فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue: 2, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/11/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Hamed Askari Nejad * Pages 86-95
    The purpose of this study was to examine the evaluating the potential of seed priming techniques in improving germination and early seedling growth of Aeluropus Macrostachys under salinity stress condition. This study was performed at the Islamic Azad University in Baft city which is located in southeast of kerman province (2250 meters above the sea level, 92º 17 N latitude and 56º 36 E longitude, and 220 mm annual rainfall). This experiment was conducted a completely randomized design. The factors examined include four levels of seed priming, control (without priming) with NaCl and CaCl2 KCl and five salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 Desysimenz/m), respectively.In this experiment traits such as germination percentage, speed of germination, radicle length and shoot length were measured. Data were analyzed by using General Linear Models procedure of SAS software. In addition, Means were compared using Duncan’s multiple  range test. Results of this study showed that different seed priming treatments improved shoot and radicle length, germination percentage and speed of germination of Aeluropus Macrostachys specie.
    Keywords: Aeluropus Macrostachys, Seed priming, germination, Salinity stress
  • Maziar Haidari *, Nabiollah Yarali, Naghi Shabanian Pages 96-103
    For maintaining of Zagros forests role in wild life, water and soil conservation, the suitable solutions and methods for assessing the existing conditions and planning for management of this forests should be given. To detection of suitable sampling method to study tree Diameter at Breath Height in the northern Zagros forest, Blake forest, in Baneeh region, Kurdistan province, and west of Iran was selected. 40 square sample plots one hectare (100×100 m) were selected and perfect inventoried. In every sample plot the position of tree, kind of species and Diameter at Breath Height (DBH) were recorded. In order to study of tree density (tree/ha) different sampling methods (rectangular sample with 20×50 m and 10×50, random sampling method with 40, 50 and 60 circle sample plots which everyone was 1000 m2) compered the prefect inventory. To determination of suitable sampling for study of tree Diameter at Breath Height (DBH) used the %E2 ×T indexes. To compere the Diameter at Breath Height (DBH) in the every sampling methods and perfect inventory used the t-test analysis. Data analyzing was done by SPSS16 software’s. Results showed that the rectangular sample with 20×50 m sample methods was the best methods and have maximum of accuracy. Overall results showed that the rectangular sample with 20×50 m sampling methods was (have minimum of time and %E2×T criteria) the suitable methods to study of density (tree/ha). Authors suggested to study of tree density (tree/ha) in the northern zagros forest used the rectangular sample with 20×50 m sampling methods.
    Keywords: kurdestan province, sample methods, Tree density northern zagros forest
  • Kheyrollah Khosravi Katuli *, Bagher Mojazi Amiri, Saeed Yelghi Pages 104-111
    Artificial fertilizers and mainly organophosphate herbicide are used by farmers to enhance their crop and control pests. In order to investigate the effects of Pretilachlore, fingerlings of caspian roach were exposed to a range of concentrations of toxin close to those of estuary for 96 h. Due to movement of these fingerlings in a gradient of salinity from freshwater to brackishwater some physiological parameters were also measured and compared in these environments. Cortisol levels were significantly increased in all groups exposed to Pretilachlore, and after transferring to brackishwater the amount of cortisol was increased in control group as well. K+ and Cl2- were increased in experimental groups, Na+ changes were irregular but more changes were observed in the high concentrations of toxin. The results indicate that, fingerlings exposed to organophosphate herbicides in freshwater, may encounter some problems in physiological adaptation for entering the sea which in turn would have a negative impact on returning adults and brooders.
    Keywords: Caspian roach, Biochemical parameters, Pretilachlore
  • Ramadan Masood AlMabruk * Pages 112-133

    Livestock have made major contribution to human societies by providing food, shelter, fuel, and services.  Sheep and goat are economically important livestock play an important socioeconomic role for small and large farmers in Libya.  Small ruminant animal meat is popular for Libyan customers, and demand is particularly high during religious and cultural festivals.  Small ruminants is valued for their meat, milk and manure, in addition, wool, hair and skin are becoming more attractive by modern and traditional industry.  They are popular among various communities, however, in societies.  Small ruminant animals play a significant role in the welfare of rural families since they provide both meat and milk as sources of energy and protein for human consumption.  Small stock requires relatively little capital to acquire and to feed compared to large stock.  Sheep and goat play an important role in most small-scale farming systems else where in the world.

