فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Amir Parviz Tavassoli, Majid Anushiravani, SeyedMousalreza Hoseini, Zahra Nikakhtar, Hamideh Naghedi Baghdar, Mahin Ramezani, Zahra Ayati, MohammadSadegh Amiri, Amirhossein Sahebkar, SeyedAhmad Emami* Pages 86-104

    Alhagi maurorum is one of the species of Alhagi genus producing manna of Tarangabin. Tarangabin is mainly prepared in Iran and Afghanistan. The medicinal properties of Tarangabin and A. maurorum have been mentioned in some major Materia Medica manuscripts in the Islamic era. Tarangabin has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, analgesic and gastrointestinal effects. The purpose of this review is to introduce Alhagi plant and its different species, to present its geographical distribution, and to review its phytochemical and pharmacological properties as well as traditional and folklore applications. Phytochemistry of different parts of Alhagi, such as root, leaf and manna is also explained in details. In addition, temperament and medicinal uses of Tarangabin mentioned in the Islamic traditional medicine (ITM) books are presented. Indeed, sparse clinical research has been done on the medicinal properties of Tarangabin, which calls for future well-designed trials.

    Keywords: Alhagi, Tarangabin, Fabaceae, Islamic traditional medicine, Khareshotor, Camel thorn
  • Mohammad Fathalipour, Amir Mahmoodzadeh, Omid Safa, Hossein Mirkhani* Pages 105-111

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most prevalent microvascular complications of diabetes, and the most leading cause of visual loss around the world. The lack of effective and approved treatment in DR is a major challenge for diabetic patients. Nowadays, natural compounds have got attention of the researchers for management of DR. Many evidences suggest that puerarin as a natural polyphenol exerts advantageous effects against DR. In the present review, we summarized the protective effects of puerarin against DR, and discussed the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Puerarin attenuates retinal neovascularization and neurodegeneration in diabetes mellitus, and the underlying mechanisms are related to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties of the compound. In conclusion, puerarin might be a potential adjuvant agent for the prevention and treatment of DR. However, comprehensive studies are necessary to show its effectiveness and safety, particularly in human.

    Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Puerarin, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory agent, Antiapoptotic agent
  • Gholam Basati, Pardis Ghanadi, Saber Abbaszadeh* Pages 112-120

    Herbal plants can be used to treat and prevent life-threatening diseases, such as prostate cancer, infections and other diseases. The findings from traditional medicine and the use of medicinal plants can help control and treat most problems due to prostate diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and report the most important medicinal plants that affect prostate disorders. Based on the results of the review of numerous articles indexed in the databases ISI, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, etc., a number of plants have been reported to be used in the treatment and prevention of diseases, inflammation, infection, and cancer of the prostate gland. The plants include Panax ginseng, Arum palaestinum, Melissa officinalis, Syzygium paniculatum, Coptis chinensis, Embelia ribes, Scutellaria baicalensis, Tripterygium wilfordii, Salvia triloba, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Psidium guajava, Ganoderma lucidum, Litchi chinensis, Saussurea costus, Andrographis paniculata, Magnolia officinalis and Prunus africana. Phytochemical investigations have examined the therapeutic effects of medicinal plants effective on prostate cancer and their possible mechanisms of action and clinical effects as well as the use of active flavonoids in production of herbal drugs. Due to the active ingredients and important flavonoids of these plants, they can be used in production of herbal drugs that prevent and treat infections, inflammation and cancer of the prostate gland, and reduce the metastasis of prostate cancer cells, reducing the patients’ suffering and pain.

    Keywords: Inflammation, Prostatitis, Medicinal plants, Natural antioxidants, Herbal drugs, Prostate cancer
  • Gholamreza Bazmandegan, Ali Shamsizadeh, Mohsen FathiNajafi, Zahra Assadollahi, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Zahra Kamiab, Alireza Vakilian, Amir Moghadam Ahmadi, Morteza Amirteimoury, MohammadTaher Boroushaki* Pages 121-129
    Introduction

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Propolis, a polyphenol-rich resinous product processed by honeybees from a variety of plant sources, has a set of biological activities. We investigated the neuroprotective effect of Iranian brown propolis (IBP) in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).

    Methods

    Experimentally, water extracts of propolis (WEPs) were obtained from Kerman (KeWEP) and Khorasan Razavi (KhWEP) provinces, Iran. The chemical characterization and total polyphenol content of WEPs were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Animals were divided into eight experimental groups including: sham, control, and three groups each of which KeWEP- and KhWEP-treated mice. The drugs were administered at doses of 30, 100 and 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP), during four different time points. Infarct volume and brain edema were measured at 48 h. Behavioral tests were evaluated at 4, 24 and 48-hour post stroke.

