فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • SeyyedSalman Alavi, Maryam Ghanizadeh, Malihe Farahani*, Fereshteh Jannatifard, Sudeh Esmaili Alamuti, MohammadReza Mohammadi Pages 96-104
    Objective

    Despite the awareness of smartphone addiction, low findings and lack of validated standards have led to insufficient information in this area. This study aimed to examine the relationship between mobile phone dependency and mental disorders in students in Iran, while controlling for the impact of gender, age, educational levels, and marital status.

    Method

    In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 1400 university students (445 males and 955 females) aged 18-35 years were selected from 3 cities of Tehran, Isfahan and Karaj. The participants filled out a set of questionnaires: Cell Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ), Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory, and participated in interviews. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression method via SPSS-22 software.

    Results

    In terms of controlling the demographic variables, the results revealed that bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, somatization, dependent personality disorder, and compulsive personality disorder could increase the possibility of mobile phone addiction by 4.2, 4.2, 1.2, 2.8, 3.1, and 3.2 folds, respectively (P < 0.05). However, other disorders and demographic characteristics did not have any significant effects on the equation.

    Conclusion

    The results can help better understand the relationship between psychological syndromes and smartphone addiction and can also facilitate further studies in this field. In addition, those students with smartphone addiction should be provided with different preventative strategies. Moreover, a growing range of stimulating applications may trigger the risk of addiction.

    Keywords: Mental Disorders, Smart Mobile Phone Addiction, Student
  • Hajar Sadeghi, Yazdan Shabani*, Abdolghader Pakniyat, Kiandokht Karimian, Mehdi Harorani, Yazdan Naderi Rajeh Pages 105-111
    Objective

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common problems in adolescents. Risky behaviors in patients with ADHD are due to impaired impulse control resulting from problems with inhibition of proponent responses, controlling interference, and stopping ongoing responses after feedback on errors. The present study investigated the relationship between ADHD and risky driving behavior and the likelihood of car accident in Arak, Iran, in 2015-16.

    Method

    This case-control study was conducted in the Emergency Department of Vali-Asr hospital in Arak (Iran) on drivers who met the inclusion criteria. The data gathering tools included the Demographic Questionnaire, Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), and Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20 software.

    Results

    The mean of ADHD (±SD) was higher among cases (81.64 [26.78]) than in controls (64 [24.28], P = 0.000). The mean of risky driving behaviors (±SD) was higher among cases (66.41[26.78]) than in controls (36.79 [25.42]). There was a significant relationship between ADHD, risky behavior, lapse errors, slips, deliberate ‎violation, and unintentional violation and car accident (P = 0.000).

    Conclusion

    This study showed that ADHD increases the risk of road crashes and motor vehicle injuries. These drivers tend to drive at unauthorized speed, have less control over the vehicle, drive more carelessly, and are more likely to have an accident.

    Keywords: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Car Accident, Risky Behavior
  • Yasaman Shiasy*, Shima Shakiba, Farhad Taremian, SeyedMajid Akhavan Hejazi, Alireza Abasi Pages 112-125
    Objective

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of ABM (attention bias modification) with and without tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) on attention bias, pain intensity, and disability due to pain and pain-related psychological consequences, such as depression, anxiety, and stress.

    Method

    Using convenience sampling, 60 individuals who met the criteria for chronic low back pain (LBP) were selected and randomly assigned in to 2 experimental groups and 2 control and sham-tDCS groups. The experimental ABM group received 5 sessions of the dot-probe task, while the second experimental group received 5 sessions of dot-probe task combined with tDCS.

    Results

    The findings indicated that ABM and ABM+tDCS could reduce attention bias and pain-related psychological consequences significantly, compared to the control and sham groups. Also, attention bias and pain outcomes (depression, anxiety, disability due to pain and pain intensity) remained in ABM+tDCS group than in ABM group in a 1-month follow-up.

    Conclusion

    It was found that tDCS + ABM had no additional effects at the end of intervention, but led to more long-lasting effects in 1-month follow-up.

    Keywords: Attention Bias Modification, Chronic Low Back Pain, Randomized Control Trial, Transcranial Direct CurrentStimulation
  • Mahdi Khoshgoo, Omid Eslami, Mojtaba Khadem AlHosseini, Farzad Shidfar* Pages 126-133
    Objective

    There is growing evidence suggesting that household food insecurity (HFI) is associated with adverse outcomes on mental health; however, limited evidence exists for pregnant women. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between HFI and depressive symptoms among a sample of pregnant women.

    Method

    This cross sectional study was performed on 394 pregnant women referring to the health centers located in Qom, Iran, from October 2017 to March 2019. HFI was evaluated using an 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. The Beck Depression Inventory-II questionnaire was applied to determine the severity of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with elevated depressive symptoms in the study population.