    Keywords: Sheep, Goat, Libya, Nutrition
  • Vahed Kiyani *, MohammadHasan Hosynzadeh, Mohammad Ebrahimpour Pages 134-142

    All aquatic organisms are directly or indirectly affected by the physical characteristics of their environment, especially the chemical composition of the water. The high concentration levels, damage tissues and interfere with the normal growth and proliferation. The aim of this research was to Investigation acute toxicity of ZnSO4 and CuCl2 to Gambusia holbrooki by static bioassays at different water hardness. The acute toxicity of selected heavy metals to fish was determined in soft, hard and very hard water, respectively (25, 125 and 350 mg/L as CaCO3). Results showed that water hardness had a significant effect in terms of Cu and Zn toxicity in fish. The toxicity of Cu and Zn increased with decreasing water hardness. Results indicated that an increase in water hardness (from 25 to 350 mg/L as a CaCO3) substantially reduced the toxicity of Cu (up to 38-fold) and Zn (up to 264-fold) to fish at 96 hours exposure. The 96 hours LC50 values for fish were higher in the hard and very hard water compared to the soft water. Water hardness had a much smaller effect on the acute toxicity of Cu than the Zn in fish. Cu toxicity in all water types was higher than Zn toxicity for fish. In polluted areas, it is recommended to expand the aquaculture activities in the water resources that their hardness is higher than the average water hardness in the environment. The toxicity effect of other heavy metals on more diverse aquatic animals should be investigated in the future research.

    Keywords: Acute toxicity, heavy metals, Static bioassay, Water hardness
  • Ezatollah Farshadfar *, MohammadMehdi Poursiahbidi, SeyedMehdi Safavi Pages 143-158

    One of the possible ways to ensure future food needs of an increasing world population involves the better water use through the development of crop varieties which need less water and are more tolerant to drought. In order to study the response of twenty landraces of bread wheat to drought stress, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications under two irrigated and water stres conditions during 2010-2011 cropping season. Sixteen  drought tolerance indices including stress tolerance index (STI), stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), harmonic mean (HM), geometric mean productivity (GMP), mean productivity (MP), yield index (YI), yield stability index (YSI), sensitive drought index (SDI), drought resistance index (DI), abiotic tolerance index (ATI), relative decrease in yield index (RDY), stress non-stress production index (SNPI), modified stress tolerance index (MSTI), relative drought index (RDI) and stress susceptibility percentage index (SSPI) were calculated based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated (Yp) conditions. Grain yield in stress (Ys) condition was significantly and positively correlated with STI, GMP, MP, HM, YI, DI, RDI, YSI, SNPI, K1STI and K2STI. Grain yield in non-stress (Yp) condition was significantly and positively correlated with STI, MP, GMP, HM, YI, DI, ATI, K1STI, K2STI and SNPI. Grain yield in stress and non-stress conditions was significantly and negatively correlated with SSI. Results of this study showed that the indices K1STI, K2STI, SSPI, RDI, ATI, SNPI, and DI can be used as the most suitable indicators for screening drought tolerant cultivars. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups i.e., tolerant, susceptible and semi-tolerant or semi-sensitive to drought conditions. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for improvement of drought tolerant cultivars.

