فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue: 9, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 25
|
  • Razieh Maddah * Pages 932-939
    Reproduction and fertility are one of the principles marital life. Actually it can be said that the most important thing after survival is continued generation. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of mental health in womens of fertile and infertile. This research was performed at kowsar infertility clinic in tehran city. The scale GHQ28 was used for this evaluate. This scale was performed on 60 women in fertile and infertile of kowsar infertility clinic. The methods used of this study are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results showed that between fertile and infertile womens in terms of mental health is a significant difference (P<0.05). In addition, the t test results showed that between fertile and infertile womens in scale of experiment is a significant difference (P<0.05)
    Keywords: mental health, Womens, Reproduction, Fertility, infertility
  • Leila Gharib Ardakani *, Hooshang Farajee, Abdolsamad Kelidari Pages 940-949
    In order to investigate drought stress and plant density the yield, yield components and protein of spotted bean grain (cultivar Talash), an experiment was carried out as split plots in randomized complete blocks with three replications in Yasouj, in 2012. Factors of the test including irrigation in three levels; without stress (control treatment), water stress in vegetative stage (interrupting the irrigation at the opening stage of the third to fourth true leaf), and water stress at reproductive stage (interrupting the irrigation at the stage of 50% flowering) as the main factors and four density level including 15, 25, 35 and 45 plants per m2 were considered as sub-factors. The results showed that, the effect of water stress, plant density and interaction of water stress and plant density on grain yield, grains number in the pod, pods number in the plant and the weight of 100 grains was significant. The maximum yield was observed in the control plot and density of 45 plants per m2, also the minimum yield was observed in the reproductive stress treatment and density of 25 plants per m2 by 2398 and 1629 kg/ha respectively. Water stress treatment caused yield reduction at the stage of vegetative and reproductive growth by 10.4% and 32% respectively. The maximum amount of protein was obtained in the water stress treatment at the stage of reproductive growth. Considering the results of this experiment, the densities of 45 plants per m2 for normal irrigation conditions as well as 35 plants per m2 under water stress conditions are suggested
    Keywords: Spotted bean, Plant density, Water stress, Protein, Grain yield
  • MohammadRahim Rahnama, Alireza Bidkhori *, AmirAli Kharazmi Pages 950-956

    This study at first level focused on definitions and descriptions of  some landfills and landfills sites all around the world and  survey on how important they are for regional governments and responsible in duty  as a very important responsibility for locals and their health. At the second level we had a look on heavy metals concentration which are by many definitions as follows: lead, nickel, chromium, copper and cadmium, of course it should be mentioned that this study has been done only by archive and library studies. At the third level we go to compare the heavy metal concentration in mashhad landfill site with others mentioned in this paper as examples, of course we have had lots of limitation in this study, this is only start point. The results showed that indeed there are not many differences between mashhad and others as a whole

