فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Hiva Saffar *, Maryam Saatchi, Anahita Sadeghi, Fahimeh Asadi Amoli, SeyedMohammad Tavangar, Farzaneh Shirani, Ali Aliasgari Pages 61-65
    Background & Objective

    Appropriate use of laboratory testing is essential for achieving safe and effective care to patient. Insufficient knowledge could lead to poor case management and increase the health care costs. It is believed that education on laboratory testing for undergraduate medical student is inadequate. This study was designed to evaluate the level of knowledge of 5 and 6 year undergraduate medical students in field of laboratory medicine.

    Methods

    Totally, 59 questions including 8 basic questions concerning individual assessment of their knowledge and 51 objective questions focusing on various stages of test ordering and interpretation were asked.

    Result

    Thirty seven undergraduate medical students at the level of internship participated. On average, 47.9% of students evaluated themselves as “weak" in 8 self-assessment questions. There was no significant difference between responders assessment on their own knowledge in various aspects of laboratory testing (P=0.184). In the objective questions regarding various stages of test ordering including pre-analytic, analytic and post analytic phases,45.6%,51.9% and 50% correct answers were reported ,respectively. Comparison of the level of the knowledge of the students regarding various stages of pathology testing did not show significant difference (P=0.638).

    Conclusion

    Prioritizing an effective teaching method of laboratory medicine to medical students on appropriate time should be considered in medical school curriculum for better clinical decision making and optimal modern medical care.

    Keywords: Clinical pathology, education, Laboratory medicine, Medical student
  • Sweta Kamalkant Shastri *, Archana Joshi Pages 66-74
    Background & Objective

    Modified Ultra-fast Papanicolaou (MUFP) stain has been developed from Papanicolaou stain (PAP) with the goal to improve staining quality, minimize staining time for obtaining immediate cytological diagnosis and to check specimen adequacy during Ultrasound guided Fine needle Aspiration Cytology (US guided FNAC). The aim of this research was to study the cytomorphological features of intra-abdominal lesions with help of US guided FNAC and to assess the diagnostic utility of Modified Ultrafast Papanicolaou stain in cytological diagnosis.

    Methods

    ​This cross-sectional study enrolled consecutive 100 subjects in N.K.P Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in India, from July 2015 to June 2017 who underwent US guided FNAC for Intra-abdominal lesions. Fine needle aspiration was done under ultrasound guidance and the smears were divided into two groups. Wet smears were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol for conventional PAP staining and air dried for MUFP. After staining, results were evaluated on basis of the cytological features. Scores were given according to four parameters namely background of smears, staining pattern, cell morphology and nuclear staining. Quality index was calculated from the ratio of score achieved to the possible maximum score.

    Result

    The most common organs involved were ovaries (46 %) followed by liver (11%) and most common lesions were malignant (68 %). The cytological characteristic showed significant difference in all four parameters (P<0.05) when MUFP stain smears were compared with PAP stain smears. There was also statistically significant difference when cumulative score and Quality Index were compared (P<0.001) between the two stains.

    Conclusion

    The US guided Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is simple, safe, rapid and inexpensive technique useful in cytological diagnosis. MUFP stain is fast, reliable and has better diagnostic utility for cytological diagnosis when compared to PAP stain.

    Keywords: Fine needle aspiration cytology, Intra-abdominal lesions, Modified Ultrafast Papanicolaou Stain, Papanicolaou Stain, Quality Index
  • Mehdi Dehghannezhad, Noushin Jalayer Naderi *, Hasan Semyari Pages 75-80
    Background & Objective

    Micronucleus assay of buccal mucosa cells is a simple bio- monitoring method for diagnosing the genetic damages of toxic agents. The aim was to study the genotoxic effect of waterpipe smoking on buccal mucosa cells using micronucleus assay.

    Methods

    This was a case control. A total of 30 male waterpipe smokers and 30 non-smokers were included in the study. The exfoliated buccal mucosa cells were scrapped using wooden spatula and were spread over glass slides. The mean number of micronuclei was determined using Feulgen-stained slides. The number of   micronuclei per 1000 cells was calculated and compared between the two groups of smokers and non-smokers.

    Result

    The mean number of micronuclei in waterpipe smokers and non-smokers was 1.94±0.39 and 1.68±0.35, respectively. The micronuclei count in waterpipe smokers was significantly higher than non-smokers (P=0). The difference between the number of waterpipe smoking and micronuclei count was significantly different (P=0).

