فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
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  • M. Shirzadeh, E. Sepehr *, M. H. Rasouli Sadaghiani, F. Ahmadi Pages 223-235
    The entrance of Cd (II) to aqueous environments causes a major problem to human health. The current article examines the efficiency of TiO2 and γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles in Cd (II) removal from aqueous medium as influenced by different chemical factors, such as pH, initial concentration, background electrolyte, and ionic strength, in accordance with standard experimental methods. It conducts Batch experiments, fitting various isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) to the equilibrium data. Saturation indices (SI) of TiO2 and γ-Al2O3 nanosorbents indicate that adsorption is a predominant mechanism for Cd (II) removal from aqueous solution, giving maximum Cd (II) adsorption rates of 3348 and 1173 mg/kg for TiO2 and γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles, respectively, both obtained at the highest pH level (pH = 8) as well as the highest initial Cd (II) concentration (equal to 80 mg/ L). Cadmium removal efficiency with TiO2 and γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles has increased by raising pH from 6 to 8. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model could fit the experimental equilibrium data well at different pH levels. Also, it has been revealed that cadmium adsorption drops as the ionic strength is increased. The maximum Cd (II) adsorption (1625 mg/kg) has been attained at 0.01 M ionic strength in the presence of NaCl. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the spontaneous nature of Cd (II) adsorption by TiO2 and γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles. The former (TiO2) have high adsorption capacities, suggesting they are probably effective metal sorbents, compared to the latter (γ-Al2O3).
    Keywords: Cadmium adsorption, Isotherm models, Removal efficiency, speciation, Visual MINTEQ
  • R. Tiwari, P. P. Singh, A. Taneja * Pages 237-252
    In the present study, size-segregated samples of PM were collected from urban and semi-urban traffic junctions in Agra, India. PM samples were collected during the monsoon season (July to September 2015) using Grimm portable aerosol Spectrometer. The recorded mean concentration of PM10 at urban site was 137.09±61μg/m3 and at semi-urban site was 270.14±21μg/m3, which were higher than the suggested limits by WHO and NAAQS India. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 were 41.45±40μg/m3, 48.88±34μg/m3 at the urban and semi-urban site, respectively. Whereas, mean concentrations of PM1.0 were 30.35±64μg/m3, 12.64±4μg/m3 and PM0.25 were 0.06±0.05μg/m3, 0.17±0.06μg/m3 at the urban and semi-urban site, respectively. It was estimated that PM10, PM2.5 and PM0.25 values were higher at semi-urban site than urban sampling site but in case of PM1.0 concentrations were higher at urban site. The surface morphology of PM2.5 was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results show flaky, branched chain like aggregates of carbon bearing spheres at the urban site while cluster, branched, spherical and fluffy particles at semi-urban site. The presences of carbonaceous particles were enhanced due to use of fuel combustion. Chemical analysis was done using ICP-AES. Concentrations of Zn and Cu were found higher while Ni was least in comparison to other metals. Elemental composition present in PM2.5 was used to calculate the health risk assessment to identify the possible health effect on human health, hazards quotient (HQ) values was found higher as Ingestion to inhalation pathways while ECR values found higher as Cr(VI)>Ni>Pb for both medium (Air and Dust).
    Keywords: PM2.5, Heavy metals, APM-550, SEM, hazard quotient
  • M. M. Rahman *, M. Bodrud Doza, M. I. Muhib, K. F. B. Hossain, MT. Sikder, M. Shammi, R. Akter, M. K. Uddin Pages 253-266