    Keywords: Landfill, Heavy metal, Concentration, Wells
  • Maziar Haidari, Hamid Jalilvand *, Hamed Aghajani, Mehran Nasiri Pages 957-962
    Any defects in street trees may cause injuries to human, vehicles and buildings. This research was investigated in the Babol city, Mazandaran province, in the northern state of Iran.Used the perfect inventory methods and measured the diameter at breathe height (DBH), height and hazardous criteria (dead woods, cracks or seams, decay, wound or cankers, root problems, weak branch unions and skew from vertical line). In each hazardous criterion classes compered the Slenderness (h/d); height (m) and diameter at breathe height (cm). The means of different between Slenderness (h/d), height (m) and diameter at breathe height (cm) in the hazardous criteria classes were estimated by ANOVA test. Data analyzing was done by SPSS16 software. Results showed that the mean of DBH and h/d in the hazardous class (class one) was higher the other classes in the seven hazard criteria, but mean height of tree in the class 3 (non-hazard classes) was higher quantity. Results showed that the different between three classes of hazard in the seven hazard criteria was significant. Overall results showed that the hazardous class (class one) has a higher h/d quantity and more hazardous potential
    Keywords: Slenderness (h, d), Height, DBH, Babol City, Hazardous criteria, Northern state of iran
  • Asghar Hasanzade, Ebrahim Rahimi Pages 963-967
    Clostridium difficileisa binding warm-positive rod and anaerobic organism, which was first described in 1935 as Bacillus difficile. Epidemiology of CDI has changed considerably on 2000. Occurrence and severity of the disease  including ulcerative colitis(inflammation of the colon), colectomy(colon section) and mortality had increased. Recent studies have reported Clostridium difficile prevalence in animal foods ,act as a source of infection for humans, its source can regarded as a contaminate food, infecting dose and the relationship between food contamination and disease. Clostridium difficile causes critical  disease in humans. So, this study by the aim of evaluation of  possible contamination of turkey and ostrich meat to the pathogen was designed and implemented. To conduct this study, a total of 240 samples of raw ostrich meat (n=120) and Turkey (n=120) purchased randomly of meat stores of Isfahan- Iran and then transferred to the Laboratory of Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Isfahan University, evaluated regarding existence of Clostridium difficile by enrichment method and then culture on CDMN medium under anaerobic conditions and biochemical tests and observations of warm staining. In this study, a total of 240 samples, 25 samples(10/41%) were carrier of C.difficile. of  11 of 120 ostrich meat samples(9/16%) and 14 samples out of 120 samples of turkey meat (11/66%) Clostridium difficile was isolated. Clostridium difficile in turkey and ostrich meat sold in stores in Isfahan - Iran is isolated and thus a potential risk to humans especially through meat consumption are microorganisms
    Keywords: Clostridium difficile, Ostrich-Turkey, Isfahan
  • Zahra Bayat *, SeyedHassan Kaboli, Mohammad Rahimi, Shima Nikoo, Mohammadkia Kianian, Neda Soleiman Dehkordi Pages 968-980

    Desertification could be traced back to one or many factors. Thus, to cope with such a phenomenon, there exists a need for a profound understanding of the processes and the causes. The study area of the current paper is the extent of Shahrekord’s Marghzar as an important case amongst the important ones of the province. In order to evaluate the roots of desertification in the area, the Iranian model of desertification potential assessment (IMDPA) was used. Three criteria included are water resources status, soil and vegetation. These criteria were scored against the defined set of scores provided in the tables. According to the fact that in the model, each criterion is summed up by applying geometric average of the indices, the final map of the corresponding criterion was prepared by superimposing all the maps of the indices.  Next, the criteria were combined by applying geometric average and the final map was created. Based on the criteria, the severity of desertification in the region according to the IMDPA model is 1.61 which falls into the medium class. Results indicate that the vegetation utilization and water table drawdown indices, as the two most influential indices, are averaged around 4 and 3.23, respectively. The vegetation index acts as the most critical case defining the lion share of the desertification severity of the area. Of the total area, 3.1% is classified as low and 96.9% as medium severity classes. From the major causes of desertification in the region, one could point out to over utilization of the rangelands and intense livestock grazing which have imposed a downgrading force over the vegetation cover. Of the rest, over withdrawal from the underground reservoirs and the multiplicity of wells could be mentioned. These latter causes have the Marghzar dried and water tables drawn

