فهرست مطالب

  • سال هفتم شماره 4 (زمستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • مریم خدارحمی*، محبوبه خسروی، صابر عبدالملکی صفحات 1-23
    هدف

    هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی مولفه های کلیدی تدریس نوآورانه در میان اساتید حوزه آموزش عالی است. روش پژوهش حاضر کیفی از نوع گرندد تیوری بود.

    روش

    روش نمونه گیری هدفمند بود که در آن اساتیدی که شرایط نمونه موردنظر را داشتند با استفاده از مصاحبه نیمه ساختارمند و اکتشافی مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفتند و با رسیدن به اشباع نظری یافته ها تعداد نمونه های پژوهش به هفت نفر رسید. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده های حاصل از مصاحبه از روش های سه مرحله ای کدگذاری (باز، محوری و انتخابی) استراس و کوربین (1992) استفاده شد.

    یافته ها

    نتایج تحلیل داده ها نشان داد مولفه های تدریس نوآورانه عبارتند از: پیوند دانش و تجربه، یادگیرنده بودن، جهان بینی، توانایی آفرینندگی، طرح مسیله، تعامل هوشمندانه، منش حرفه ای و یادگیری معنی دار. همچنین یافته ها بیانگر این بود که تدریس نوآورانه لزوما توام با نوآوری، ابداع و انجام کاری غیرمتعارف نیست و توانایی آفرینندگی که ناشی از بعد خلاقیت تدریس نوآورانه است، تنها یکی از ویژگی های استاد نوآور و تدریس نوآورانه است نه همه آن؛ و مهم ترین مولفه در تدریس نوآورانه که سایر مولفه ها حول محور آن می چرخند پیوند میان دانش و تجربه در عمل است.