    Keywords: Land races of bread wheat, Drought tolerant indices, Principal Component Analysis
  • Atul T. Tayde, Vinit Gupta * Pages 159-160
    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has continued to develop into a powerful clinical tool to visualize venous structures and iron in the brain and to study diverse pathologic conditions. It is a new art which evaluates and exploits the properties of blood, iron and other tissues. It is a magnitude or filtered phase images or combination of both, obtained with high-resolution 3D fully velocity compensated gradient echo sequence, The paramagnetic substance like deoxyhaemoglobin, product of blood degradation, ferritin, a non-heme iron are known causes of magnetic susceptibility in the tissues. SWI offers a unique contrast, different from spin attenuation, T1, T2, and T2. Edema is identical on SWI as on FLAIR because of short TR and long TE but does not reveal CSF signal because of low flip angle.SWI is not affected by low flow velocities and very useful for detecting vascular pathologies. With the advent of parallel imaging and the greater availability of clinical 3T MR images, it is now possible to image the entire brain with SWI in roughly 4 minutes.SWI images are best at higher SNR ratio, so quality is good at 3 T machine. It can also be performed on 1.5 T machine. SWI has been found to provide additional clinically useful information that is often complementary to conventional MR imaging sequences used in the evaluation of various neurologic disorders, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), coagulopathic or other hemorrhagic disorders, vascular malformations, cerebral infarction, neoplasms, and neurodegenerative disorders associated with intracranial calcification or iron deposition. As neuroradiologists become more aware of these various applications and as advances in software technology permit easier acquisition and better interpretation. Although SWI interpretation will require some experience, increasing its clinical use will, no doubt, reveal new applications. To date, the strongest indications for SWI are in neurovascular and neurodegenerative disease applications. On the basis of additional information provided by SWI, we can define a standard neuroprotocol, including conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, PWI, and SWI. The major areas are the following: aging, atherosclerosis,MS,occult vascular disease, stroke, trauma, and tumors.With the new advent we can not only diagnose the pathology but also can monitor the progression of the neurological disease process.
    Keywords: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), neuroradiologists, filtered
  • Vahed Kiyani * Pages 161-170

    For an optimum use of natural resources in the sustainable development trend, there is a need to identify ecological resources in the shortest period of time and minimum possible cost. In this article, we aimed Management ecosystem by Assessment of plant covers changes at Taleghan Township in a twenty year period. Percentage of landscape and number of patch were among the metrics that were calculated. The patch surface showed that the greatest plant cover change belonged to agriculture class that was decreased from 15.72 percent in 1987 to 0.67 percent in 2007 and limiest land use/cover change belonged to range class that was decreased from 62.8 percent in 1987 to 46.55 percent in 2007. What was significant from an environmental point of view was that the amount of bare lands was increased more than two fold (from 20.22 percent in 1987 to 48.3 in 2007) which indicates unexpected vegetation cover degradation. In this regards the tsunami of money have impose and accelerated changes in land use; In addition many of dry farming lands have been abandoned and this cased to convert that into the poor grasslands and bare lands. Moreover, we suggest that land use planning will be implemented in the other area of Alburz so that each land use will be applied in the suitable place.

    Keywords: Plant cover, Taleghan Township, Changes detection, Management ecosystem
  • Dorna Rezaei *, MohamadHossein Irannezhad Parizi, Azizollah Jafari Kokhdan, Roghaye Zolfaghari Pages 171-178

    Dena Biosphere Reserve located in Iran and is a 550 Biosphere Reserve in the worlds. This research was investigated in the two protected and non-protected areas, in a Dena Biosphere Reserve, Kohkeloye va Boyrahmad province, and central zagros forest, southwest of Iran. Inventory methods designed by systemetic-randomaiz method by use the rectangular plots that were 15×30 meters in the 100×100 m Net. In each plots information include qualities and quantities tree parameter measured. T-test was used to analysis of mean quantities tree parameter differences between protected and non-protected area. Data analyzing was done by Excel and SPSS16 software’s. Results showed that the DBH distribution in the reduced uneven- aged stand in protected area and reduced even aged in the non-protected area. Results showed that the mean of forest characteristics including DBH, height, canopy cover and, and density in the protected area are 38.5 (±5.5), 6.51 (± 0.9), 38 (±5.5) and 530 (±35) and this quantities parameters in protected area higher the non-protected area. Overall results showed that the qualities and quantities tree parameters in the non-grazed area higher the grazed area, and grazing has a negative effect on the qualities and quantities tree parameters.