    Keywords: Desertification, IMDPA, Marghzar, Shahrekord’s plain
  • Gholamreza Zehtabian, Kamran Karimi, Sara Nakhaee Nezhad Fard *, Mahsa Mirdashtvan, Hassan Khosravi Pages 981-992
    Comparability analyses are performed to investigate similarities/differences of the standard precipitation index (SPI) and the reconnaissance drought index (RDI), respectively, utilizing precipitation and ratio of precipitation over potential evapotranspiration (ET0). Data are from six synoptic stations in south Khorasan province in Iran.At the first for calculating SPI, the elevation-precipitation regression of each period was obtained then this relationship was applied on DEM layer using GIS software. The result showed that the most severity droughts occurred in 2008, 2000, 2006 and 2001 respectively. In order to obtain RDI index, we used yearly temperature, precipitation data from the stations and potential evapotranspiration were obtained by Torrentwhite method.  The resultshowed that 4 stations classified in extremely and severely classes and there was no medium and small class in 2008. The results of RDI indicate that the frequency of droughts with high severity in this area. The calculation of the standardized RDI seems to be as complicated as the computation of the SPI
    Keywords: SPI, RDI, ArcGIS9.3, Drought, South Khorasan
  • Mohammad Mirzaei *, Hossein Mirshekarpour Pages 993-998
    I131 is a famous radio-iodine isotope in use for diagnosis and treatment of hyper functioning and cancerous thyroid gland. It is a nuclear reactor product; however nuclear reactor may be unavailable in some areas. Replacement by I-124 may be possible, another iodine isotope producible by cyclotron; a system more available than reactor. Here absorbed fraction of Gamma and Beta rays of I-124 throughout thyroid and neck soft tissues are measured and compared with I-131. Employing I-124 as substitute for I-131 is also discussed. First of all, the input file for MCNPX code has been prepared to calculate F6 and F8 tallies. Then the code has been run for F6 and F8 tallies for variation of lobe volume from 1 to 25 milliliters. From the output file of tally F6, the gamma absorbed fraction in thyroid and neck tissue for the volume lobe variation from 1 ml to 25 ml have been derived. As well as, form the output of F8 tally the absorbed energy of beta in thyroid and soft tissue of neck is obtained and then absorbed fraction of beta has been calculated. Finding indicated that for constant activity in thyroid and soft tissue the gamma absorbed fraction for I-124 is less than I-131. For the same situation, the beta absorbed fraction of I-124 in thyroid is less than I-131 and in soft tissue is more than I-131. If I-131 is non-available it may be replaced by I-124for treatment of cancerous or hyper functional gland
    Keywords: Monte Carlo method, Thyroids cancer, Absorbed fraction, Hyper- functioning thyroid gland, Radio-iodine isotope
  • Yousef Askari *, Pejman Tahmasebi Kohyani Pages 999-1008
    Collection of appropriate qualitative and quantitative data is necessary for proper management and planning. Used the suitable inventory methods is necessary and accuracy of sampling methods dependent the inventory net and number of sample point. Nearest neighbor sampling method is a one of distance methods and calculated by three equations (Byth and Riple, 1980; Cotam and Curtis, 1956 and Cotam and Curtis, 1956). The 53 hectare of the study area was selected and perfect inventory. To study of nearest neighbor sampling method used the systematic-random methods in the 100*150 meter net and recorded the location (X, Y) of all trees and by nearest neighbor sampling method in the 30 to 40 samples evaluated the accuracy of this method. Results showed that the three formulas in this study not have accuracy for study of density (N/ha), but suitable to study of spatial pattern. The quantity of Johnson & Zimmer index is a 5.522 and showed that a clumped pattern for trees in forest reserve. Overall results showed that the nearest neighbor sampling method and Byth and Riple (1980) equation are a suitable method to study of tree spatial pattern in Zagros forest
    Keywords: Nearest neighbor sampling method_Zagross forests_Chahartagh forest reserve_Johnson & Zimmer
  • Nasim Roodbari *, Shahram Roodbari, Amin Ganjali, Fariba Sabeghi Nejad, Masoumeh Ansarifar Pages 1009-1015
    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most important plants producing essential oil. An experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications to study the effect of salinity stress on growth parameters, essential oil percent of peppermint. 4 levels of salinity solution containing 0, 50, 100 and 200 mmol NaCl was applied in irrigation plantings in a greenhouse. The results showed that salinity stress significantly affected  Stem  length,  root length, shoot wet weight, root wet weight and shoot dry weight, root dry weight, Internodes length, biomass and Essential oil percent in P < 0.05. An increase in the salinity lead to reduce in length of stem and root, fresh weight of stem and root, dry weight of stem and root, internodes length, total  biomass and essential oil percent. It is necessary to mention that peppermint did not tolerate 200 mmol NaCl and died under this condition. The highest values  of  growth parameters  and essential 1 oil percent were observed under non-salinity condition(control). Also, were increased proline with the increase of salinity( P < 0.05)
    Keywords: essential oil, peppermint, Sodium chloride, Growth parameters, Proline
  • Abbas Azimi *, MohammadHossein Marhamatizadeh, Parisa Azadneya Pages 1016-1021