    کلیدواژگان: نوآوری، تدریس نوآورانه، آموزش عالی، اساتید
  • رشید احمدرش*، اسماعیل مصطفی زاده صفحات 24-48
    هدف اصلی این پژوهش تحلیل محتوای کتاب های درسی مطالعات اجتماعی دوره اول متوسطه (پایه های هفتم ،هشتم ونهم) براساس مولفه های آموزش چند فرهنگی به منظور شناسایی میزان توجه به این مولفه هاست . در این پژوهش از روش توصیفی وتحلیل محتوا استفاده شده است.روش مورد استفاده برای توصیف داده ها فراوانی،درصدفراوانی،جداول وبرای تحلیل محتوای پژوهش، از آزمون مجذور خی تک متغیری استفاده شده و واحدتحلیل نیز صفحات(متن،تصاویر وفعالیت ها) کتاب می باشد.جامعه آماری شامل سه جلد کتاب تالیف سال 1395 با عنوان مطالعات اجتماعی دوره اول متوسطه بود ودر مجموع489 صفحه ازکتاب مطالعات اجتماعی دوره اول متوسطه راشامل می شدند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها نشان می دهد که تفاوت کتاب های درسی مطالعات اجتماعی پایه هفتم، هشتم و نهم در میزان توجه به مولفه-های آموزش چند فرهنگی معنی دار می باشد. بی توجهی به تعدادی از مولفه ها در محتوای کتابها دیده می شود که نیازمند توجه در چاپ های بعدی می باشند. بر اساس یافته هایی به دست آمده در این پژوهش از میان ده مولفه آموزش چند فرهنگی بیشترین توجه به مولفه های شماره 1- انعکاس وپذیرش تنوع قومی، نژادی، محیطی، دینی و مذهبی در برنامه های درسی4- حمایت از حفظ و انتقال میراث فرهنگی وقومی 6 - تحکیم همبستگی وانسجام اجتماعی 8- آگاه سازی کودک از وجود سایر فرهنگها، جوامع و شیوه های زندگی 9- افزایش مهارتها تعاملی (تحمل وبردباری افراد،تساهل ،همدلی ،اعتماد و...)در بین اقوام ونژادها شده است اما به پنج مولفه ی دیگر کمترین توجه مبذول شدهاست.
    کلیدواژگان: مطالعات اجتماعی، دوره اول متوسطه، مولفه های آموزش چندفرهنگی، تحلیل محتوا
  • محمدآزاد جلالی زاده*، علی دلاور، نورعلی فرخی، محمد عسگری صفحات 49-69
    هدف اصلی این پژوهش مقایسه روش آنگوف مبتنی بر IRT و روش بوکمارک در تعیین استاندارد چیرگی آزمون زبان MSRT بود. بدین منظور، یکی از نمونه سوالات آزمون MSRT (آزمون مورخه شهریور 1397) به طور تصادفی انتخاب شد و پاسخ های داده شده به سوالات توسط 596 آزمودنی از وزارت علوم اخذ شد. آزمون MSRT دارای 100 سوال بوده که 30 سوال آن را گرامر، 30 سوال بخش شنیداری و 40 سوال آن را بخش درک مطلب خواندن تشکیل می دهد. دو پنل تخصصی متشکل از 15 متخصص تدریس آزمون تافل تشکیل شد و سپس با استفاده از روش های تعیین استاندارد آنگوف مبتنی بر نظریه سوال- پاسخ، و بوکمارک استانداردهای این آزمون در سه بخش جداگانه (گرامر، شنیداری، درک مطلب خواندن) در سه مرحله ارزیابی مشخص شدند. یافته های تحقیق گویای این بود نمره برش بدست آمده از روش آنگوف مبتنی بر نظریه سوال پاسخ برابر با 66/53 و روش بوکمارک برابر با 27/54 است. هر دو نمره برش بدست آمده از نمره تعیین شده توسط وزارت علوم بالاتر بود. همچنین، یافته های تحقیق نشان دادکه در روش معمول و سنتی وزارت علوم که بر پایه نمره 50 به عنوان نمره قبولی عمل می شود 3/73 درصد از شرکت کنندگان مردود و 7/26 درصد از شرکت کنندگان قبول شده اند اما، اساس روش آنگوف مبتنی بر نظریه سوال- پاسخ آمار مردودی برابر 5/78 درصد و آمار قبولی برابر با 4/23 درصد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: آزمون زبان MSRT، نمره برش، بوکمارک، آنگوف مبتنی بر نظریه سوال- پاسخ
  • سید مجتبی هاشمیان، مجتبی پورسلیمی*، لیلی طباخیان، مسعود مجرد کاهانی صفحات 70-91
    نظر به اهمیت توسعه مفهومی ملاک های مندرج در کاربرگ های ارزشیابی آموزشی اعضای هیات علمی دانشگاه، پژوهش حاضر با درک اهمیت این مقوله، بنا دارد تا به منظور تدوین چارچوبی زمینه مند از بایسته های رفتاری اعضای هیات علمی دانشگاه به کشف مضامین و فرامضامین نقش های آموزشی ایشان بپردازد. روش تحقیق در مطالعه حاضر، ترکیبی از روش کیفی و کمی است که در بخش کیفی، پدیدار شناسی و میدان پژوهش دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی با حداقل سابقه دو ترم تحصیل در این مقاطع بودند. انتخاب اعضای نمونه در این بخش به روش هدفمند از نوع انتخاب با حداکثر اختلاف بوده است که نهایتا 98 مشارکت کننده را شامل شده است. در بخش کمی پژوهش نیز، روش پیمایش به کار برده شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش در این بخش دانشجویان دوره های تحصیلات تکمیلی در رشته های علوم انسانی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد بودند که به روش نمونه گیری غیرتصادفی در دسترس انتخاب شده و تعداد 105 نفر را تشکیل می دادند. یافته های بخش کیفی تحقیق نشان از آن داشت که فرامضامین رفتارهای نقش آموزشی اساتید دانشگاه شامل "خبرگی آموزشی"، "ارزیابی عادلانه"، "مربی گری"، "توانمندسازی" و "پاسخگویی" بوده است. همین طور یافته های تحلیل آماری به روش آزمون رتبه بندی فریدمن نیز نشان از آن داشت که این فرامضامین از منظر دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی دارای رتبه بندی یکسانی نیستند به نحوی که "توانمندسازی" اولویت اول و "مربیگری" اولویت آخر را در این رتبه بندی تشکیل می دادند. یافته های این پژوهش می تواند در بازبینی و بهبود کاربرگ های ارزشیابی آموزشی موجود مفید و موثر باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: رفتارهای نقش آموزشی، رویکرد ذی نفع مدار، نظریه نقش
  • محمدرضا قربانی* صفحات 92-106
    امروزه بسیاری خانواده ها فرزندان خود را برای یادگیری بهتر زبان انگلیسی به ویژه برای تقویت مکالمه به آموزشگاه ها خصوصی می فرستند. علیرغم افزایش تقاضا برای شرکت در این کلاس ها، شواهد حاکی از این حقیقت است که این موسسات نیز موفقیت چندانی نداشته اند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی روش های بهبود یادگیری زبان انگلیسی توسط نسل جدید انجام شده است. روش انجام این پژوهش از نوع روش های تحقیق ترکیبی متوالی بوده که در آن نخست بخش کمی و سپس بخش کیفی به اجرا درآمده است. در بخش کمی، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته با پایایی 87/0 شامل 30 آیتم و دربخش کیفی، مصاحبه شامل چهار سوال در رابطه با نقش مدارس، آموزشگاه های خصوصی، و خود آموزی تکنولوژی محور در یادگیری زبان انگلیسی بود. با استفاده از دو روش پرسشنامه حضوری و مصاحبه تلفنی که نمونه آنها بترتیب به روش تمام شماری و تعمدی انتخاب شده بود، داده ها از دانشجویانی که در ترم اول سال تحصیلی 1396-1395 در 17 کلاس زبان عمومی در دانشگاه بجنورد ثبت نام نموده بودند گردآوری شد. در بخش کیفی، با 10 نفر از دانشجویانی که بیشترین زمان را در آموزشگاه های خصوصی صرف زبان آموزی کرده بودند مصاحبه عمیق نیمه هدایت شده انجام شد. نتیجه حاصل از تجزیه و تحلیل پرسشنامه ها با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل واریانس (آنوا) یک طرفه تکراری و نتیجه مصاحبه نشان داد که بیشترین میزان یادگیری به ترتیب در آموزشگاه های خصوصی، از طریق خود آموزی و نهایتا در مدسه اتفاق می افتد.
    کلیدواژگان: یادگیری زبان انگلیسی، مدارس، آموزشگاه های خصوصی، خود آموزی تکنولوژی محور
  • امیر حسین کیذوری*، سید احمد محمدی حسینی، الهام سلیمانی صفحات 107-131
    هدف
    مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین مهم ترین شایستگی های تدریس اساتید از دیدگاه دانشجویان دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شده است.   
    روش
    رویکرد پژوهش کیفی و با استفاده از روش پدیدارشناسی در سال 1397-1398 در دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. برای جمع آوری داده ها، از مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته و اکتشافی با رعایت اصول اجرای مصاحبه و با تاکید بر اصول اخلاقی استفاده شده است.  مشارکت کنندگان پژوهش، دانشجویان دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد بودند که 22 نفر از آن ها بر مبنای اشباع نظری و با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. تحلیل مصاحبه ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل مضمون انجام شد. با استفاده از تطابق همگونی یافته ها و روش بازخورد مشارکت کنندگان و خبرگان غیر مشارکت کننده از اعتبار تحلیل ها اطمینان حاصل شد.   
    یافته ها
    نتایج نشان داد از نظر دانشجویان شایستگی های تدریس اساتید شامل 31 مقوله فرعی و 6 مقوله اصلی شامل: مهارت آموزشی، مهارت پژوهشی، مهارت ارتباطی، اخلاق حرفه ای، ویژگی شخصیتی و مهارت مدیریت کلاس است. کابردهای متصور بر یافته های تحقیق حاضر از جهت آن است که؛ تعیین شایستگی های تدریس مورد نیاز اعضای هیات علمی می تواند خطوط راهنمایی برای تعیین مسیر و استراتژی برنامه های بالندگی اعضای هیات علمی باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: شایستگی تدریس، هیات علمی، دانشجویان دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
  • غلامعلی سلیمانی داودلی*، فرهاد خرمایی، بهرام جوکار، مسعود حسین چاری صفحات 132-149
    هدف

