فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • MohammadBagher Shamsi, Maryam Mirzaei*, Siavash Vaziri, Hamid Reza Mozaffari Page 97
  • Majid Mobasseri, Masoud Shirmohammadi, Tarlan Amiri, Nafiseh Vahed, Hossein Hosseini Fard, Morteza Ghojazadeh* Pages 98-115
    Background

    Diabetes is referred to a group of diseases characterized by high glucose levels in blood. It is caused by a deficiency in the production or function of insulin or both, which can occur because of different reasons, resulting in protein and lipid metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to systematically review the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world.

    Methods

    A systematic search of resources was conducted to investigate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world. The databases of Medline (via PubMed and Ovid), ProQuest, Scopus, and Web of Science from January 1980 to September 2019 were searched to locate English articles. The located articles were screened in multiple levels of title, abstract, and full-text and final studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved and included in the study.

    Results

    From 1202 located articles, 193 studies were included in this systematic review. The results of meta-analysis showed that the incidence of type 1 diabetes was 15 per 100,000 people and the prevalence was 9.5% (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.12) in the world, which was statistically significant.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes are increasing in the world. As a result, insulin will be difficult to access and afford, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries.

    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Incidence, Prevalence, Systematicreview, Type 1, World
  • Jaehyun Kim, Junhyoung Kim*, Areum Han Pages 116-122
    Background

    People with cancer often report high levels of negative psychological symptoms and poor perception of health due to cancer treatment and activity limitations. Prior studies have suggested that participation in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) can reduce negative psychological symptoms and improve health perception. However, a few studies have examined the contribution of LTPA to health benefits among people with cancer. Thus, we aimed to examine how a different level of LTPA engagement contributed to mental health and health perceptions among people with cancer.

    Methods

    Using the 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) data, crosssectional data of 504 respondents diagnosed with any types of 22 cancers listed in the survey questionnaire were analyzed. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test for mean differences in mental health and health perception among the three different LTPA groups (i.e., inactive, moderately active, and vigorously active groups).

    Results

    Results indicated that people with cancer who reported higher levels of LTPA scored higher on mental health and health perception than those with lower levels of LTPA (Pillai’s trace = 0.060, F (4,944) = 15.06, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    This finding suggests that individuals with cancer gained more health benefits through high engagement in LTPA. Moreover, we suggested that LTPA can be used as an important therapeutic intervention to promote health quality and wellbeing among people with cancer. Implications for practical suggestions are further discussed.

    Keywords: Oncology, Leisure activities, Mental health, Health status, Health promotion
  • Justin Cantrelle, Grace Burnett, Paul D. Loprinzi* Pages 123-128
    Background

    Previous studies suggest that acute exercise may improve memory function. Few studies, however, have investigated the differential effect of the acute exercise movement patterns on memory. Such an effect is plausible, as research demonstrates that open-skilled exercise (e.g., racquetball) may have a greater effect on memory-related neurotrophins (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factors) when compared to closed-skilled exercise (e.g. treadmill exercise). A key distinction between open- and closed-skilled exercise is that open-skilled exercises are those that require an individual to react in a dynamic way to a changing, unpredictable environment. Our aim in this study was to assess wether retrospective and prospective memory are differentially influenced from open- and closed-skilled acute exercise.

    Methods

    A within-subject design was employed. Participants (Mage = 20.6 years; 69% female) completed two visits, in a counterbalanced order. The two experimental conditions included open-skilled acute exercise (racquetball) and closed-skilled acute exercise (treadmill exercise), each lasting 30-minute at 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR). During both experimental conditions, participants completed short- and long-term assessments of retrospective and prospective memory function. Retrospective memory was evaluated across multiple word-list trials (e.g., Trials 1-6, 20-minute delay, 24-hour delay).

    Results

    No significant effect of exercise was found on prospective memory. For retrospective memory, there was a significant main effect for condition, F(1, 57) = 5.33, P = 0.02, η2 = 0.004, main effect for trial, F(4.12, 234.9) = 227.85, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.46, but no condition by trial interaction, F(4.63, 264.08) = 1.022, P = 0.40, η2 = 0.002.

    Conclusion

    Retrospective memory was greater after closed-skilled exercise (treadmill) when compared to open-skilled exercise (racquetball).

    Keywords: Cognition, Metacognition, Walking, Running
  • Khadijeh Keshavarzian, Haidar Nadrian, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl* Pages 129-134
    Background

    Considering the increasing prevalence rate of smoking among Iranian adolescents, and recent evidence on the relationship between obscenity of smoking and tendency of adolescents towards the behavior, there is a need for an appropriate measurement tool to measure the level of obscenity on cigarette smoking among adolescents. This study was conducted to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire for measuring the obscenity of cigarette smoking in adolescents.

