowledge management process have significant and positive correlation impact on the performance of human resources. Knowledge held by coefficient 28 percent has highest regression impact on the human resource function variable

    Keywords: Agricultural cooperatives, human resource, Knowledge Management, Performance
  • Leila Mosleh *, Farnaz Asadi, Roja Safaian Pages 1263-1270
    Parishan Lake has been selected by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve and was recorded as an international wetland in Ramsar convention in 1986. This region is located (29°31'N 51°48'E) at 820 m in Kazeroon, Fars province, south of Iran and is the largest freshwater lake in the country. Parishan Lake is extremely important for a wide variety of wintering waterfowl and also for breeding waterfowl, especially in wet years. It fed by permanent springs and seasonal watercourses, lies in an enclosed drainage basin in a broad valley and is brackish to saline, the salinity varying widely with the size of the lake. Unfortunately at the moment time this important lake endangers. In this research plant diversity of Parishan Lake was observed. In this way, the list of floristic was provided and determined values and uses of its plants. The results showed there are 70 plant families and 217 plant species in the region. Based on the results of this research, it seems that without regard to laws and without seriously support by global communities, the extinction would be sure. However, the state of biosphere reserves in world and specially Iran has many problems and that main reason for its incorrect management
    Keywords: Parishan lake, International wetland, Biosphere reserve, Plant diversity, Management
  • Laleh Salehi *, Ahmad Rezvanfar, SeyedHamid Movahed Mohammadi, SeyedMahmood Hosseini Pages 1271-1280

    The aim of the research was analysis of rice producers’ perceptions of participatory communication in the use of integrated pest management (IPM). Research population was consisted of rice producers in the west of Mazandaran province (N=16126), whose 187 ones were selected using Cochran’s formula. Data were gathered by systematic random sampling method. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. Its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Results of descriptive statistics showed that the rice producers are in the good status in terms of use of integrated pest management’s technologies. The results of ANOVA showed that there are significant differences among rice producers based on their perceptions of participatory communication and use of integrated pest management. Rice producers with higher perception use integrated pest management’s technologies more than others. The results of the correlation coefficient also showed that there is significant positive relationship among all factors related to perceptions of participatory communication (individual effect, contextual education, information receiving and Agricultural Jihad’s flexibility) and the use of integrated pest management, except to the information sending one. Stepwise regression analysis showed that two factors including Agricultural Jihad’s flexibility and contextual education can explain 70/02% of the changes in the dependent variable (use of IPM)

    Keywords: Integrated pest management, participatory communication, Rice, Mazandaran province
  • Jalal Bayati Zadeh *, Zahra Moradi Kor, Masoud Karimi Goftar Pages 1281-1288
    Glycyrrhiza glabra,  family Leguminoseae, is a plant which grows  in Egypt and  other  countries  of  the world.  Its  roots  possess  some  nutritive  value and medicinal properties. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, a commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Studies indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn possesses antibacterial, antioxidant, antimalerial, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and anti hyper glycemic properties. Various other effects like antiulcer, antiviral, antihapatotoxic, antifungal and herpes simplex have also been studies. One of the most commonly reported side effects with licorice supplementation is elevated blood pressure
    Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Anti-bacterial, Antioxidant Activity
  • Nasroallah Moradi Kor *, Saman Hajmohamadi, Zahra Moradi Kor Pages 1289-1295
    Tribulus terrestris is a herbal remedy which is used for various purposes in folk medicine. It has been used as tonic, aphrodisiac, astringent, analgesic, stomachic, anti-hypertensive, diuretic and urinary anti-septic. It is about 30 to 70cm high; it grows as a summer annual, has pinnately compound leaves, yellow flowers and stellate shaped carpel fruits. Since the past decades, some plants have been playing important role in disease curing along with artificial medications commonly called medicinal plants. Some have compared the tonic properties of Tribulus terrestris to the effects of ginseng, but these occur due to entirely different mechanisms. It is also claimed that Tribulus terrestris increases testosterone by increasing gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) which in turn stimulates the production of LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Testosterone, besides its role in muscle-building and raising fertility and libido, is also known to have a positive effect on bone marrow activity (for red blood cell production) and the immune system
    Keywords: Tribulus terrestris, Medicinal plant, pharmaceutical effects