    Chicory plant (Cichorium intybus) belongs to Asteraceae family and contains flavonoids. This research carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chicory plant on the activities of bifidobacterium bifidum and lactobacillus acidophilus. Four containers containing a liter of 1.5 % sterilized skim milk were selected as four group in order to produce milk containing probiotic bifidobacterium bifidum, then 0.33 gr starter of bifidobacterium bifidum added and after that 0 %, 0.03%, 0.06% and 0,09% the powder of Cichorium intybus were added. Samples were considered based on pH, acidity and microbes count. Sensory evaluation was done in fourteenth day. The questionnaire results were analyzed by SPSS software based on descriptive statistics. The viability of probiotic bacteria were considered based on direct count. Results showed the maximum activity of bacteria was recorded in fourteenth day so that when this value was increased, the acidity also was being increased. Consistency time of product was determined 21 days and also bacteria indicated significant progress on MRS agar

    Keywords: Probiotic, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Milk, Cichorium intybus
  • Morad Shaban * Pages 1022-1032
    The water relations play a fundamental role in seed comprehension of biology. In order to describe the process of drying and the effect on water activity, which controls biological change in storage, a sound knowledge of the relationship between equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and water activity/equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) is essential. The relationship between the total moisture content and water activity of the food, over a range of values, at a constant temperature and under equilibrium conditions, yields a moisture sorption isotherm when expressed graphically. This isotherm curve can be obtained in one of two ways; adsorption or desorption. The establishment and the mathematical description of the moisture sorption isotherms could help the food engineers to design these processing equipments. Here there are many researches on seeds of plant and some foods. In all researches seeds or foods has one or more mathematical models for describing of the moisture sorption isotherms. However, in all seeds or foods the equilibrium moisture contents increased with an increase in the water activity at any particular temperature and decreased with increase in temperature at constant water activity. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content
    Keywords: Agro physic, Isotherm, Seed
  • Sadegh Zafari *, MohammadHossein Marhamatizadeh, Parisa Azadneya Pages 1033-1039

    Chicory plant (Dorema aucheri) belongs to Asteraceae family and contains flavonoids. Milk is a mixture of protein, fat, lactose, minerals. This research carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chicory plant on the activities of bifidobacterium bifidum and lactobacillus acidophilus. Four containers containing a liter of 1.5 % sterilized skim milk were selected as four group in order to produce milk containing probiotic bifidobacterium bifidum, then 0.33 gr starter of bifidobacterium bifidum added and after that 0 %, 0.03%, 0.06% and 0,09% the powder of Dorema aucheri  were added. Samples were considered based on pH, acidity and microbes count. Sensory evaluation was done in fourteenth day. Results showed the maximum activity of bacteria was recorded in fourteenth day so that when this value was increased, the acidity also was being increased. Consistency time of product was determined 21 days and also bacteria indicated significant progress on MRS agar