    مطالعه حاضر ارایه روش تدریس آموزش خواندن در دبستان، بر اساس نظریه یادگیری مغزمحور و مقایسه اثر‏بخشی آن با روش رایج کلی کلمه آموزی است.

    روش

    طرح تحقیق، طرح آزمایشی از نوع پس ‏آزمون با گروه کنترل معادل بود. جامعه مورد مطالعه فراگیران پایه‏ ی پیش‏ دبستانی، شهر مشهد بودند. نمونه پژوهش 50 نفر بودند که به صورت هدفمند انتخاب شدند پس از اجرای تست هوش وکسلر کودکان و بررسی پرونده بهداشتی آنان جهت اطلاع از سلامت بینایی، شنوایی و تاریخ تولد آن‏ها، در دو گروه همگن قرار گرفتند. گروه‏ها به‏صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل انتساب شدند. سپس روش آموزش مغز‏محور برای شروع خواندن با استفاده از بسته‏ی آموزشی محقق‏ساخته بر روی گروه آزمایش و روش کلی کلمه‏آموزی (روش رایج) بر روی گروه دیگر به اجرا درآمد. برای جمع‏آوری اطلاعات، از آزمون تشخیصی خواندن نیلی‏پور و شیرازی) (Nilipour& Shirazi, 2011 و برای تحلیل داده‏ها از آزمون تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره استفاده گردید.

    یافته‏ ها

    نتایج نشان داده است که روش آموزش خواندن بر اساس روش مغز‏محور نسبت به روش رایج، به طور معنی‏داری بر بهبود عملکرد خواندن (05/0≥P، 04/74=F)، دقت خواندن (05/0≥p، 19/94=F)، سرعت خواندن (05/0≥p ، 16/17=F) و همچنین در درک‏ مطلب خواندن فراگیران (05/0≥P، 26/11=F) تاثیر داشته است. بنابراین روش آموزش مغز‏محور می تواند بر بهبود روش های آموزش خواندن در مرحله شروع خواندن تاثیر بیشتری داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: یادگیری مغز‏محور، روش خواندن، روش آموزش خواندن
  • نفیسه رفیعی، محمدحسین یارمحمدیان*، نرگس کشتی آرای صفحات 150-169
    زمینه و هدف

    محتوای آموزشی مناسب یکی ازعناصرمهم درآموزش اثربخش است .بنابراین هدف این پژوهش شناسایی انواع محتوای موردنیاز درآموزش کارآفرینی برای رشته های علوم انسانی در آموزش عالی بصورت یک الگوی مفهومی می باشد.

    روش شناسی

    روش پژوهش کیفی ازنوع تحلیل مضمون است . حوزه مورد پژوهش شامل کلیه صاحبنظران حوزه کارآفرینی علوم انسانی شهراصفهان می باشد. بااستفاده ازروش نمونه گیری هدفمندازنوع گلوله برفی تعداد24 نفر بعنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند . مصاحبه های انجام شده طبق تحلیل مضامین آتراید استرلینگ و بانرم افزارمکس کیوداورژن 18 انجام گردید.

    یافته ها

    یافته های حاصل از این پژوهش شامل134 مضمون پایه ،6 مضمون سازمان دهنده و 3 مضمون فراگیر و درقالب یک الگو ارایه گردید. الگوی مفهومی محتوای آموزش کارآفرینی تببین شده درسه سطح خودآگاهی ،خودکارآمدی وخودشکوفایی ترسیم گردید .خودآگاهی بعنوان اولین سطح محتوای آموزش کارآفرینی وابسته به ارایه شایستگی های فردی ،ادراکی و ارتباطی تعیین گردید. خودکارآمدی بعنوان دومین سطح وابسته به ارایه محتوای شایستگی های مدیریتی و شایستگی های حرفه ای تعیین شد. خودشکوفایی بعنوان سومین سطح وابسته به ارایه محتوای شایستگی های توانگری تعیین گردید.

    نتیجه گیری

    الگوی مفهومی محتوای آموزش کارآفرینی تدوین شده نقش بسزایی درارایه یک آموزش هدفمند و همه جانبه در آموزش عالی بویژه برای رشته های علوم انسانی درآموزش عالی خواهدداشت .