    Conclusion

    The mean number of micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells of waterpipe smokers was significantly higher than non-smokers. The genotoxicity effect of waterpipe was dose-dependent.

    Keywords: Assay, Buccal Mucosa, Genotoxicity test, Micronucleus, Smoking
  • Fatemeh Nili *, Mansoureh Tavakoli, Narges Izadi Mood, Hana Saffar, Soheila Sarmadi Pages 81-85
    Background & Objective

    Clear cell carcinomas (CCC) differ from other types of ovarian and endometrial carcinomas in biology, behavior and response to chemotherapy. Histopathologic diagnosis may be challenging in some situations which necessitates immunohistochemistary (IHC) assessment. In this study we investigated the diagnostic utility of Napsin-A in diagnosis of ovarian and endometrial CCCs.

    Methods

    Ovarian and endometrial CCC samples from 2013 to 2018 in 3 general and women’s hospital in Tehran were re-evaluated by 2 expert pathologists. Forty-two samples were included as case and 42 non-clear cell carcinomas (Non-CCC) of ovary and endometrium were selected as control group. Based on IHC study tumors with sum intensity and percentage score ≥2 (at least 1+ staining in more than 1% of tumor cells) were considered positive.

    Result

    The prevalence of endometrial and ovarian CCC in the case group were 15 and 27 respectively. The tumors in the control group included 22 cases of endometrioid, 2 high grade papillary serous carcinoma (HGSC) of endometrium, 6 endometrioid and 12 HGSC of ovary. Napsin-A positivity was observed in 35 (83%) of CCCs while 7 (17%) samples including 3 out of 15 endometrial and 4 out of 27 ovarian CCCs were Napsin-A negative. No positive reaction was seen in control group. The overall accuracy, specifity and sensitivity of Napsin-A for diagnosis of ovarian and endometrial CCCs were 83%, 100% and 83%, respectively. Sensitivity for ovarian and endometrial CCCs were 85% and 80%, orderly.

    Conclusion

    Napsin-A is an accurate and reliable marker for distinction of CCCs from non-CCCs in ovary and endometrium. A panel of antibodies may yield the highest diagnostic accuracy.

    Keywords: Clear Cell Carcinoma, Diagnosis, Endometrium, Ovary, Napsin-A
  • Kosar Jalalvand, Nasrin Shayanfar *, Freshteh Shahcheraghi, Elahe Amini, Masha Mohammadpour, Pegah Babaheidarian Pages 86-95
    Background & Objective

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a growing concern worldwide including Iran. The emergence of this pathogen is worrying as carbapenem is one of the 'last-line' antibiotics for treatment of infections caused by multi drug resistant gram- negative bacteria. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran.

    Methods

    In this study, all positive isolates of Enterobacteriaceae recorded in blood, urine, and other body fluids were studied during April 2017 to April 2018 in a referral hospital in Tehran. All cases of resistance to carbapenems were first tested by modified Hodge test. All cases with positive or negative test, after gene extraction, were examined genotypically based on the primers designed for the three Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), and OXA-48 genes by conventional PCR method.

    Result

    108 isolates (13.6%) were resistant to all cephalosporins as well as to imipenem and meropenem. In a genotypic study, including 45 isolates, 13 isolates were positive for OXA-48 gene, 11 isolates for OXA-48 and NDM genes, 11 isolates for OXA-48, NDM and KPC genes, 4 isolates for OXA-48 genes and KPC, 3 isolates for NDM, one isolate for KPC. On the other hand, two isolates were negative for all three genes examined.

    Conclusion

    OXA-48 gene was one of the most common genes resistant to carbapenems in Iran. According to studies, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Iran is rising dramatically, which reduces the choice of antibiotics to treat severe infections in the future.

    Keywords: Enterobacteriacea, Drug resistance, Microbial, Polymerase chain reaction, primer, DNA, gene
  • Sara Masoumi Zavaryani, Reza Mirnejad *, Vahhab Piranfar, Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam, Nikta Sajjadi, Somayyeh Saeedi Pages 96-105
    Background & Objective

    Enterococcus Species are the common cause of nosocomial infections, which are highly resistant to different antibiotics. Therefore, determination of their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and simultaneous resistance to antibiotics is important for better treatment strategies.

    Methods

    400 clinical Enterococcus isolates were collected from different hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Standard phenotypic-biochemical tests and PCR were used to identify the Enterococcus species. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and simultaneous resistance to selected antibiotics were determined by disk diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines. All data analysis was performed using Python packages Scipy and Stats models.

