فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • A. Ali, A. Parisi, M.C. Conversano, A. Iannacci, F. D’Emilio, V. Mercurio, G. Normanno* Pages 4-10

    Consumption of contaminated seafoods is a major cause of death and hospitalization particularly in poor and developing countries. As with other food types, seafoods are also not free of food-borne pathogens and several risk factors are associated with its consumption. Regarding seafoods, there are regulatory hygienic alerts in importing countries. This paper briefly reviews the occurrence of seafood-borne diseases and describes the most important bacterial causes of these infections. Also, major bacterial threats, the route of infection, and food safety concerns associated with seafoods consumption are explained. Several bacterial pathogens, like Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum, Shigella spp., and Aeromonas spp. are considered as microbiological hazards for seafoods. These bacteria can contaminate seafood products anytime from farm to table. Some effective methods should be adopted for control and prevention of bacterial hazards in fish industry. Maintaining the microbiological water quality of domestic capture, post-harvest care, proper hygiene, etc. can minimize the bacterial hazards. Food-borne intoxications can be controlled by the proper refrigeration of seafoods and the continuous monitoring of the chill chain during the entire production process right up to consumption. Other ways to prevent food-borne outbreaks due to consumptions of seafoods are training of the consumers about correct handling of food, proper preparation, and storage of seafoods.DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.1.2446

    Keywords: Seafood, Fish Products, Bacteria, Food Contamination, Bacterial Infections, Foodborne Diseases
  • S.I. Gómez Covarrubias, F. Rivera Cabrera, J.I. Mendoza Gastelum, V.H. Oidor Chan, R.C. Aarland, F. Cruz Sosa, F. Díaz de León Sánchez, J.A. Mendoza Espinoza* Pages 11-17
    Background

    The xoconostle (Opuntia joconostle Web.) plant is produced mainly in the Central Highlands region of Mexico. The main aim of this research was to determine the effect of pasteurization on chemical and functional properties of xoconostle juice.

    Methods

    Total Soluble Solids (TSS), pH, Titratable Acidity (TA), total phenolic and flavonoid content, betacyanins, betaxanthins, and reducing and non-reducing sugars contents were determined in both unpasteurized and pasteurized xoconostle juices. In vivo assay using Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was done in male rats to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of juice. Data were statistically analyzed using SigmaPlot.

    Results

    There was a meaningful increasing (p<0.05) in the pigment contents after the pasteurization process, as betacyanins and betaxanthins contents increased to 0.112 and 0.096 µg/g, respectively. In spite of pasteurized xoconostle, the unpasteurized group showed anti-hyperglycemic effects at 60 min of OGTT.

    Conclusion

    Pasteurization temperature had no adverse effect on the antioxidant activities of xoconostle fruit. Although fresh xoconostle juice revealed considerable anti-hyperglycemic properties in rats, this effect was not found in the pasteurized xoconostle juice.DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.1.2447

    Keywords: Opuntia_Fruit - Vegetable Juices_Pasteurization_Food Analysis_Models_Animal_Glucose Tolerance Test
  • C.V. Asiegbu, S.L. Lebelo, F.T. Tabit* Pages 18-26
    Background

    In many developing countries, the risk of contracting a food-borne disease is high after consuming contaminated ready-to-eat Street-Vended Foods (SVFs). The main objective of this research was to assess the microbiological quality of SVF groups sold in the Johannesburg Metropolis, South Africa.

    Methods

    A stratified random sampling procedure was used for collecting the ready-to-eat SVF samples. Methods prescribed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) were used for analyses for aerobic colony count, Enterobacteriaceae count, presence of Escherichia coli O15:H7, detection of Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics V25.0.

    Results

    Of the 205 ready-to-eat SVF samples, 85.37% had aerobic growth. The vast majority (78.18%) of the 110 ready-to-eat SVF samples had Enterobacteriaceae growth. From the 110 SVF samples, the prevalence rates of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O15:H7 were 46.36, 31.8, 21.8, and 1.8%, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence rates of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O15:H7 in the various SVF groups.