    کلیدواژگان: الگوی آموزشی، محتوا، آموزش کارآفرینی، علوم انسانی
  • امیرحسام بابایی مجرد، جلیل فتح آبادی* صفحات 170-191
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسه سواد نوشتن دو گروه از دانش آموزان پسر پایه اول ابتدایی به انجام رسید. دو گروه دانش آموزان تحت دو روش آموزشی آواشناسی و زبان کامل در دو مدرسه متفاوت تحت آموزش قرار گرفتند. شروع آموزش نوشتن در گروه آواشناسی هم سو با زمان بندی کتاب درسی رسمی ایران، هم زمان با شروع آموزش خواندن بود، اما در روش زبان کامل آموزش نوشتن تقریبا با فاصله ای 2 ماهه از شروع آموزش خواندن شروع شد. روش پژوهش از نوع شبه تجربی و جامعه آماری تمام دانش آموزان پایه اول هر دو مدرسه در شهر تهران بودند. مدرسه زبان کامل دارای 65 دانش آموز و مدرسه آواشناسی دارای 45 دانش آموز بود. در این مطالعه از روش نمونه گیری غیر تصادفی در دسترس استفاده شد. بدین گونه که از هر مدرسه 30 نفر و مجموعا 60 نفر انتخاب شدند. ابزار سنجش آزمون پیشرفت تحصیلی نوشتن اول ابتدایی (راغب، 1384) بود که به صورت گروهی در هر دو مدرسه در دو مرحله پیش آزمون و پس آزمون به انجام رسید. جهت تحلیل آماری در این پژوهش از تحلیل کواریانس استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد گروه آموزشی زبان کامل در خرده آزمون املا بهتر از عملکرد گروه آواشناسی بود (05/0>P). در خرده آزمون بیان نوشتاری تفاوت معناداری میان دو گروه مشاهده نشد. این پژوهش ابتدا تلنگری است برای بررسی اثربخشی روش آموزش نوشتن فعلی و نتایج آن قابل استفاده برای طیف وسیعی از مربیان و مسیولین آموزشی پایه اول ابتدایی است تا بتوانند در روش تدریس آموزش نوشتن خود تجدید نظر های لازم را انجام دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: سواد، آموزش نوشتن، زبان کامل، اول ابتدایی
  • لیلا اکرمی*، احمد عابدی، مریم صالح زاده صفحات 192-213
    هدف
    آموزش معلمان با هدف افزایش کیفیت تدریس و بالا بردن سطح آموزش حایز اهمیت است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تاثیر برنامه آموزشی مبتنی بر نظریه هوش موفق بر سبک تدریس، افزایش احساس کارآمدی و نظریه های ضمنی هوش در معلمان مدارس دخترانه و پسرانه مقطع ابتدایی است.
    روش
    با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ی سه مرحله ای، 60 نفر از معلمان مدراس دخترانه و 60 نفر از معلمان مدارس پسرانه در شهر یزد در به عنوان نمونه انتخاب گردیدند و پرسشنامه «بررسی ماهیت هوش» ، «پرسشنامه سبک تدریس بر اساس هوش موفق استرنبرگ» و «مقیاس احساس کارآمدی معلمان» در اختیار نمونه ها قرار گرفت. پس از ارزیابی اولیه، 40 نفر از مربیان مدارس دخترانه و 44 نفر از مربیان مدارس پسرانه معتقد به نظریه ذاتی هوش به گونه تصادفی در گروه آزمایش و کنترل قرار گرفتند. به این ترتیب برنامه آموزشی مبتنی بر نظریه هوش موفق در گروه آزمایش ارایه شد و گروه کنترل آموزشی دریافت نکردند. داده ها با استفاده از شاخص های توصیفی و تحلیل کوواریانس چند متغیری بررسی شد.
    یافته ها
    نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که برنامه آموزشی بر سبک تدریس با ضریب اتا 78/0، افزایش احساس کارآمدی با ضریب اتا 67/0 و تغییر نظریه های ضمنی هوش با ضریب اتا 71/0 در معلمان مدارس دخترانه و برنامه آموزشی بر سبک تدریس با ضریب اتا 72/0، افزایش احساس کارآمدی با ضریب اتا 78/0 و تغییر نظریه های ضمنی هوش با ضریب اتا 65/0 در معلمان مدارس پسرانه موثر بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سبک تدریس، نظریه ضمنی هوش، احساس کارآمدی، نظریه هوش موفق، آموزش
  • رضا محمدی*، محمدرضا سرمدی، عیسی ابراهیم زاده، مرجان معصومی فرد صفحات 214-237
    هدف

    این پژوهش با هدف ارایه و اعتباریابی مدل آموزش مجازی سوادآموزان دوره انتقال انجام شده است.

    روش

    پژوهش حاضر با روش ترکیبی یا آمیخته از نوع اکتشافی متوالی انجام شده است. به دلیل استفاده از روش نمونه گیری نظری، در مراحل مختلف گردآوری و تحلیل داده ها، حجم نمونه و معیار نمونه گیری متغیر بود. در راستای تدوین مدل از تحلیل تماتیک استفاده شد و بر پایه مطالعات اسنادی و کتاب خانه ای، ابتدا 12 مولفه و 34 زیرمولفه از داده های کیفی استخراج و سپس مدل آموزش مجازی تدوین و به منظور اعتباریابی به متخصصان ارایه گردید.