    Results

    The mean (± standard deviation) age of the study population was 28.59 ± 7.28 years. Almost 48% of participants were food insecure, and 37% experienced elevated levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was significantly higher in food-insecure (P < 0.001) and unemployed (P = 0.02) women, while it was significantly lower in women with higher education levels (P < 0.001). In the adjusted model, it was revealed that HFI was significantly associated with the higher likelihood of having elevated depressive symptoms (OR = 3.31, 95% CI = 2.07, 5.29), while the higher level of education was negatively associated with the levels of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.20, 0.79).

    Conclusion

    HFI was positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in a sample of pregnant women. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. Meanwhile, routine screening of HFI for all pregnant women in the community health centers is recommended.

    Keywords: Depression, Food Insecurity, Pregnancy, Women, Socioeconomic Factors
  • Naemeh Honarvar, Mahsa Taghavi* Pages 134-142
    Objective

    Religious coping is known as one of the successful manners to cure depressed infertile women; however, research findings show that demographic factors (e.g., education level) have played an important role on the relationship between depression and religious coping scores. The goal of this study is to measure the influence of age, job status, and education level on both scores within Iranian infertile women.

    Method

    In this cross sectional study, 1000 women (mean age, 35.96; range, 26-45), who are recruited from different hospitals of Shiraz (Iran), are selected via multistage cluster sampling method. The reliability and validity of the translated versions of the questionnaires have been confirmed. The correlation coefficient (Spearman method), adjusted linear regression coefficient, and ordinal regression coefficient of demographic features with the depression scores/levels (minimal, mild, moderate, and severe) and religious coping scores are determined.

    Results

    A significant negative correlation is found between depression and religious compatibility scores in 1000 infertile women (ρ = -0.318, P = 0.000). In addition, the results have implied the existence of a significant correlation and linear relationship between religious coping and age and job status (P < 0.05). Furthermore, both correlation and ordinal regression of depression intensity with both job status and education level are found to be statistically meaningful (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The negative correlation between religious coping and depression scores has implied the positive role of religious coping in protecting infertile women from depression, especially among employed women. Nevertheless, the correlation of religious coping with education level is not strong enough due to the nonuniform distribution of variables through their range.

    Keywords: Correlation, Depression Level, Demographic Features, Infertility, Religious Coping
  • Zahra Shahrivar, Mehdi Tehrani Doost*, Anahita Khorrami Banaraki, Azar Mohammadzadeh Pages 143-149
    Objective

    Moving Shapes paradigm is a test that evaluates intentionality as a theory of mind (ToM) component. This study aimed to assess the normative data and reliability of this test in a community sample of 9-11-year-old children.

    Method

    A total of 398 children aged between 9 and 11 years were recruited from mainstream elementary schools through a random cluster sampling. All participants were evaluated using the Moving Shapes paradigm. To evaluate test-retest reliability, the test was administered again after 2-4 weeks

    Results

    The intentionality mean score was 29.70 (+5.88) out of 60. There was no significant difference between girls and boys in test scores. Age was not significantly related to the paradigm variables scores. Ten percent of the participants achieved the scores below 22, and 10% above 37. Cronbach’s Alfa was 0.40 for the intentionality score. The test-retest reliability was fair to good (0.43 - 0.79) for different groups of animations. The inter-rater agreement was 80%.

    Conclusion

    The study found that the Moving shapes paradigm is a reliable instrument to evaluate intentionality in normal school-aged children.

    Keywords: Children, Moving Shapes Paradigm, Norm, Reliability
  • Mahnaz Rakhshan*, Fatemeh Mirshekari, Fereshteh Dehghanrad Pages 150-158
    Objective

    Illness perception and self-care behaviors can result in higher levels of health behavior among hemodialysis patients. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and self-care behaviors among hemodialysis patients who referred to the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2017.

    Method

    In this descriptive cross sectional study, 216 hemodialysis patients who referred to the hemodialysis wards of the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were selected via convenience sampling. The study data were collected using a demographic information form, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (9 items), and a 15-item Self-care Behavior of Hemodialysis Patients Questionnaire. Then, the data were analyzed using independent t test and one-way ANOVA. Also, significance level was set at P < 0.05.

    Results

    The mean age of the study participants was 30.15+6.65 years. Also, most of the participants were female (n = 125, 58%). The results revealed a significant relationship between illness perception and self-care behaviors among hemodialysis patients. A significant relationship was observed between the following items: daily weight control and perception of consequences (r = 0.200, p = 0.001), between contacting the physician at the time of shortness of breath and consequences (r = 0.209, p = 0.001), between weight control according to the physician’s order and consequences (r = 0.763, p = 0.001), and between adherence to fluids restriction and identity(r = 0.149, p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Considering the relationship between illness perception and self-care, beliefs as illness perception have to be incorporated into self-care programs designed for hemodialysis patients so as to promote their self-care behaviors. These findings can be used for planning and implementing care for hemodialysis patients.