    Result

    According to the biochemical and PCR analyses, among 400 Enterococcus species, 72% of samples were Enterococcus faecalis, 10.75% Enterococcus faecium, and 17.25% other Enterococcus species. The results determined antimicrobial resistances of these strains against gentamicin, vancomycin, fosfomycin trometamol, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Results confirmed a significant correlation between resistance to vancomycin and resistance to teicoplanin. This correlation remains significant when including only E. faecium or E. faecalis species. We also found a negative correlation between resistance to teicoplanin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Additionally, Quinupristin/dalfopristin was the least effective antibiotic while vancomycin and teicoplanin were the most effective ones.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results and association between simultaneous resistance to some antibiotics such as vancomycin and teicoplanin, in the case of antibiotic resistance, the choice of a second antibiotic can be very important which can lead to good or bad effects.

    Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Multiple drug resistance, Correlation
  • Fatemeh Samiee Rad, Mehdi Ghaebi, Simin Zarabadipour, Arezoo Bajelan, Fatemeh Pashazade, Mehri Kalhor *, Amane Barikani Pages 106-116
    Background & Objective

    Premalignant lesions of cervix have increased dramatically in recent years. Early diagnosis and management of abnormalities have an effective role in preventing the invasion of the disease and also in timely treatment. This study aimed to compare diagnostic methods in the detection of squamous cell abnormalities with abnormal Pap smear test.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was performed on 1000 women with abnormal Pap smears in 2007-2018. Sampling was performed with simple method. All samples were subjected to an immediate assessment of colposcopy and histopathology if suspected. The checklist included demographic information as well as symptoms, cytopathology, colposcopy and histopathology findings. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and statistical analysis (P<0.05).

    Result

    A significant relationship between histopathology and Pap smear findings was found (P=0.009), also there was a significant correlation between histopathology and colposcopy findings (P=0.001). However, there was no significant relationship between clinical symptoms and histopathology findings (p=0.8). Sensitivity , specificity , positive and  negative predictive value of Pap smear were 43%, 65.9%, 75.4%, 32.2% and of colposcopy were 74.7%, 39.5%, 75%, 39.1%, and of clinical symptoms were 72.6%, 28.1%, 71.1%, 29.7%, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Pap smear findings have the appropriate diagnostic accuracy in comparison with colposcopy and histopathology findings for screening and diagnosis of squamous intra-epithelial lesions. Also, there was higher sensitivity of colposcopy compared with Pap smear to detect cervical lesions. Therefore, it is advisable to use these methods simultaneously.

    Keywords: Pap smear, Cytology, Colposcopy, pathology, cervical cancer, Atypical Cervical Squamous Cells
  • Danial Fazilat Panah, Somaye Vakili Ahrari Roudi, Alireza Keramati, Azar Fanipakdel *, MohammadHadi Sadeghian, Fatemeh Homaei Shandiz, Soudabeh Shahidsales, SeyedAlireza Javadinia Pages 117-126
    Background & Objective

    Prediction of response to neoadjuvant treatment is an important part of treatment of patients with breast cancer. This study aimed to assess changes in serum levels of Cytokeratin 18 during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer and its association with neoadjuvant treatments.

    Methods

    This research was performed on newly diagnosed breast cancer patients referred to Omid Radiotherapy Center and radiotherapy and oncology departments of Emam Reza and Ghaem hospitals, in Mashhad, Iran. Serum levels of M30 and M65 fragments of Cytokeratin 18 were measured before and 24 hours after the first course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Changes in serum levels of Cytokeratin 18 and its fragments and their correlation with pathologic response were analyzed.

    Result

    Pre- and post-chemotherapy levels of M30 were respectively 223.9±18.94 and 250.7±23.92 U/L (P=0.24). For M65, these levels were respectively 301.5±313.9 and 330.2±352.2 U/L (P=0.1). Changes in M30 level during chemotherapy in patients with and without pathologic complete response were -20±92.69 and 43.1±106.5, respectively (P=0.1). For M65, these changes were respectively -247±55 and 76±240 (P=0.1). Baseline levels of M30 and M65 had no relation with menopausal status, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, Ki67 expression, molecular subtype, and stage.