    Groundwater plays a pivotal role as the largest potable water sources in Bangladesh. As agriculture is widely practiced in Bangladesh, potential nitrate (NO3¯) pollution may occur. Besides, excess amount of arsenic (As) has already been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh including the present study area. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the NO3¯ status along with some trace metals and associated human health risk in the Central Bangladesh. A total of 99 groundwater samples were analyzed to assess human health risk due to high level of NO3¯ and other trace elements i.e. arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Concentration of NO3¯ was determined using column chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to measure As, Fe and Mn concentrations. It was found that the mean concentration of NO3¯ 253.17 (mg/L) in the groundwater samples exceeds the recommended guideline value by the WHO (50 mg/L). Moreover, this study area also characterized with elevated concentration of As (19.44 μg/L), Fe (811.35 μg/L), and Mn (455.18 μg/L) in the groundwater. Non-carcinogenic human health risk was calculated by justifying HQ (Hazard Quotient) and HI (Hazard Index) and attributed potential conjunctive human health risks due to NO3¯, As, Fe and Mn in the study area. Child (9.941) is more vulnerable than adult (7.810) considering non-carcinogenic human health risk. Moreover, high carcinogenic risk was found due to As contamination in the groundwater samples and children (1.94×10-3) are more susceptible to carcinogenic risk compared to adults (9.2×10-4).

    Keywords: Nitrate, arsenic, health risk assessment, hazard quotient, hazard index
  • W. Kalasee *, C. Teekapakvisit Pages 267-284

    In Thailand, RSS chamber of community-level rubber cooperatives can be classified into two models: old and new model, named after the years of their establishment. Hot gas as a heat supply from Para-rubber (PR) wood (Hevea brasiliensis) combustion is used for removing moisture from the natural rubber (NR) sheets. Smoke and soot particles from PR wood burning has effected to the quality of the NR sheet and the pollution in the workplace area and lead to health problems of the worker. Cascade impactors are equipment for measuring the smoke and soot particles size distribution from PR wood combustion. PAHs compounds from PR wood combustion were found 15 different PAHs components (Tekasakul et al., 2005; Furuuchi et al., 2006). Important methods in decreasing smoke and soot particles from combustion of PR wood for rubber smoking chamber are separation equipment and ventilation designed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. In this article, the separation method is focused on smoke and soot particle collection to maintain the quality of the NR sheet. This equipment is reviewed both indoor and outdoor, for example, an impaction wall, electrostatic precipitator, stainless-wire, etc. This review indicates that the ESP installing between the furnace and the smoking chamber is suitable to eliminate aerosol particles at the rubber smoking industry. In addition, CFD technique reports is aimed at collecting aerosol particles for decreasing smoke and soot particles emission from rubber smoking chamber is presented.

    Keywords: Para-Rubber, wood combustion, filtration, ESP, CFD
  • A. Ait Meddour, N. Abbas, H. Ouled Haddar *, M. Sifour, K. Bendjeddou, T. Idoui Pages 285-294

    In this study, a strain of lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus salivarius was studied for its capacity to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from a liquid medium and to form biofilm. Both properties are useful for using the strain in bioremediation of metal-contaminated effluents. For biofilm formation capacity, three methods were used: the tube method (TM), the Congo red agar method (CRA) and adherence to polystyrene tissue culture plate method (TCP). S. salivarius, showed a positive-biofilm and a correlation between the three methods was noted. The bacterial surface hydrophobicity was studied using the microbial adhesion to solvents method (MATS). On AISI-316 L stainless steel, the strain with a hydrophobic surface showed a good adhesion on this support after 18 h incubation. The colonization of the supports and the biofilms formation by the bacterial cell was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cr(VI) on S. salivarius was determined on MRS broth, it was relatively high and equal to 400mg/l. In addition, it displayed a remarkable capacity to reduce Cr(VI) concentration on the liquid medium containing initially 50 mg/l of Cr(VI) ; the percent removal rate was equal to approximately 42% after 72 h of incubation at 37 °C. In addition to its GRAS status, the obtained results suggested that S. salivarius could be successfully used in Cr(VI) bioremediation.