    Keywords: Hemodialysis Patients, Illness Perception, Self-Care Behaviors
  • Davoud Adham, Malek Abazari* Pages 159-168
    Objective

    Physical activity (PA), insomnia, depression, and worry were the key factors affecting pregnant women’s quality of life (QoL). The present study aimed to determine quality of life and its relationship with physical activity, insomnia, depression, and worry in pregnant women.

    Method

    This was an observational cross sectional study, conducted among 256 healthy pregnant women using 5 questionnaires: WHOQOL-brief (WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire, brief version, ISI (Insomnia Severity Index), PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), ZSRDS (Zung Self-Rating depression Scale), and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ).

    Results

    There was a significant relationship between general QoL, insomnia, and worry with educational background, number of children, and occupation (P < 0.05). Depression had a significant relationship with occupation (P < 0.05). PA did not have a significant relationship with demographic information. However, insomnia had a significantly negative relationship with general QoL, general health, and psychological health (P < 0.05). The worry variable had also a significant negative relationship with general QoL, general health, and physiological health (P < 0.05). Depression had a significant negative relationship with general health, physical health, and psychological health (P < 0.05). There was no significant relationship between physical activities in pregnancy with QoL, depression, worry, and insomnia.

    Conclusion

    Women need to be informed about the necessity of controlling and reducing insomnia, worry, and depression to have a higher QoL. PA declined during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. However, PA in pregnancy can positively impact general QoL.

    Keywords: Depression, Insomnia, Pregnant Women, Physical Activity, Quality of life, Worry
  • Aliashraf Mozafari, Ali Sahebi, Amir Adibi, Mohammad Saatchi, Kourosh Sayehmiri* Pages 169-171
    Introduction

    Suicidal behavior is a worrying issue in children and is a very important indicator of emotional distress in children. Suicide is uncommon in children before puberty.

    Case Report:

     Here, a case of a 7-year-old girl who committed suicide by drug poisoning was reported. The child’s behavior was assessed using a child behavior checklist (CBCL), in which aggressive behavioral problem was the most important. Her mother had a history of suicide attempts, generalized anxiety, and major depressive disorder over the past year, and her father was a drug abuser.

    Conclusion

    Mental disorders in parents and tensions in the family may be associated with behavioral-emotional difficulties in children and it can lead to dangerous behaviors such as suicide attempts. It is most important to describe the factors that lead to suicide attempt among children and intervention that my help these children.

    Keywords: Case Report, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Rug Poisoning, Suicide Attempt
  • Mehrnoosh Inanlou*, Bahman Bahmani, Ali Frhoudian, Forough Rafiee Pages 172-181
    Objective

    Despite the fact that a practical definition of addiction recovery is necessary to conduct an appropriate intervention and research, this concept is still vague and there is no consensus over its meaning and how to measure it. Thus, this study aimed to define and clarify this concept based on the available literature.

    Method

    The theoretical part of Schwartz_Barcott and Kim’s Hybrid Model of concept analysis was used to analyze the concept of “Addiction Recovery.” To find the relevant literature, an electronic search on valid databases was conducted using keywords related to the concept of addiction recovery. Medlib, IranMedex, Magiran, SID, Irandoc, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Pro Quest, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid, and Wiley databases were searched up to December 2018 without a time limitation using the following keywords: “Substance use disorders”, “Drug use”, “Recovery”, “Opioids”, “Addiction treatment”, “Dependency”, “Rehabilitation”, Remission”, “Concept analysis”, “Restore”, “Definition”, “Meaning”, and “Conceptualization”. The Conventional content analysis was used on selected research articles.

    Results

    From a total of 9520 articles, 39 were reviewed and analyzed. Five attributes were selected, including the process of change, being holistic, being client-centric, learning healthy coping, and being multistage. Antecedents are organized into 2 interacting categories: personal and social resources. Personal resources refer to the person, his/her addiction, and the treatment characteristics, while social resources refer to the family, the community, and the context resources. Addiction recovery leads to sustained abstinence, improved physical and psychological health, improved quality of life and satisfaction, meaningful living, and citizenship.

    Conclusion

    These findings may form a basis for the theories, scales, and criteria for the assessment of addiction recovery and will be useful in clinical practices and research. Also, these findings could help health care professionals to understand the concept of addiction recovery, which is important in improving the recovering person in all aspects of rehabilitation. We will report the implementation and analytical phase of this research project, namely, “the addiction recovery concept analysis” in Iran.

    Keywords: Concept Analysis, Definition, Recovery, Recovered, Substance Use Disorders