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings of this study, the microbial quality and safety of ready-to-eat SVFs sold in the Johannesburg Metropolis remain a serious public health concern. Hence, it is necessary to educate street food vendors and enforce food safety legislation in the street food sector in the country.DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.1.2448

    Keywords: Bacterial Load, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Fast Foods, Food Safety, South Africa
  • C. Cardamone, F. Cirlincione, R. Gaglio, V. Puccio, F. Daidone, S. Sciortino, I. Mancuso, M.L. Scatassa* Pages 27-35
    Background

    Consumption of raw cheese may be associated with different diseases. This study aimed to evaluate behavior of four pathogenic bacteria during manufacture and ripening of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Pecorino Siciliano cheese.

    Methods

    The experimental cheese groups were inoculated with pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The cheese making processes were monitored from milk curdling until 3 months ripened cheeses and the levels of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and the four dairy pathogens were evaluated by plate counts. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis was applied to confirm that the colonies isolated during the several steps of production were the same strains added in milk. Statistical analysis was done using XLStat software.

    Results

    The levels of mesophilic and thermophilic coccus and rod LAB in curd were comparable in both trials and reached values between 8-9 log10 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/g in cheeses at 90 days of ripening. The four pathogenic bacteria were found in experimental curd at levels higher than those inoculated in milk and completely disappeared after 60 days of ripening. The RAPD analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of the added strain during production and confirmed the results of plate counts.

    Conclusion

    This work showed that the production conditions of PDO Pecorino Siciliano cheese decreased growth of E. coli O157, L. monocytogenes, S. Enteritidis, and S. aureus.DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.1.2449

    Keywords: Cheese, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Food Safety
  • F. Salar Behrestaghi, S. Bahram*, P. Ariaii Pages 36-44
    Background

    Edible films and coatings are biodegradable that can preserve the quality and extend the shelf life of foods. The aim of this study was to investigate the physical and mechanical properties, and antimicrobial activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) film containing Artemisia sieberi Essential Oil (AEO).

    Methods

    The studied parameters were the antibacterial activity and physical properties, including Water Vapor Permeability (WVP), Contact Angle (CA), solubility, Moisture Content (MC), and surface color; as well as mechanical properties including Elongation at break% (E%) and Tensile Strength (TS) of CMC incorporated with AEO at levels of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5% v/v. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software.

    Results

    Camphor (36.38%), 1,8-cineole (15.89%), β-Thujone (6.7%), and camphanone (6.2%) were the main components of AEO. The edible CMC film showed increase in WVP, contact angle, E%, darker color, and yellowness, with decreases in film solubility, MC, and TS after the incorporation of AEO. CMC film with 1.5% of AEO showed the highest a* (greenness) and b* (yellowness) values. The inhibition zones were 9.33, 11.5, and 17.30 mm for Staphylococcus aureus; and 8, 11.50, and 14.33 mm for Escherichia coli at AEO levels of 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, respectively.  

    Conclusion

    The overall results of this study showed that CMC films enriched with AEO could be beneficial in food packaging to retard food deterioration.DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.1.2450

    Keywords: Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium, Artemisia, Oils, Volatile, Food Packaging, Food Preservation
  • W.P. Rahayu*, D. Herawati, W. Broto, N. Indrostristanto, S. Ambarwati, W. Adhi Pages 45-50
    Background

    Besides their mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects, Aflatoxins (AFs) also act as the main contributor to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which is known as the most common primary liver cancer worldwide. The main aim of this study was risk estimation of HCC due to exposure to aflatoxins in maize from Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    Methods

    As a model, maize samples were taken from Yogyakarta province, Indonesia. The present research was conducted by risk assessment approach which includes hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The aflatoxin analysis was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography method and the secondary data was taken from the province report.

    Results

    The mean total AF in raw material, dried maize chips, and fried chips were 46.58, 17.58, and 13.24 ppb, respectively. The raw material clearly had higher level of all AF types. The mean of contamination of total AF in raw material (46.58 ppb) exceeded the standard level (20 ppb), while the other products were not more than standard level. The yearly maximum exposure to AFB1 ranged from 85.07 to 92.80 ng/kg body weight per day. The estimation of HCC cases ranged from no case to 43 cases per year.

    Conclusion

    Preventive hygienic efforts are needed to reduce AF contamination and risk of HCC in maize consumed in this region of Indonesia. DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.1.2451

    Keywords: Aflatoxins, Zea mays, Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, Dietary Exposure, Risk Assessment, Indonesia