    Results

    The total polyphenol content was 1100 and 1400 mg/L in KhWEP and KeWEP respectively. Compared to the control group, the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg in both samples decreased infarct volume. Brain edema was also reduced in all treatment groups. The dose of 200 mg/kg in both samples and 100 mg/kg in the KeWEP-treated group significantly increased grasping ability. Sensory-motor function was improved in all groups, too.

    Conclusion

    These results suggest that IBP may reduce ischemic brain injury by its neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia.

    Keywords: Cerebral ischemia, Brown propolis, Neuroprotection, Polyphenol
  • Ndivhuwo Patience Nthulane, Salerwe Mosebi, Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Monde Nyila, Ledile Thabitha Mankga* Pages 130-137
    Introduction

    Worldwide, more than one million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired daily. The diversity and frequency of sexual infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms have increased thus becoming a major cause of illness and mortality amongst young adults. Medicinal plants have been good remedies for the treatment of STIs since ancient times. In this study, we evaluated antimicrobial, anti- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-inflammatory activities of five selected medicinal plants.

    Methods

    We determined the antimicrobial activities of plant extracts against the bacteria causing common STIs. Then, the anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory enzyme, 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and we further investigated the plants extracts of anti-HIV activities against the recombinant HIV-1 enzyme, reverse transcriptase.

    Results

    Methanol extract of Terminalia sericea and dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Bidens pilosa exhibited good activities against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Gardnerella vaginalis. Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Bidens pilosa exhibited good activities against Candida albicans. Ethyl acetate extract of K. africana and methanol extract of B. pilosa showed good anti-inflammatory activities. Ethyl acetate, DCM and methanol extracts of T. sericea exhibited promising anti-HIV-1 activities by inhibiting the reverse transcriptase whilst methanol extracts of T. dregeana showed low anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Conclusion

    These plants showed promising activity against the propagation of inflammation, displayed good antimicrobial activities against the bacteria causing STIs and could be used as potential leads and/or source for new drug candidates.

    Keywords: Anti-microbial activity, Anti-inflammation activity, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Sexual Transmitted Infections, Medicinal plants, Total phenolic content
  • Olorunfemi Raphael Molehin* Pages 138-144
    Introduction

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a well-known chemotherapeutic drug, has been reported to induce numerous toxic side effects including renal toxicity. This preliminary study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of methanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum volubile (MECV) against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Methods

    Thirty male rats were divided into five groups; (a) Control group: rats were given 0.9% NaCl as vehicle, (b) DOX group: a single dose of DOX (25 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered and the rats were sacrificed 4 days after DOX injection, (c-e) Methanolic extract of C. volubile (MECV)-treated DOX groups: rats were given MECV (at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/d), respectively for 12 consecutive days, 8 days before and 4 days after the DOX administration.

    Results

    DOX injection caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum creatinine and urea levels. The levels of renal antioxidant parameters: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in DOX-intoxicated rats with concomitant elevation of malondialdehyde level. Pretreatment with MECV restored antioxidant status, attenuated oxidative stress and improved kidney function markers. Pre-treatment with MECV protected renal tissues against DOX-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Conclusion

    The ameliorative effects of C. volubile leaves on these renal biochemical parameters may be via its antioxidant action and may serve as a novel combination agent with DOX to limit its renal damage.

    Keywords: Antioxidant, Doxorubicin, Nephrotoxicity, Clerodendrum volubile, Oxidative stress
  • Hassan Sadraei*, SeyedEbrahim Sajjadi, Arefe Tarafdar Pages 145-152
    Introduction

    Dracocephalum kotschyi extract has antispasmodic activities on smooth muscle including ileum, uterus and trachea. The objective of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of hydroalcoholic and flavonoids extracts of D. kotschyi on rabbit bladder contractions.

    Methods

    Rabbits were euthanized by carbon dioxide asphyxiation and the whole bladder was dissected out and immersed in the Tyrode’s solution. Longitudinal bladder strips were mounted vertically in an organ bath at 37°C and gassed continuously with O2 . Bladder strips were contracted with acetylcholine (ACh), KCl, or electrical field stimulation (EFS). Isotonic tension of the tissue was recorded before and after addition of hydroalcoholic or flavonoids rich extracts of D. kotschyi. Nifedipine and propantheline were used as standard drugs.