    یافته ها

    در این پژوهش مولفه های مدل شامل آموزش مجازی سوادآموزان، ویژگی های سوادآموزان بزرگسال، موقعیت یادگیری و عناصر آموزش، اصول یادگیری، فرهنگ یادگیری، محیط یادگیری، تجارب یادگیری، اهداف، محتوا، روش های تدریس، و ارزیابی است. تلفیق این مولفه ها منجر به تدوین مدل آموزش مجازی سوادآموزان گردید. نتایج آزمون t در سطح اطمینان 95/0 برای تمام سوالات معنی دار بود. همچنین میانگین نظرات متخصص ها در خصوص کلیه مولفه های پرسشنامه 40/4 می باشد که نشان دهنده مناسب بودن مدل می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: مدل آموزش مجازی، سوادآموزان، دوره انتقال، اعتباریابی
  • اسماعیل سلیمانی*، مهدی سرخوش، رقیه نوری پورلیاولی، بهناز دهقان، سیمین حسینیان صفحات 238-254
    اضطراب یادگیری زبان خارجی، تنش مرتبط با یادگیری زبان است که با احساس عمومی اضطراب متفاوت است و مانع مهمی در دستیابی به هدف یادگیرندگان به شمار می آید. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش تمییزی پریشانی و اجتناب اجتماعی ، انگیزه تحصیلی و خودکارآمدی تحصیلی، در تبیین اضطراب کلاس زبان خارجی(انگلیسی) در دانشجویان بود. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل کلیه دانشجویان دانشگاه ارومیه به تعداد16750 نفر بودند که با استفاده از روش خوشه ای چند مرحله ای 223 نفر از دانشجویان انتخاب شدند و به ابزارهای تحقیق شامل پرسشنامه اضطراب زبان خارجی FLCA))، پرسشنامه پریشانی و اجتناب اجتماعی واتسون و فرند(SAD)(1969)، خودکارآمدی تحصیلی(ASES) و انگیزه تحصیلی AMS) (پاسخ دادند. برای تحلیل داده ها از روش های آماری همبستگی پیرسون و روش تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به روش گام به گام(SW) با نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 22 استفاده گردید که نتایج آن روشن ساخت که همبستگی بین پریشانی و اجتناب اجتماعی و خودکارآمدی تحصیلی با اضطراب کلاس زبان خارجی به ترتیب366/0 و 329/0 بود. همچنین سهم متغیرهای پیش بین پریشانی و اجتناب اجتماعی و خودکارآمدی در تبیین اضطراب کلاس انگلیسی به ترتیب 134/0 و 108/0 بدست آمد. در این تحقیق متغیر انگیزه تحصیلی سهم قابل تبیینی بدست نداد. یافته های پژوهش، الگوی روابطی را با خودکارآمدی و پریشانی و اجتناب اجتماعی که بر اضطراب کلاس زبان خارجی تاثیر می گذارند، پیشنهاد می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: اضطراب کلاس زبان خارجی، پریشانی و اجتناب اجتماعی، انگیزه تحصیلی، خودکارآمدی تحصیلی
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  • Mahboobeh Khosravi, Saber Abdolmaleki Pages 1-23
  • Rashid Ahmadrash *, Esmaeel Mostafazadeh Pages 24-48
    Analysis of Social Studies Curriculum in the First Three Years of Secondary School in Consideration of Multicultural Education ComponentsAbstract The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the content of first-grade social studies textbooks (seventh, eighth and ninth grade) based on the components of multicultural education in order to identify the amount of attention paid to this component.The method used in this paper was descriptive and content analysis. The method used to describe the data frequency, percentages, tables, and content analysis of the research, the chi-square test was used and the unit of analysis is the pages (text, images and activities) of the book.The population of the study consisted of three volumes of first-year compilations of social studies in 2016 and included a total of 489 pages of first-year social studies books.The results of the data analysis showed that the differences between the seventh, eighth and ninth grade social studies textbooks were significant and meaningful in regard to the components of multicultural education. Disregard for a number of components is found in the content of books that need attention in subsequent editions.Based on the findings of this study, among the ten components of multicultural education, the most attention was paid to the components of 1, including; Reflection and acceptance of ethnic, racial, environmental, religious and religious diversity in the curricula. 4, Support the preservation and transfer of ethnic and cultural heritage,6 Strengthening solidarity and social integration and Social inclusion 8- Making the child aware of other cultures, societies and lifestyles 9- Increasing interactive skills like;(tolerance, empathy, trust, etc.) among ethnicity and races. but the other five components have received little attention. Keywords: Social Studies, Secondary School, Components of Multicultural Education, Content AnalysisConsidering multicultural education and incorporating multicultural educational principles and practices, especially after the general theoretical turn of sociology after the 1960s and 1970s, is now seen as a cultural and social process aimed at creating an egalitarian and democratic society. . Such an approach, by rereading and recalling marginalized elements and disadvantaged social groups, challenges any verbalization and acute centralism, both at the level of education and in social structure (Ahmadrash, 2019).Obviously, this framework requires the provision of the necessary cultural and educational backgrounds through the educational system and its curricula. In fact, "predicting the proper mechanism for bringing cultures closer, understanding and interacting with one another in peaceful coexistence and eliminating social misunderstandings is doubly necessary. In this respect, one of the fundamental missions of the education system in multicultural societies is the design of culturally sensitive curricula and responsive to multicultural characteristics. ”The present study also attempts to analyze and evaluate this issue in the new social studies curricula of the first secondary school, by understanding the importance of multiculturalism in the social studies curriculum. The following questions can be asked: To what extent has the social studies curriculum focused on equality of opportunity for different cultural groups? Is this attention homogeneous? To what extent has the social studies curriculum allowed you to accept ethnic, racial, environmental diversity? Has the respect for language, religion and customs, cultural values and others been taken into consideration?Research Questions1. To what extent has multicultural education been addressed in the context of first-grade secondary school social studies textbooks (Grades 7, 8, and 9)?2. To what extent has multicultural education been addressed in the illustrations in the textbooks of social studies in secondary school (Grades 7, 8, and 9)?3. How much attention has been paid to multicultural education in the activities of first grade (seventh, eighth and ninth) social studies textbooks?research method The research method was "content analysis" . Content analysis has several stages, the most important and most sensitive being the definition and definition of the system of classes or categories. In this study, library method was used and books and researches were studied and the categories were identified using expert consultation. In this study, the text, image, and activities of the social studies textbooks of the first, second, and third grades of the first high school are examined, which are: 1 - Reflection and Acceptance of Ethnic, Racial, Environmental, Religious Diversity And Religious in the curriculum 2 - Supporting education in the mother tongue 3 - Promoting interaction and understanding of cultures and groups 4 - Supporting the preservation and transmission of cultural and ethnic heritage 6- Strengthening social solidarity and social responsibility 7- Growing ethnic and cultural literacy 8. Child awareness of other cultures, societies and lifestyles 9. Increasing awareness Interactive rats (Vbrdbary of tolerance, tolerance, empathy, trust, etc.) among racial groups 10 - Create critical and questioning spirit in people.SuggestionsBased on the findings of this study, among the ten components of multicultural education, the most attention was paid to the components of 1- Reflection and acceptance of ethnic, racial, environmental, religious and religious diversity in the curricula. Vocational culture 6 - Strengthening solidarity and social integration 8- Child awareness of other cultures, societies and lifestyles 9- Increasing interactive skills (tolerance, tolerance, empathy, trust, etc.) among ethnic groups but have The other five components received the least attention, even the native language support component of at least 8 items in the three educational levels. 1. Based on the findings of the study, it was found that in the content of first grade social studies textbooks, the ten elements of the multicultural education components do not have the same distribution and balance. The native language, critical thinking and questioning spirit of the people in this content (text, images, and activities) are generally neglected. This should be of particular interest to authors and curriculum developers.2. Based on the findings of another section of the study, it was found that the content of the first high school social studies textbooks (seventh, eighth and ninth) of the ten elements of multicultural education components do not have a balanced and homogeneous distribution. Therefore, curriculum developers and textbook writers are advised to balance design and content of social studies textbooks at all three levels, as well as the principle of balance and proportionality in content presentation.