    Keywords: Probiotic, Chicory plant, Lactobacillus acidophilus, yoghurt, Dorema aucheri
  • Mohammad Mirzaei * Pages 1040-1046
    Large quantities of radiopharmaceuticals prescribed for treatment and diagnosis are excreted through kidney. Therefore, radiation unwanted dose is created in kidney. As a result, exact calculation of prescribed radiopharmaceuticals amount is important. Monte Carlo method is used for simulation of radiation transport in body due to random nature of radiation. In this research, for the first time kidney is considered integrated and for the second time it is considered that it has three areas; beta absorbed dose is calculated and compared in cortex and medulla kidney using MCNPX code to identify a more accurate way to prescribe radioisotope. The results showed that beta absorbed dose in medulla is 4 times as much as dose in integrated kidney and beta dose in cortex is 0.004 to 0.012 times as much as dose in integrated kidney. Internal structure of kidney should be considered in simulation to achieve a more accurate prescribed dose
    Keywords: Absorbed dose, Medulla, Cortex, Monte Carlo method
  • Ahmad Bahrebar *, Seied Saeed Mohaghegh, Behroz Behrouzirad, Mostafa Bahrebar, Seied Mehdi Amininasab, Ayat Rohina Pages 1047-1057
    This study was performed  in second half of year 2009.For bird counting , monthly from Septamber until March 2009. Total counted birds in Maroon lake were (971). Maximum number of counted birds was in February  (191) and minimum of counted was in Septamber (95). Total counted birds in Jaizan were (385. Maximum number of the counted bird was in February (84) and minimum of counted (52) was in Januarry.  Comparision of density of waterfowl and wader birds between Maroon lake and Jaizan lake shown that density was in Maroon was (0.48) bird per hectar and in Jaizan was 3.20 bird in hectar in during study time. Density maximum in maroon lake was (0.09) bird/hectar  while it was (0.7) bird/hectar in jaizan lake in February. The density minimum in maroon lake was (0.04) bird/hectar in March while it was (0.4) bird/hectar in Jaizan lake in January. According to Morrista  index, maximum difference between two lakes was (0.33) in January and maximum similarity was (0.64) in February. It is concluded that biodiversity and density waterfowl birds and waderbirds in compare with natural lakes were very low. That is seems  that difference factors such as depth lake, poor vegetation cover, continuous change in water depth, large slope in border zones and unsuitable quality of water have important role in this matter but since these limitation were less in Jaizan. the diversity and density index were higher in compare with Maroon. conservation effect on the biodiversity and density indexes by regression tests  shown that the conservation effect on the biodiversity and density of waterfowl and waderbirds between Maroon lake in the protected area and the Jaizan lake was not significant (p-value=0.059)
    Keywords: Conservation, Jaizanlake, Maroon lake, Diversity index, Density
  • Mehran Moradalizadeh *, Naghmeh Samadi, Peyman Rajaei Pages 1058-1067
    The genus Haplophyllum, which belongs to the Rutaceae family, includes 18 species in Iran. In this study, after collecting plant material, botanical identification and suitable drying, the essential oils from aerial parts of Haplophyllum robustum Bge. were extracted by three different isolation techniques, conventional hydrodistillation (HD), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent free microwave extraction (SFME)  and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main components of three essential oils were sabinene (28.9%-31.5%), β- phellandrene (11.0%-14.6%), 1,8- cineole (7.2%-11.0%), 3,5- dimethoxy toluene (5.1%-14.2%), β- pinene (7.3%-8.9%) and terpinene-4-ol (5.8%-6.2%). Higher amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole, Camphor