    Keywords: Bioaccumulation, biofilm, biosorption, Hexavalent chromium, Streptococcus salivarius
  • R. Tolian, N. Javadzadeh *, A. M. Sanati, M. Mohammadi Roozbahani, M. Noorinejad Pages 295-306
    Ships transport about 80 percent of world trade and transfer approximately three to five billion tons of ballast water internationally every year. Due to the likely presence of pollutants, the ballast water discharged by ships can have negative effects on aquatic ecosystems. This study was conducted on 10 ships that entered the Bushehr port to determine the effectiveness of the ballast water exchange method and also to specify the contents of heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Pb and Cu) in the water and sediment of the ships’ ballast tanks. The samples were collected from January 2017 to July 2018 during a cold and a hot season. The results indicate the values of heavy metals in the samples in this order: Ni> Cu > Pb > Cd. The heavy metals concentrations in the sediment samples did not exceed the standard of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Whereas, Cu and Ni in all water samples and Cd in samples 2 and 7 exceeded the NOAA quality standard value. A correlation analysis of the metals showed that the sources of heavy metals vary in water and sediment samples, except for Pb and Cu in sediment samples which a positively significant relationship were observed. The results also revealed that the ballast water exchange method cannot by itself be effective and an efficient management together with continuous monitoring seems to be essential to prevent pollution of the ballast tanks of the ships entering the Bushehr port.
    Keywords: Pollution, Ballast water, Sediment, Marine environment
  • S. S. Rudenko *, U. V. Leheta, V. P. Rudenko, S. S. Kostyshyn, V. D. Bialyk Pages 307-323
    The method of air pollution level evaluation of urban landscapes on the basis of D. melanogaster cohort analysis has been suggested. The method implies the binding to the landscape areas of the city. Within each landscape area traps and cultivators for D. melanogaster have been installed in sanitary-protective zones of various enterprises as well as on the background territory with the least level of anthropogenic load serving as the control. Based on specifically elaborated technique for field conditions, the amount of eggs, third instar larvae, pupae and imago has been calculated. Then, using the computer program ImageJ, the square under the curves of cohort survival has been determined which is considered overall cohort viability (OCVD.m). The previously mentioned indicator considers cohort survival at all stages of ontogenesis. In addition, the expressed in percentage indicator of oppression (IO OCVD.m) in relevance to the control OCVD. m affects the level of air pollution of urban landscapes by emissions of various enterprises. The relevance between these indicators is determined by a four-level scale elaborated specifically for the purpose. The method has been tested based on technogenic landscapes of Chernivtsi, Ukraine. The sensitivity of the suggested indicator for a wide range of pollutants has been proved and its ability to respond to different levels of greening of similar enterprises has been shown.
    Keywords: Air pollution, biomonitoring, Drosophila melanogaster, cohort viability
  • P. Malik *, M. Awasthi, S. Sinha Pages 325-336
    Untapped pine needles with high potential for energy generation in the hilly area are not only a waste of resource but also increase the chance of environmental hazards as forest fires and GHG emission. This study is conducted to propose a new hybrid system (PV/Wind/Biomass) using abundant pine needle resource as a replacement of existing roof-mounted PV/wind hybrid system and analyse the feasibility using Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER). Biomass gasifier is integrated to meet the increased load demand of 29.5 kW from 4.3 kW at the Centre for Energy and Environment Engineering building in NIT-Hamirpur. Both cases (with and without storage) has been considered in this research study. New optimized configuration is found to be a 1kWp PV array, one wind turbine of capacity 5kW, gasifier with a 17 kW capacity, 10 numbers of 12v batteries connected in series and 10 kW converter. The comparative analysis of off-grid hybrid systems shows that the system with the storage unit was more economical with 0.222 $/kWh as the cost of energy generation compared to the system without storage unit. The proposed hybrid system is found more reliable, economical and environment friendly and save about 27815 kg of CO2 per year when only diesel is used to meet the same energy demand. Therefore, biomass gasifier in decentralized small-scale power plants can be a better replacement for diesel generators.
    Keywords: PV system, Biomass energy, HOMER, Wind Energy, Hybrid energy system
  • R. Maleki, F. Atabi *, S. A. Jozi, R. Arjomandi, N. Mansouri Pages 337-351
    This study aims to present a sustainable environmental model using the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) method in Shazand Petrochemical Company. To determine the evaluation indices, two Delphi and DEMATEL-FTOPSIS questionnaires were distributed among 27 and 8 experts in the field of sustainable environmental management. The environmental, social, economic, environmental-economic, socio-environmental and socio-economic factors were selected as the main criteria based on the previous studies. Data analysis was performed using the DEMATEL-FTOPSIS approach. The values of the determined indices were specified by this study, and the management of the company was prepared. The indicated that the BOD/COD output from the company with the value of 2.181 has the highest effectiveness. Moreover, the index of having short - and long-term planning for local sustainable development with the value of 2.416 had the highest influence. Identification of powerful, strategic and high-quality contractors to enter a long-term contract with them in order to get the competitive advantage in the value chain of the company with the value of 0.569 was found to be the best strategy. Eventually, the sustainable management model for petrochemical industry was presented based on the output results. In this model, indices, prioritizing improvement plans and assessing life cycle sustainability were identified as the most important factors among others.
    Keywords: Environmental Management model, Petrochemical Industry, BOD, COD Effectiveness- LCSA-DEMATEL-FTOPSIS
  • P. Singh *, A. Srivastava, N. Srivastava, V. Sharma, D. Ghildyal, A. Upadhyay Pages 353-366