    Keywords: Social Studies, First period of Secondary School, Components of Multicultural Education, Content Analysis
  • Mohammadazad Jalalizadeh *, Ali Delavar Pages 49-69
    The main purpose of this study was to compare the Angof-based IRT method and the Bookmark method determine standardization of the MSRT language test. For this purpose, one sample of the MSRT test questions (September 1397 test) was randomly selected and the answers to the questions were obtained by 596 subjects from the Ministry of Science. The MSRT test has 100 questions, of which 30 are grammar, 30 are auditory, and 40 are reading comprehension. Two expert panels consisting of 15 TOEFL teaching experts were formed and then standardized using ANGOF-based IRT method, and Bookmark's standards in three separate sections (grammar, listening, Reading comprehension) were identified in three evaluation stages. The findings of the study showed that the cut-off score obtained by Angof's method based on the question-answer theory is 53.66 and the bookmark method is 54.27. Both cut scores were higher than those determined by the Ministry of Science. Also, the findings of the study showed that 73.3% of the participants rejected the traditional and traditional method of the Ministry of Science, which is based on the score of 50, but 26.7% of the participants failed but based on the Angof method. Based on the question-answer theory, rejection rates are 78.5% and acceptance rates are 23.4%. Finally, according to Bookmark, the decline in statistics is 21.5%. The research findings imply that Ministry of Science language test designers need to be revised to determine the standard score of this test. The main purpose of this study was to compare the Angof-based IRT method and the Bookmark method to determine standardization of the MSRT language test. For this purpose, one sample of the MSRT test questions (September 1397 test) was randomly selected and the answers to the questions were obtained by 596 subjects from the Ministry of Science. The MSRT test has 100 questions, of which 30 are grammar, 30 are auditory, and 40 are reading comprehension. Two expert panels consisting of 15 TOEFL teaching experts were formed and then standardized using ANGOF-based IRT method, and Bookmark's standards in three separate sections (grammar, listening, Reading comprehension) were identified in three evaluation stages. The findings of the study showed that the cut-off score obtained by Angof's method based on the question-answer theory is 53.66 and the bookmark method is 54.27. Both cut scores were higher than those determined by the Ministry of Science. Also, the findings of the study showed that 73.3% of the participants rejected the traditional and traditional method of the Ministry of Science, which is based on the score of 50, but 26.7% of the participants failed but based on the Angof method. Based on the question-answer theory, rejection rates are 78.5% and acceptance rates are 23.4%. Finally, according to Bookmark, the decline in statistics is 21.5%. The research findings imply that Ministry of Science language test designers need to be revised to determine the standard score of this test. The main purpose of this study was to compare the Angof-based IRT method and the Bookmark method to determine standardization of the MSRT language test. For this purpose, one sample of the MSRT test questions (September 1397 test) was randomly selected and the answers to the questions were obtained by 596 subjects from the Ministry of Science. The MSRT test has 100 questions, of which 30 are grammar, 30 are auditory, and 40 are reading comprehension. Two expert panels consisting of 15 TOEFL teaching experts were formed and then standardized using ANGOF-based IRT method, and Bookmark's standards in three separate sections (grammar, listening, Reading comprehension) were identified in three evaluation stages. The findings of the study showed that the cut-off score obtained by Angof's method based on the question-answer theory is 53.66 and the bookmark method is 54.27. Both cut scores were higher than those determined by the Ministry of Science. Also, the findings of the study showed that 73.3% of the participants rejected the traditional and traditional method of the Ministry of Science, which is based on the score of 50, but 26.7% of the participants failed but based on the Angof method. Based on the question-answer theory, rejection rates are 78.5% and acceptance rates are 23.4%. Finally, according to Bookmark, the decline in statistics is 21.5%. The research findings imply that Ministry of Science language test designers need to be revised toThe main purpose of this study was to compare the Angof-based IRT method and the Bookmark method to determine standardization of the MSRT language test. For this purpose, one sample of the MSRT test questions (September 1397 test) was randomly selected and the answers to the questions were obtained by 596 subjects from the Ministry of Science. The MSRT test has 100 questions, of which 30 are grammar, 30 are auditory, and 40 are reading comprehension. Two expert panels consisting of 15 TOEFL teaching experts were formed and then standardized using ANGOF-based IRT method, and Bookmark's standards in three separate sections (grammar, listening, Reading comprehension) were identified in three evaluation stages. The findings of the study showed that the cut-off score obtained by Angof's method based on the question-answer theory is 53.66 and the bookmark method is 54.27. Both cut scores were higher than those determined by the Ministry of Science. Also, the findings of the study showed that 73.3% of the participants rejected the traditional and traditional method of the Ministry of Science, which is based on the score of 50, but 26.7% of the participants failed but based on the Angof method. Based on the question-answer theory, rejection rates are 78.5% and acceptance rates are 23.4%. Finally, according to Bookmark, the decline in statistics is 21.5%. The research findings imply that Ministry of Science language test designers need to be revised to determine the standard score of this test. determine the standard score of this test. The main purpose of this study was to compare the Angof-based IRT method and the Bookmark method to determine standardization of the MSRT language test. For this purpose, one sampl of the MSRT test questions (September 1397 test) was randomly selected and the answers to the questions were obtained by 596 subjects from the Ministry of Science. The MSRT test has 100 questions, of which 30 are grammar, 30 are auditory, and 40 are reading comprehension. Two expert panels consisting of 15 TOEFL teaching experts were formed and then standardized using ANGOF-based IRT method, and Bookmark's standards in three separate sections (grammar, listening, Reading comprehension) were identified in three evaluation stages. The findings of the study showed that the cut-off score obtained by Angof's method based on the question-answer theory is 53.66 and the bookmark method is 54.27
    Keywords: MSRT language test, cut score, Bookmark, Angof-based IRT method
  • Mojtaba Hashemian, Mojtaba Poursalimi *, Laili Tabakhian, Masod Mojaradkahani Pages 70-91
  • Mohamadreza Ghorbani * Pages 92-106
    Nowadays learning English is one of the challenges of Iranian families. Most of them send their children to private language institutes to improve their communication skill in English. Despite the high demand for these institutes, there is some evidence showing that they are not that much successful. Technology-based self-study is also increasingly used by the new generation. However, as pointed out by Ghorbani and Golparvar (2019), despite the importance of autonomous language learning by means of educational technology beyond the classroom, there is little evidence on the learners’ perspectives towards its application. This study aims at finding an effective way for improving the new generation language learning by comparing the role of schools, private language institutes, and technology-oriented self- study in EFL Learning.
     