and terpinene-4-ol were present in the oil of MAHD and SFME (21.1% and 21.0%, respectively) in comparison with HD (19.0%). However, HD oil contained more monoterpene hydrocarbons such as sabinene, β- phellandrene, β- pinene (72.6 %) than SFME and MAHD extracted oils (67.9% and 62.8%, respectively). MAHD and SFME offered substantial advantages over conventional HD. A similar extraction yield was achieved at significantly shorter extraction time when using MAHD and SFME instead of HD. Also microwave irradiation significantly reduced the extraction time  and did not adversely influence the composition of the essential oil. MAHD and SFME is also more environment-friendly than HD. Compared with many solvent extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet, solvent extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction, MAHD and SFME is a modern, green, and rapid approach
    Keywords: Haplophyllum robustum, essential oil, Hydrodistillation, Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation, Solvent Free Microwave Extraction
  • Hassan Beyranvand, Amin Farnia, Shahram Nakhjavan, Morad Shaban * Pages 1068-1077
    A experiment was lay out in order to evaluate the effects  of different biofertilizers on yield and yield components of maize at the Lorestan provience, Iran. The experiment was a factorial design with three replications. Treatments were three nitrogen biofrtilizers (Nitrokara (N1), O4 (N2), O6 (N3) and control (N4)) and three phosphate biofrtilizers (Phosphate barvar2 (P1), Biozarr (P2), Mc1+p5 (P3) and control (P4)).Yield and yield components were determined. Results showed that that there were significant differences in the response of maize to the effect of treatments on yield and its components, but there was non significant differences in HI for two type of biofertilizers. However, maize yield and it components was significantly higher in application of biofertilizers treatments. The highest grain yield was belonged at application of MC1+B5 and the lowest grain yield was belonged at application of phosphat barvar2. Interaction between NÎP  shows that N3P3 treatment has the highest grain yield and the N4P2 treatment has the lowest grain yield and the differences were significant. In final results of this study reviled that application  nitrogen and phosphate biofertilizers increased yield and yield components of maize under Boroujerd environmental condition
    Keywords: Bio fertilizer, Maize, Yield
  • Ologhaguo M. Adienbo *, Arthur Nwafor, Ronami S. Ogbomade Pages 1078-1085
    This study aims to investigate the effect of xylopia aethiopica on the sexual behavior of adult male rats. Fort eight adult male wistar rats were used for the study. They were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each: group 1 was control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 were test groups treated daily with 0.5, 2 and 10 mg/kg body weight respectively of hydro-methanolic fruit extract of xylopia aethiopice for 30 consecutive days followed by 30 days recovery. Mating test was performed on six animals from each group on days 30 and 60 of the study. Also, 6 animals were sacrificed from each group and blood collected for serum testosterone assay on 31st and 61st days of the study. Results show significant (P<0.05) dose dependent increase in ejaculation latency (EL), and post ejaculatory interval (PEI) with significant decrease (P<0.05) in ejaculation frequency (EF) and in serum testosterone levels in rats in all the test groups. We conclude that xylopia aethiopice enhances copulatory performance without altering sexual excitement, arousal and motivation; therefore could be useful in the management of male sexual dysfunction
    Keywords: Xylopia aethiopice, Sexual behavior, Aphrodisiac, Male sexual disorder
  • SeyedMehdi Safavi *, SeyyedSaeid Pourdad, SeyedAfshin Safavi Pages 1086-1093