    Keywords: Qualities, quantities parameters, Dena Biosphere Reserve, Protected area, Kohkeloye va Boyrahmad province, DBH distribution
  • Yousef Askari *, Elmira Kafash Saei, Sehar Delpasand, Dorna Rezaei Pages 179-185
    Spatial pattern of trees can possibly indicate stand history, population dynamics, and species competition. This research was investigated in the Chahartagh forest reserve, Ardal region, chaharmehal and Bakhtiari Province, Central Zagros forest, and southwest Iranian state. In this study 53 hectare of the study area was selected and perfect inventory.  Information includes the position and kind of tree, height and two diameters of crown were recorded. To study of spatial pattern used the quadrat sampling methods. Inventory method designed in the base of systematic-randomize methods by use the nearest individual, and inventory accrued in the five treatment and measured 5×32 (total 160) sample (measured the nearest individual). To analysis of spatial pattern used the distance method and Johnson & Zimmer and Pielou indexes. Data analyzing was done by Ecological Methodological software’s. all applied indicators showed a clumped pattern for Crataegus sp chahartagh forest reserve in Central Zagros region, and Western Iranian state of Iran.
    Keywords: Spatial pattern_Crataegus sp_Chahartagh forest reserve_Chaharmehal_Bakhtiari Province_Johnson & Zimmer index
  • Kholoud Fahed Hamak * Pages 186-196
    Aseries of piperidine derivatives was synthesis by the reaction between substituted benzaldhyde ,pentanone-3,and ammonium acetate by refluxining for 1-2 hr in ethanol and the derivatives refluxed with (4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl sulphone) yielded bispiperidine ,the structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectroscopy analysis , The reported compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities against : Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella,Escherichia coli,pseudomonas aeruginosa,Salmonilla typhi, Enterobacter.The synthesized piperidone-4 were tested to determine their ability to inhibit corrosion of mild steel in 1mol.L-1 H2SO4 and measured by polarization measurements . Which showed that these compounds  act as mixed-type inhibitors. The studies revealed that the nitrogen of Schiff base and sulfur atome ,piperidine moiety ,and the phenyl ring assist largely in corrosion control.
    Keywords: Piperidones-4, 4'-Diaminodipheylsulphone, antibacterialactivity, anticorrosion, Polarization, bispiperidine
  • Raoufa Abdel Rahman, Sara E. Gomaa *, Nader R. Abdelsalam, Hossam El Din M.F. El Wakil, Ahmed S. Khaled, Horya M. Hassan Pages 197-210

    Plant tissue culture techniques were used to study the effect of NaCl on tropane alkaloids accumulation and proline content of both Datura metel and Datura stramonium. Callus cultures were established for both Datura species. However, MS medium supplemented with 1mg/l of both BA and NAA was the best for callus production in D. metel, while MS supplemented with 3 mg/l Kin and 1 mg/l 2, 4-D was the optimal medium for callus production in D. stramonium. Five NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 mM) were used to test its effect on tropane alkaloids and proline contents in the produced callus. Total tropane alkaloids were extracted from both control and salt-treated calli and analyzed using HPLC. At 125 mM NaCl scopolamine and atropine concentrations recorded 8.5 and 11.5 folds higher than control of D. metel, while they recorded 2.5 and 3.5 fold higher than control of D. stramonium after one month of culture. Peroxidase activity was determined and results showed that D. metel recorded the highest enzyme activity at 100mM NaCl concentration, while D. stramonium callus showed the highest activity at 75mM NaCl. Proline content was increased by salinity in the rate of 0.326mM proline/25mM NaCl in D. metel, and in the rate of 0.1248 mM proline/25mM NaCl in D. stramonium. The results of this investigation showed that using plant tissue culture techniques to establish callus culture from both Datura species under NaCl stress is a powerful protocol for scopolamine and atropine accumulation improvement.

    Keywords: In vito, Salt, NaCl, Datura metel, Datura stramonium, peroxidase HPLC, Scopolamine, Atropine, Proline