    Results

    Standard drug propantheline, prevented bladder phasic contraction induced by ACh (1µM) without affecting KCl response. On the other hand, cumulative addition of nifedipine attenuated the tonic contractions induced by KCl (20mM) on bladder smooth muscle. Hydroalcoholic and flavonoids extracts of D. kotschyi at concentration ranges of 10-320 µg/ mL in a concentration dependent way inhibited bladder tonic contraction induced by KCl (n=6). Both extracts also in a concentration-dependent manner relaxed EFS and ACh-induced contractions (range, 20–1280 µg/mL) of bladder smooth muscle in vitro. Complete inhibition was achieved with the highest used concentrations of the extracts. The inhibitory effect of the extract was reversible following washing the tissues with fresh Tyrode’s solution.

    Conclusion

    This study clearly demonstrated that D. kotschyi extracts were able to prevent contractions induced by ACh, KCl or EFS in isolated rabbit bladder. This means that people consuming this medicinal plant may face urinary retention which could be a problem for patients with prostate hypertrophy. On the other hand, this plant might be useful in patients with urinary incontinence. However, its usefulness must be assessed in the controlled clinical trials.

    Keywords: Acetylcholine, Bladder, Dracocephalum kotschyi, Electrical field stimulation, Smooth muscle
  • Feri Eko Hermanto, Aris Soewondo, Hideo Tsuboi, Mansur Ibrahim, Muhaimin Rifa'i* Pages 153-160
    Introduction

    Recent studies have reported that breast cancer may affect the physiology of other organs, including oxidative stress in the liver. On the other hand, some agents such as white turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri) seem to maintain redox stability and immunomodulation. Both of them are combined into Cheral potion. This study was aimed to investigate the Cheral efficacy in modulating oxidative stress based on Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), HEME OXIGenase (HO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines under breast cancer condition in vivo.

    Methods

    Nrf2, HO, and SOD from hepatocytes, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from splenocytes were measured by flow cytometry after 14 days of Cheral administration.

    Results

    The results showed that mice model for breast cancer underwent oxidative stress denoted by high levels of HO, and SOD accompanied by increased levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the cancer group compared to normal healthy group (P<0.05). In contrast, Cheral treatment was able to modulate redox balance by declining levels of HO, SOD, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, but not Nrf2, compared to cancer group (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The results showed that breast cancer could alter the host’s physiology, including liver oxidative stress. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ might contribute to regulation of redox balance in the liver. However, Cheral has potency as an alternative therapeutic agent to reduce oxidative stress in the liver under breast cancer condition.

    Keywords: Breast cancer, Cheral, Liver oxidative stress, Proinflammatory cytokines
  • Shahla Shafiee adib, Majid Amini dehaghi*, Alireza Rezazadeh, Amirmohammad Naji Pages 161-170
    Introduction

    Cumin, due to its food and medicinal properties, is one of the important plant species in the world. Moreover, water and nutrition deficiencies are serious abiotic stress factors. So, this experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating the effects of sulfur and foliar application of Fe and Zn on yield and biochemical characteristics of cumin under irrigation regimes.

    Methods

    The experiment was conducted as a split plot on the basis of a completely randomized block design during the 2016-2017 growing seasons with three replications. Experimental factors were arranged in irrigation regimes as main plots at three levels (I1: No stress (control), I2: irrigation based on 40% available water discharge, I3: 80% available water discharge) and foliar application of Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) as subplots [F1: control (water-soluble), F2: Iron, F3: Zinc, F4: Zinc and Iron chelate] and sub-sub plots including sulfur fertilizer [S1: control (no use of sulfur), S2: sulfur fertilizer with Thiobacillus].

    Results

    Analyzed data showed that total phenol content and flavonoids were enhanced with the increase of drought intensity and the maximum amount was recorded under I3, while I3 caused a substantial reduction in grain yield. Flavonoid and grain yield significantly increased in F4. Total phenol content was the highest in F2 and F3 treatments. Application of sulfur fertilizer resulted in a significant increase in peroxidase, phenol and flavonoids. The highest amount of peroxidase was obtained in I3F4 and I3F3. The largest total soluble sugar (TSS) was resulted by I3S2 and the least by I1S1. Foliar application of Zn and Fe with sulfur fertilizer increased TSS.

    Conclusion

    The present study suggests that foliar application of Fe and Zn and sulfur fertilizer can improve the injurious effects of water deficiency on cumin plant through alteration in yield and biochemical characteristics.

    Keywords: Cumin, Flavonoid, irrigation regimes, Phenol, Peroxidase