    This study was conducted to determine drought tolerance genotypes with superiority in different stressed environments. To screening quantitative indices of drought tolerance, genotypes of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were tested in a complete randomized block design with three replications under two different water regimes (irrigated and rainfed). Significant positive correlation was found between grain yield in the stress condition (Ys) with indicators stress tolerance index (STI), harmonic mean (HAR) and geometric mean productivity (GMP) indicating that these indices are suitable criteria for screening drought tolerant genotypes. No significant correlation was observed between Ys with tolerance index (TOL) and mean productivity (MP), hence they can be discarded as the desirable markers for identifying drought tolerant genotypes. Principal component analysis (PCA), indicated that the first and second components justified 98.45% of variations between the criteria. Screening drought tolerant genotypes using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotype G1 (44) as the most drought tolerant. In conclusion, The indices STI, GMP, MP and HAR genotype G1 (44) were identified as spring planting drought resistant genotype. This genotype had the highest grain yield under stress and non-stress conditions was also high performance

    Keywords: Safflower genotypes, Stress tolerance index, drought tolerance, Biplot
  • Mohammad Mirzaei * Pages 1094-1100
    Large quantities of radiopharmaceuticals prescribed for treatment and diagnosis are excreted through kidney. Therefore, radiation unwanted dose is created in kidney. As a result, exact calculation of prescribed radiopharmaceuticals amount is important. Monte Carlo method is used for simulation of radiation transport in body due to random nature of radiation. In this research, for the first time kidney is considered integrated and for the second time it is considered that it has three areas; gamma absorbed dose is calculated and compared in cortex and medulla kidney using MCNPX code to identify a more accurate way to prescribe radioisotope. The results showed that gamma absorbed dose in medulla is 2 times as much as dose in integrated kidney and gamma dose in cortex is about 62% as much as dose in integrated kidney. Internal structure of kidney should be considered in simulation to achieve a more accurate prescribed dose
    Keywords: Gamma absorbed dose, Cortex, 111In, Medulla
  • Pejman Tahmasebi Kohyani *, Yousef Askari Pages 1101-1111
    Semi-steppe rangelands are a complex, highly dynamic and often multi-layered mosaic of grassland, shrubland, and intermediate communities. A few recent studies have explicitly or implicitly developed synthetic hypotheses about how interactive effects of human made disturbances initiate dynamic changes in plant community composition to cause a shifting mosaic of vegetation pattern across the landscape in rangeland ecosystems, yet to be tested in semi-steppe rangelands. The main goal of this study was to examine a conceptual model of plant community dynamic driven by the interactive effect of grazing and fire in semi-steppe rangelands in West-Iran. The study area includes shrubland, grassland and intermediate plant communities. Several patches within the study area were accidentally burned in 2006, 2008 and 2009. Burned patches were located along a gradient of animal grazing (from light to heavy grazing). We compared plant community composition and animal selections on burned and unburned patches (control) of each plant community. The results showed that if grazing intensity was low, a shift from shrublands to grasslands would be the observed pattern of community dynamics; otherwise with higher level of grazing intensity, change in vegetation structure caused by fire in shrublands was rather transient and this plant community returned to the former state of vegetation four years after the fire. We also observed a higher animal selection on recently burned areas compared to previously burned patches, a pattern that was the resulted of a series of positive and negative feedbacks in forage quality created by selective animal foraging behaviour. The results indicate that the effect of fire on plant community dynamics in semi-steppe rangeland is controlled by grazing intensity and the local changes in plant composition within each community. Both determinants cause a cyclical process of vegetation succession. Vegetation patterns represent the various states of recovery in vegetation and introduces a specific landscape composition in which each scrubland, grassland and intermediate vegetation patch can be described as part of a shifting mosaic process at landscape scale
    Keywords: Cyclical process of succession, Plant community composition, dynamics, Semi-steppe rangelands, Shifting mosaics
  • Elham Amiri, Ezatollah Farshadfar *, MohammadMahdi Jowkar Pages 1112-1123

    To locate the genes controlling adaptability in bread wheat using AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction) model, twenty-one substitution lines derived from the parents Chinese Spring (recipient) and Chayan (donor) were used in a randomized complete block design with three replications in three different environments in the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The results of AMMI analysis indicated significant differences among all sources of variation except AMMI2. AMMI1 explained that 84% of the variability related to genotype × environment interaction. The chromosomes 7A, 2B, 3A, 7D and 4B had the highest grain yield, and chromosomes 4D, 2A, 4A and 5A lowest. AMMI stability value (ASV) ranked chromosomes 5B > 3B > 3A > 6A as the most stable, and 2A > 4A > 7A as unstable. AMMI1 biplot analysis revealed that Chromosomes 3B, 5B and 5D had high stability and medium mean grain yield, whereas the chromosome with both low yield and stability were 2A, 4A, 5A and 4D. The chromosomes 3A, 4B, 7D followed by 2B, were identified as chromosomes with both high yield and stability performance in different environments. Chromosomes 2A and 4A with large AMMI1 score also showed specific adaptability with environment E2, chromosomes 5A and 4D with environment E3, while chromosome 7A with environment E1. The findings indicated that most of the genes controlling adaptability were located on chromosomes 3A in A genome, 4B and 2B in B genome and 7D in D genome, and also chromosomes 2A, 4A, 5A and 4D carried the genes controlling specific adaptability to water stress condition, while the genes responsible for adaptation to irrigated condition were located on chromosome 7A