    Methods

    This study was conducted in Tabriz, Iran, using an exploratory sequential mixed methods design. To explain the concept of obscenity and develop the questionnaire’s items, 18 students attended semi-structured individual interviews and 13 others took part in focus group discussions (FGDs) in three groups of 4-5. Extracting and summarizing the codes derived from the interviews, an item pool was developed, from which the initial draft of the scale was provided. Next, the psychometric properties of the scale were assessed using face, content, construct, and predictive validity, as well as internal consistency, and reliability in a sample of 1013 high school students.

    Results

    The 22-item Cigarette Smoking Obscenity Scale (CSOS) was developed based on the codes derived from qualitative data. Explanatory factor analysis revealed five-factor structure (Negative Attitude; Negative Consequence; Negative Valuation; Inappropriate Relationship; A gateway to addiction). In confirmatory factor analysis, the χ2 /df ratio was 3.911 for the CSOS five-factor structure. Suitable values were obtained for the goodness of fit indices (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.87, IFI=0.90, CFI=0.90, RFI=0.85, and RMSEA=0.072). The Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients for the constructs ranged between 0.77 to 0.90 and 0.80 to 0.91, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The validity and reliability of the CSOS was appropriate; therefore, it can be used in future studies as a suitable tool for measuring the obscenity of cigarette smoking in adolescents.

    Keywords: Instrumentation, Adolescentbehavior, Obscenity, Cigarettesmoking
  • Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad *, Emily Piven, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani Pages 135-141
    Background

    On the basis of the Social-Ecological Model, there are assumed to be three sources of motivation – intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community motivation – that prompt older adults to participate in physical activity (PA). These three motivational sources can lead to PA behavior adherence. Little empirical research exists that investigates which motivational source is more influential in older adults’ adherence to PA, thus creating an area of interest for this research.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional study was used to investigate the relationship between levels of PA and different sources of motivation. The convenience sample of 140 community-dwelling older adults, aged 60 and greater, living in Shiraz, Iran agreed to complete self-reported questionnaires, to measure motivation and PA. Five statistical tests were used: Independent-samples t test, oneway ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, chi-square, and ordinal regression.

    Results

    Ordinal regression indicated that gender (P=0.001, CI: 0.523-2.115) and intrapersonal motivation (P<0.001, CI: 0.038-0.126) were useful predictors of variations in the levels of PA. Compared to males, females engaged in PA with less frequency (P=0.006). Community motivation decreased with age (r = - 0.213, P<0.05). There were no significant relationships between age, educational level, health status, and PA (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    Interpersonal and community motivation were insignificant factors for PA participation, perhaps due to non-facilitating environment. Future research should be conducted to investigate the environmental issues that hinder PA participation in older adults.

    Keywords: Elderly, Facility access, Environmental barriers, Physical activity
  • Helda Tutunchi, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi Mameghani, Alireza Ostadrahimi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi* Pages 142-147
    Background

    Planning for obesity prevention is an important global health priority. Our aim in this study was to find the optimal cut-off points of waist circumference (WC), waist- to- hip ratio (WHR) and waist- to- height ratio (WHtR), as three anthropometric indices, for prediction of overweight and obesity. We also aimed to compare the predictive ability of these indices to introduce the best choice.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 subjects were investigated. Anthropometric indicators were measured using a standard protocol. We considered body mass index (BMI) as the simple and most commonly used index for measuring general obesity as the comparison indicator in the present study to assess the diagnostic value for other reported obesity indices. We also performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to define the optimal cut-off points of the anthropometric indicators and the best indices for overweight and obesity.

    Results

    The proposed optimal cut-offs for WC, WHtR, and WHR were 84 cm, 0.48 and 0.78 for women and 98 cm, 0.56 and 0.87 for men, respectively. The area under the ROC curve of WHtR (women: AUC=0.97, 95% CI: 0.96-0.99 vs. men: AUC=0.97, 95%CI: 0.96-0.99) and WC (women: AUC=0.97, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99 vs. men: AUC=0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99) were greater than WHR (women: AUC=0.79, 95% CI =0.74-0.85 vs. men: AUC=0.84, 95% CI=0.79-0.88).

    Conclusion

    This study demonstrated that the WC and WHtR indicators are stronger indicators compared to the others. However, further studies using desirable and also local cutoffs against more accurate techniques for body fat measurement such as computerized tumor (CT) scans and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are required.