    Algal biorefinery process utilizes every component of algal biomass to produce multiple useful fuel products. In this technique, acid pretreatment of algal biomass hydrolyzes microalgal carbohydrates into fermentable sugars, makes lipids more extractable and a protein part accessible for additional products. In the present study, Chlorella sorkiniana produced higher quantity of biodiesel than Botryococcus braunii and biomass in Botryococcus braunii was higher than the Chlorella sorkiniana. Botryococcus braunii produces 11% more lipid content than Chlorella sorkiniana which was consistent with biomass content. The total sugar (oligomeric and monomeric) yield attained by Combined Algal Processing (CAP) was 89.9%. 29 g/L ethanol was produced during the fermentation in the Pretreated Algal Slurry. The recovery of lipids from CAP was reported as 84–89% after fermentation and ethanol removal. CAP preserves the PUFA (Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids) and utilizes these high-value PUFAs to further reduce the cost of biofuel production and replace petroleum products.

    Keywords: Algal biofuel, Biorefinery, pretreatment, Fermentation, extraction
  • B. Koushki, T. Nasrabadi *, M. J. Amiri Pages 367-375

    The purpose of this research is to quantify the potential of waste recycling in the form of participatory scenarios for separation from the source and to study the factors of minimization (reduction) of waste production in a district of Tehran. Amount of waste minimization was determined with considering a couple of citizens' participation scenarios. Source separation of valuable wastes including paper and cardboard, plastic, plastic bags, aluminum cans, bread, PET, waste metal and glass were considered in this procedure. Among 250 tons of generated dry waste within the district, 150 tons (60%) goes directly to landfill instead of getting recycled. Considering the successful experiences regarding the use of reverse vending machine (RVM) in recycling of beverage containers, this research takes RVM as a reasonable method to promote the recycling activities by citizens. In the 10% scenario, the participation for the separation of the total amount of daily materials is about 4,300 USD per day and in the 25% scenario, 10,800 USD of added value have been calculated. Also, for the participation of 10 and 25 percent during a month, 15 and 30 waste disposal services to the disposal and processing complex could get less.

    Keywords: Optimization, participation scenarios, recycling, reverse vending machine, source separation
  • G. Edusei *, J. B. Tandoh, R. Edziah, O. Gyampo Pages 377-386

    Mitigation of atmospheric pollution has been a topic of concern over the past decades. In this study, tree rings have been used to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental changes on tree growth. Vehicular emission is one of the major sources of pollutants in the atmosphere and this study focused on the Haatso-Atomic road which over the years has been a spot for heavy vehicular traffic. Swietenia mahagoni (Mahogany) tree was logged and the rings counted and age determined to be 61 years spanning from 1957 to 2018. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to investigate the presence of the following heavy metals. Heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) which ranged from (3.15—9.84mg/kg), (2.58 – 5.49 mg/kg), (8.18 – 15.78mg/kg), (0.12—0.60 mg/kg), (0.01—0.09 mg/kg) and (0.10 – 0.99 mg/kg) respectively, from vehicular emissions were determined for annual rings spanning from 1957 to 2018 and surprisingly an increasing trend was observed with some the heavy metals exceeding WHO guidelines. Tree growth rates were calculated through ring width measurements and related to annual precipitation data spanning over the sampling period. It was observed that wet seasons correlate with high growth rates of trees while low precipitations seasons related to low or no growth rate of trees.