    Sequential mixed-methods design was used to gather quantitative and qualitative data respectively. A panel of experts helped the researcher to establish the content and face validity of the instruments. In the quantitative part, the reliability of the 30-item researcher-made questionnaire was .87. In the qualitative part, the interview included four questions related to English learning in schools, private language institutes, and through technology-oriented self-study. Both the questionnaire and the interview were in Persian so that students can easily understand the content.
     
    Data were gathered through questionnaire distribution in 17 three-unit general English classes for freshmen students and phone interview using whole population sampling and purposive sampling respectively at the University of Bojnord (UB) in the first quarter of 2017. All the students in the faculties of engineering, humanities, art, and sciences, who had enrolled in General English classes, participated in this study.
     
    After gaining General English professors’ permission, students were asked to indicate their perspectives on learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at school, in private language institutes, and through technology-oriented self-study on the questionnaires. Based on the analysis of the students’ response on the questionnaires, 10 students who had spent longer times in private institutes were identified for the qualitative phase in which semi-structure interview was used to interview the informants.
     
    The Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22) was used to analyze and describe the data. Repeated measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the participants’ view on the three different learning conditions in the quantitative phase. The three research questions, which were formulated to compare the role of schools, private language institutes, and technology-oriented self- study in EFL learning based on undergraduate freshmen students’ perspectives are as follows:
    Is there any difference between EFL learning in schools and private language institutes based on undergraduate freshmen students’ perspectives at the UB?
    Is there any difference between EFL learning in schools and through technology-oriented self- study based on undergraduate freshmen students’ perspectives at the UB?
    Is there any difference between EFL learning in private language institutes and through technology-oriented self- study based on undergraduate freshmen students’ perspectives at the UB?

     
    To gain in-depth information regarding students’ perspectives in the qualitative phase, the following questions were formulated:
    To what extent were schools helpful in your EFL learning? Elaborate on it.
    To what extent were private language institutes helpful in your EFL learning? Elaborate on it.
    To what extent was technology-oriented self- study helpful in your EFL learning? Elaborate on it.
    Which of the above-mentioned conditions (schools, private language institutes, and technology-oriented self- study) were more helpful? Why?

     
    The descriptive statistics and inferential statistics regarding the three different conditions are delineated in the following tables: 
    Table 1
    Descriptive statistics learning in three conditions (schools, private language institutes, and technology-oriented self- study)
     
    Conditions             N            Mean            SD         Skewness      Kurtosis





    School (1)             106           30.95            9.02            .083              -.261
    Institutes (2)         106           45.22            9.44            -.754             1.057
    Self-study (3)       106           38.14             9.98            -.205             .167





     
    Table 2
    Wilks’ Lambda for three conditions (schools, private language institutes, and technology-oriented self- study)
     
    Statistic         F              hypothesis df         error df         P              Eta





    .501             51.692                  2                       104            .000          .499





     
    Based on Table 2, the value for Wilks’ Lambda is .501, with a probability value of .000 (which really means p<.0005). The p value is less than .05; therefore, it can be concluded that there is a statistically significant difference in students’ scores (perspectives) across the three different conditions. Since the Eta value obtained in this study is .499, based on the guidelines proposed by Cohen (1988, pp. 284–7) (.01=small, .06=moderate, .14=large effect), this result suggests a very large effect size.
     