    Keywords: Anthropometric indices, Iranian adults, Obesity, Receiver operatingcharacteristics
  • Yalda Hematyar, Tahereh Pirzadeh, Seyyed Reza Moaddab, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, MohammadYousef Memar, Hossein Samadi Kafil* Pages 148-151
    Background

    Clostridium difficile is known as a prevalent pathogen leading to infections ranging from mild diarrhea to severe disease and death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of C. difficile from inpatients with nosocomial diarrhea hospitalized in different wards in the northwest region of Iran.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 485 diarrheal stool samples were collected from 384 patients referred from different wards of Imam Reza, Sina and Pediatric hospitals, Tabriz and transferred to the laboratory from 25 March 2015 till 1 March 2018. Immuno-chromatographic assay for detection of toxins A and B of C. difficile was used for identification.

    Results

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 24 (4.7%) out of 485 samples. Fifteen patients (62.5%) were males and 9 were females (37.5%). Twelve positive patients were from the gastrointestinal ward (50%), 5 patients (20.8%) from surgery ward, 3 patients from infectious disease ward (12.5%), 3 patients from rheumatology ward (12.5%) and 1 patient (4.1%) were collected from neurology ward. 95.3% of diarrhea samples had no signs from toxin A and B.

    Conclusion

    These results indicate most of infected patients were from the gastrointestinal and surgery wards which show a different pattern of infection compared to previous studies. The neurology department had the lowest rate of infection. C. difficile is a health threat after antibiotic consumption and for health promotion, developing strategies for less antibiotic consumption and preventing these emerging infections is critical. The low rate of this infection shows improvement in knowledge and effect of stewardships in physicians.

    Keywords: Clostridium difficile_Incidence_Immunochromatographic test_Toxin A_Toxin B protein_Diarrhea
  • Elnaz Daneshzad_Maedeh Moradi_Mohammad R Maracy_Neil R. Brett_Nick Bellissimo_Leila Azadbakht* Pages 152-161
    Background

    Studies are needed to further understand how different plant-based dietary patterns of mothers relate to infant growth. Thus, we investigated the association between maternal plant-based diets and infant growth in breastfed infants during the first 4 months of life.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study included 290 Iranian mothers and infants. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a 168-question validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Three plant-based diet indices (PDIs) were then created to evaluate dietary intakes. Eighteen food groups were classified in three main categories by scoring

    method

    whole plant diet, healthy plant diet, and animal and unhealthy plant diet.

    Results

    Participants in the top tertile of unhealthy PDI (uPDI) had a lower intake of potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate and vitamin C, B1, B2, and B3. The upper tertile of uPDI was associated with stunting at 4-month in infants (uPDI: odds ratio [OR] = 3.27, 95% CI= 1.32, 8.10). There were no significant associations between plant-based diet scores and anthropometric indices, including weight, weight status and head circumference (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, higher adherence to uPDI may be associated with stunting among Iranian infants. Other PDIs were not associated with anthropometric measures. Future studies are needed to further understand the association between plant-based diets and infant growth.

    Keywords: Plant-based diet, Breastfeeding, Growth, Bodyweight, Body height, Infant
  • Corey H. Basch*, Jan Mohlman, Charles E. Basch Pages 162-165
    Background

    Violence or violent imagery, defined as any image that conveys an imminent physical or existential threat to person(s), property, or society, with or without weaponry, is often featured in advertising. However, the effects of exposure (sporadic or chronic) to such imagery are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and types of violence portrayed in advertising on public buses in New York City (NYC).

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, from April to July 2019, researchers catalogued and coded the print advertising images present on the passenger entry side of all Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) bus lines in Manhattan to determine whether images of violence or violent acts were present. Unlike images of alcohol and tobacco products (banned from MTA property in 2017 and 1992, respectively), there are no similar restrictions on violence or violent imagery.

    Results

    A total of 23 out of 136 (17%) observed advertisements included images of violence and/or actual or imminent violent acts. One hundred percent of images involving violence were embedded in advertisements for mass media/entertainment purposes often featuring wellknown and favorably regarded actors and entertainment personalities or companies.

    Conclusion

    People of all ages and backgrounds are passively exposed to bus advertisements in a variety of settings. This study contributes to the literature regarding the extent to which the public is passively exposed to violent advertising. Additional study is required to further understand the link between violent imagery and attitudes toward/tolerance of violence.

    Keywords: Advertising, Violence, NewYork City, Aggression, Massmedia