    Keywords: Tree rings, Air pollution, Trace element, Vehicular emission
  • T. L. Pham * Pages 387-398

    The changes in diatom assemblages along an urban-to-rural gradient were characterized to assess the ecological status of the Sai Gon River, Vietnam. Diatoms and physico-chemical variables were measured at 10 stations during dry and rainy season. One-way ANOVA showed that diatom metrics and physicochemical variables were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the upper course sites and both the middle- and the lower sites. However, no significant differences were observed between the middle course sites and the lower course sites. Achnanthidium minutissimum and A. exigua were potential indicators of low nutrient in the upper course sites; Melosira granulata and Navicula viridula were preferred moderately eutrophic water in the middle course sites; while Navicula cryptocephala and Nitzschia palea were tolerant to very heavy pollution and dominant in the lower course sites. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) results showed that concentration of TSS, TN, TP, BOD5 and COD were the most important factors in structuring benthic diatom communities in the Sai Gon River. The results of this study indicated that diatom community was sensitive to changes in urban condition and could be used as an indicator of urbanization.

    Keywords: phytoplankton, Biological monitoring, Water quality, urbanization
  • M. Janati, M. Kolahdoozan, H. Imanian * Pages 399-415
    Due to an increase in demand of petroleum products which are transported by vessels or exported by pipelines, oil spill management becomes a controversial issue in coastal environment safety as well as making serious financial problems. After spilling oil in the water body, oil spreads as a thin layer on the water surface. Currents, waves and wind are the main causes of oil slick transport. These phenomena depend on the overall interaction among gravity, viscosity, surface tension and interfacial tension of oil in water bodies. In the current study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been designed and trained for the prediction of oil spreading and advection under different hydrodynamic conditions. In this regard, results obtained from a multiphase Lagrangian numerical model are deployed to train ANN model. The mentioned numerical model which is based on the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is developed in the earlier stage of the study. In this research study, the MPS numerical model is first validated and verified against the analytical formulas which are based on experimental data cited in the literature. Then, various hydrodynamic conditions and oil spill scenarios were chosen to obtain different numerical model results. Finally, numerical model results are then deployed for training ANN model to provide a useful tool for urgent prediction of oil slick trajectory in order to manage the oil slick transport in the coastal environments.
    Keywords: neural network, Numerical Modeling, oil spill, Pollution transport, Marine Environment
  • S. Kumar *, S. Deswal Pages 417-428
    This study aims to examine the ability of free floating aquatic plants to remove phosphorus and to predict the reduction of phosphorus from rice mill wastewater using soft computing techniques. A mesocosm study was conducted at the mill premises under normal conditions, and reliable results were obtained. Four aquatic plants, namely water hyacinth, water lettuce, salvinia, and duckweed were used for this study. The growth of all the plants was inhibited in rice mill wastewater due to low pH, high chemical oxygen demand, high conductivity, and high phosphorus concentration. Subsequently, a 1:1 ratio of mill water to tap water was used. A control was maintained to assess the aquatic plant technology. In this study, the aquatic plants reduced the total phosphorus content up to 80 % within 15 days. A comparison between three modeling techniques e.g. Artificial neural network (ANN), Random forest (RF) and M5P has been done considering the reduction rate of total phosphorus as predicted variable. In this paper, the data set has been divided in two parts, 70 % is used to train the model and residual 30 % is used for testing of the model. Artificial neural network shows promising results as compared to random forest and M5P tree modelling. The root mean square error (RMSE) for all the three models is observed as 0.0162, 0.0204 and 0.0492 for ANN, RF and M5P tree, respectively.
    Keywords: aquatic plants, rice mill, modelling, Water hyacinth, Total phosphorus
  • R. Sultana *, S. M. N. Islam, M. W. Zaman, N. Uddin Pages 429-440