    Keywords: Adaptability, AMMI model, Grain yield, Substitution lines, Wheat
  • Mehran Moradalizadeh *, Moein Mehrabpanah, Maryam Salajeghe, Masoud Nayebli Pages 1124-1128
    Tagetes is a genus of 56 species of annual and perennial mostly herbaceous plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae or Compositae).In this research our goal was recognizing the main components of the plant to extract useful ones. Essential oils of the leaves, seeds and flowers of Tagets minuta L., growing wild in Iran, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Identification of the constituents of the oils was done by comparison of their mass spectra and retention indices with those given in the literature and the authentic samples. Twenty-six components were identified in the essential oils of the investigated organs. The main components extracted from the leaf oils were dihydrotageton (45.9%), cis-β-ocimene (11.9%) and borneol (11.1%), and those of the seed oils included dihydrotagetone (21.0%) and benzoic acid-4-hydroxy-methyl ester (33.5%).Also, trans-ocimenone (27.0%), cis-β-ocimene (26.0%) and cis-ocimenone (17.6%) were the major constituents in the flower oils
    Keywords: Tagetes minuta L, Hydro distillation, Dihydrotagetone, essential oil, Trans-Ocimene, cis-β-Ocimene, GC, MS
  • Alireza Karimzadeh *, MohammadReza Aminizadeh Bazanjani Pages 1129-1141

    Agricultural droughts are droughts that affect the crop production or the ecology of a region. Ravar city that is located in margin of desert and the north of Kerman province is one of these areas. Due to the existence of enough underground water that entrance to desert and high evaporation to improving agricultural and cultivar activities, it needed to study the construction of underground dam in Ravar area. Therefore in order to (sake) controlling the subsurface flow that entrance to desert in west of Ravar city that is arid for cultivar agriculture, a site in the margin of desert in space of ten kilometers in the north of Kerman province (Ravar city) has selected and the needed studies has done in several step. At first the physiographic, hydrology, climatology, social economics and engineering geology study has done and the result shows the need of supplementary study. In second the geophysics study has done for Assessment of alluvial thickness and bed rock depths. in the third step the geotechnics activities for Assessment of exact depth of bed rock ,ground water table and sampling for field and laboratory testing in order to ( sake) Assessment of physical and mechanical specifics. In fourth step the pumpage test has done Assessment of hydrodynamics coefficient such as (T and S). At finally the design and executive of subsurface dam with the modern methods has done and the result of monitoring shows than the dam has constructed very successfully with positive effects to ground water flows

    Keywords: Underground Dam, Subsurface flow, Collecting well, Ravar city, desert, Land farming
  • Ahmed Mahdi Saeed, Mohammad Jassim Hamzah* Pages 1142-1156

    Adsorption and water treatment of Ca (II) and Mg (II) hardness were investigated via adsorption of metal ions onto commercial polyacrylic acid hydrogel beads as a novel sorbent for metal ions (Ca2+, Mg2+) removal and water treatment. Batch equilibrium technique was carried out under the influence of solution pH, contact time, sorbent dosage, initial metal concentration and competitive study. The maximum metal ions capacity (Ca2+, Mg2+) values were identified as 171.2 and 193.6, respectively. Sorption equilibrium was established in 24   hr and the data were described by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The potential application of this sorbent for water treatment and metal ions removal from water samples is successfully accomplished

    Keywords: Removal, Polyacrylic acid, Hydrogel bead, New approach