    Conclusion

    Our findings showed statistically insignificant changes in the level of Caspase-cleaved- (M30) and uncleaved- (M65) cytokeratin 18 fragments (apoptotic and necrotic indicators, respectively) during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. There was no notable relationship between tumor-related factors and either baseline levels or serum changes of CK18 fragments. Also, there was no correlation between M30/M65 level and pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Keywords: Breast carcinoma, Neoadjuvant Therapy, Cytokeratin-18, M30 cytokeratin-18 peptide, M65 cytokeratin-18 peptide
  • Fatemeh Amraei, Negar Narimisa, Behroz Sadeghi, Vahid Lohrasbi, Faramarz Masjedian Jazi * Pages 127-133
    Background & Objective

    Persister cells are defined as a subpopulation of bacteria that are capable of reducing their metabolism and switching to dormancy in stress conditions. Persister cells formation has been attributed to numerous mechanisms, including stringent response and Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) systems. This study aimed to investigate the hypothetical role of TA systems in persister cells formation of Brucella strains by evaluating toxins of type II TA systems (RelE, Fic, Brn T, cogT) expression.

    Methods

    Brucella strains treated with a lethal dose of gentamicin and ampicillin and to determine the number of surviving cells, bacterial colonies were counted at different time intervals. The role of TA systems in persister cell formation was then determined by toxin expression levels using qRT- PCR method.

    Result

    Our results showed the viability of persister cells after 7 h. The results of relative qRT- PCR showed higher levels of toxin gene expression due to stress conditions, suggesting the possible role of TA systems in persister cells formation and antibiotics tolerance.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that considering the importance of persistence and the tolerance to antibiotics, further studies on persister cells formation and related genes such as the TA system genes in Brucella strains might help us to identify the precise mechanisms leading to persister cells formation.

    Keywords: Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Persister cell, TA systems, Real-time PCR
  • Abbas Karimi, Samira Derakhshan, Monir Moradzadeh Khiavi, Farzaneh Mosavat, Faeze Mirjalili * Pages 134-143

    Desmoplastic fibroma (DF) is a benign, locally aggressive neoplasm that rarely occurs in the facial skeleton. It usually presents during the first three decades of life. Due to its aggressiveness and high recurrence rate, early diagnosis is imperative, and complete surgical removal of the lesion is the treatment of choice. Herein, we present three cases of DF namely a 2 year-old girl with a mandibular DF, a 9 year-old boy with a maxillary lesion and a 1.5-year old boy with a mandibular DF. Complete clinicopathological information, treatment plan and long-term follow-up of patients are discussed. Histopathologic features of 3 cases revealed non-capsulated spindle cell tumor with fascicular or swirling patterns in incisional biopsy. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to make a definitive diagnosis. Strongly positive nuclear immunoreactivity for β-catenin confirmed the diagnosis of desmoplastic fibroma in 3 cases. Segmental mandibulectomy, partial maxillectomy and hemimandibulectomy were done for the cases. There was no recurrence in our reported cases after 8 and 11 months and 3 years follow up, respectively. It is noteworthy that despite the aggressive nature of DF, young patients often respond well to wide resection treatment.

    Keywords: Benign, Desmoplastic, Fibroma, Jaw
  • Nazanin Mahdavi, Maedeh Ghorbanpour * Pages 144-150

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is considered as a rare malignant salivary gland neoplasm with good prognosis, low recurrence rate and rare metastasis. Here we present a case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma in a 42-year-old female with a swelling of 3-year duration in her palate. Histopathologic evaluation of the lesion demonstrated a well-circumscribed, biphasic salivary gland tumor composed of double-layered ductal/glandular structures, composed of small luminal eosinophilic cells and abluminal larger clear myoepithelial cells, and luminal cells were positive for pan-cytokeratin, while the abluminal cells exhibited strong immunoreactivity for p63. Ki-67 proliferative index was 1% in abluminal cells. In this article, histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of EMC and its mimics are discussed and the previously reported cases of EMC in the literature are summarized.

    Keywords: Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, salivary gland tumor, Clear cell tumors, Head, Neck, oral mucosa
  • Sucheta Gandhe *, Rahul Patil, Raj Nagarkar Pages 151-153
    Sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinomas are extremely rare, high grade, aggressive variant of penile cancers. Sarcomatoid carcinoma are biphasic neoplasms with a combination of both sarcomatoid components and carcinomatous elements. These neoplasms are very rare in the urogenital system. We report a 53-year-old male presented with an ulcerated lesion on the glans penis. The rarity of this case reiterates the importance of thorough morphological and histological examination along with immunohistochemistry in diagnosing, staging, treatment and follow up of patients.
    Keywords: Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, Penis, Immunohistochemistry, Case Report