    Heavy metal contaminated soil raises major global environmental and agricultural concern. Recently soil pollution through lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) becoming serious problem and remediation or utilization of those contaminated soil with potential crops is of the outmost importance. The objectives of present study were to examine the effects of Pb and Cr on three different kenaf and mesta varieties for seed germination, seedling establishment and amount of Pb and Cr uptake by tested varieties in laboratory condition. Three varieties were used for the study namely, HC-95 (kenaf), CPL-72126 (mesta) and Samu-93 (mesta) and the treatments were combination of Pb and Cr chemical at (0,0), (60,60), (80,80), (100,100) and (120,120) mg/L. Increased level of lead and chromium gradually reduced the germination percentage and primary growth parameters compared to control. The shoot and root lengths were affected only little, whereas, the biomass showed a considerable reduction with the increase of Pb and Cr toxicity. Stress tolerance indices showed a gradual and negative response by the plant with the increase of metal concentrations. However, in all the levels of Pb and Cr treatment, the seedlings were capable to tolerate the toxicity and seedlings were established. Bioaccumulation of Cr was higher than that of Pb in all varieties and in all treatments. The interaction of Pb and Cr reduced the toxic effect of both metals to the plants. The findings are helpful for selecting fiber crop varieties for cultivation in contaminated soils or phytoremediation of Pb and Cr from the contaminated soils.
    Keywords: lead, chromium, Phytoremediation, kenaf, mesta
  • M. J. Amiri *, M. R. Mahmoudi, M. Khozaei Pages 441-451
    In this work, the backward Bayesian multiple linear regression (BBMLR) as a new approach is presented to predict the adsorption efficiency (AE) of Cd(II) ions by ostrich bone char (OBC) in the fixed bed adsorption with four operational variables consisting of pH (2-9), inlet Cd(II) concentration (Co= 25-100 mg/L), bed depth (h= 3-9 cm) and feed flow rate (Q= 0.5-30 mL/min). The performance of the BBMLR was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2), normalized root means square error (NRMSE) and mean residual error (MRE). The AE of Cd(II) ions by OBC increased from 42.3% to 99.9% when pH was increased from 2 to 9 with h of 6 cm and Q of 1.5 mL min-1. It was found that the AE dramatically increased from 70.5% to 99.9% with decreasing Q from 30 to 0.5 mL min-1 at pH of 7 and h of 6 cm. At pH= 7 and Q= 1.5 mL min-1, the AE increased from 71.9% to 100% when h increased from 3 to 9 cm. The BBMLR model presented excellent performance (NRMSE=6.69%) for predicting Cd(II) removal in a continuous adsorption system, although it gave a slight underestimation (approximately 3.52%). The BBMLR is more sensitive to the pH, followed by h and Q, while the Co has no significant effect on it. This research displays that OBC has great potential as an eco-friendly low-cost adsorbent in removing Cd(II) ions from the contaminated waters.
    Keywords: Cd(II), Adsorption efficiency, ostrich bone char, BBMLR. model
  • A. Abdi, Q. Yazdanpanah *, Z. Javadi Pages 453-468
    Western Asia has recently become an arena for significant upheavals of various kinds, be it political, safety-related, geopolitical, social, etc. These have in turn focalized the salience of the region as well as its ensuing situation and challenges on a global perspective. Such a naturally-born phenomenon is characterized, amidst other factors, by its transregional quality, granting it some sort of geopolitical peculiarity. The occurrence of haze would implicate a merged endeavor on part of the countries, engaged in this cross-regional abnormality. This joint endeavor is, however, hindered and at times exacerbated due to certain political inconsistencies among the countries, undoubtedly rising from differences in ideology, religion, politics, and social standards. In this light, the present study seeks to inquire the impacts of haze, as a geopolitical phenomenon, on involved countries. It also tries to find out whether subsequent implications of this predicament could in effect be employed to establish new relations among rather-standoffish nations or if they are merely components of a cold relation among countries and could intensify each nation’s problems, reducing the overall quality of life further. The findings indicate that despite the existent domestic and transregional problems, public opinion tends to establish joint cooperation among the engaged countries. This is not in the least a result of fear of a low life quality among the inhabitants of the said nations.
    Keywords: Western Asia, Dust crises. Geopolitical crises, Regional security