    Table 3
    Summary of one-way ANOVA for three conditions (schools, private language institutes, and technology-oriented self- study)
     
    Source                  N      df           SS                    MS                  F             P           PES





    Between group   106     1    4617779.635    4617779.635     3968.792    0.000       0.974
    Within group      106     1   10797.967         10797.967         93.450        0.000        0.471





    **P < 0.05
     
    A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare scores on the students' perspectives in condition 1 (learning English at schools), condition 2 (learning English in private language institutes), and condition 3 (learning English through self-study). There was a significant difference among the three conditions. Wilks’ Lambda = .51.692, F (2, 104) = 51.692, p < .001, multivariate partial eta squared = .499. That is, the best learning was in private institutes, technology-oriented self-study, and schools respectively.
     
     
    Table 4
    Bonferroni post hoc test for three conditions (schools, private language institutes, and technology-oriented self- study)
    Group (I)      Group (J)                Mean Difference (I-J)            Std. Error           Sig.  





    School             Self-study                *-7.189                                   1.204              0.000
    School             Institute                   *-14.274                                  1.477              0.000
    Self-study        School                     *7.189                                     1.204              0.000
    Self-study        Institute                   *-7.085                                    0.854              0.000              
    Institute           School                     *14.274                                    1.477              0.000
    Institute           Self-study                *7.085                                      0.854              0.000





    **P < 0.05
     
    Based on Bonferroni post hoc test, the most English learning happens in private language institutes, through technology-oriented self-study, and in schools respectively.
     
    The interview results were in line with these findings. The interviewees explained the reasons for such findings in detail. All of the interviewees believed that English learning in private language institutes is faster because their textbooks are more attractive, conversational, and practical in real life. Most of them preferred self-study to school learning due to the attractiveness of digital devices and educational software. Learning English at school was the last priority of the interviewees because they thought that the focus in school teaching is on grammar and vocabulary while listening and speaking is neglected.
     
    These findings have many theoretical and practical implications. The ministry of education has invested a lot in foreign language education but students are not satisfied with English teaching in schools. This implies that foreign language policy makers, language assessment authorities, EFL textbook developers, and English teachers need to make some amendments in their traditional methods and activities so that students are motivated to learn English at schools. It is hoped that the findings of this study and other similar studies lead to finding effective methods for improving the EFL teaching and reducing the cost, time, and energy needed for EFL learning.
    Keywords: schools, Private Language Institutes, echnology-oriented Self- study, learning
  • Amir Hossein Kayzouri *, Seyed Ahmad Mohammadi Hoseini, Elham Sadat Soleimani Pages 107-131
    Objectives
    The success in achieving educational goals depends on factors such as the teacher, student, and educational environment. Teaching is one of the main concerns of educational systems across the world. The effective teaching in higher education and universities mainly addresses students and their learning and involves a set of specific skills and competencies focusing on particular contextual needs. It seems that the effective teaching addresses particular needs of a given group of students and revolves around the needs that are embedded in a specific context. Therefore, it is highly important to identify the factors that affect faculty members’ teaching competence from students’ perspective. Also, improving teaching competence can be regarded as an ongoing attempt that plays an important role in providing new possibilities for preparing new teaching strategies and transmitting scientific knowledge. Therefore, conducting such a study addressing faculty members' competencies can provide the opportunity to offer new teaching strategies and transfer scientific knowledge. Furthermore, conducting research projects to identify the components of teaching competencies can be highly valuable in uncovering the existing deficiencies and problems. Such studies may also offer guidelines for overcoming the deficiencies and improving the quality of teaching. In this regard, this study was conducted in order to determine the most important components of teaching competence from the perspective of students at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
    Methods
    Using a phenomenological method, this qualitative study was conducted in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2018-2019. Actually, the aim of the phenomenological studies is to probe into various phenomena as they appear in each individual person's experiences. To collect the data regarding the participants' experiences and meanings, semi-structured interviews were carried out. First, general questions were asked to start the interviews. Then, based on the participants' responses, new questions emerged during the interview process. Interviews were conducted by scheduling and selecting the location based on the participants' opinions. Accordingly, interviews were conducted in the participants' workplaces or educational setting. Each interview lasted from 30 to 45 minutes depending on the participants' preferences and desires. The main participants of the study were 22 students, who were selected using purposeful sampling whereby the researchers sought to select those students, who could be considered as information-rich participants. Sampling continued until saturation occurred and it seemed that no new theme and pattern could be identified with regard to the topic of inquiry. . The collected data were analyzed using the thematic analysis whereby the researchers searched for the repeated meaningful patterns in the obtained qualitative data. A theme is a specific meaning that is derived from a word, a sentence, or even a paragraph. In fact, each theme refers to a meaningful pattern that is observed in the qualitative data based on the topic of inquiry and research questions. In the present study, the researchers started analyzing the data by carefully and repeatedly reading the interviews. In the second step, they carried out the line-by-line analysis. Actually, the most important words, sentences, or paragraphs related to the main topic of the study were marked, highlighted, and coded. In the data analysis, the researchers used the inductive approach whereby the concepts and codes emerged from the qualitative data rather than the existing theories. In the next step, codes were put into thematic categories and clusters and the main themes were obtained. The coding and analysis process continued until the researchers reached the data saturation. Finally, the researchers reviewed and refined the extracted categories of themes based on their similarities and differences, that is, their properties and dimensions. The researchers also selected the relevant quotes and examples from the data extracts to prepare the final report. In addition, the trustworthiness of the analysis was ensured using triangulation, participants’ feedback, and experts’ opinions.
    Results
    Findings of the study indicated that, from students’ perspective, teaching competence included 31 sub-categories and 6 main categories, which consisted of teaching skills, research competence, relational competence, professional ethics, personal characteristics, and managerial skills. A competent faculty member has sufficient knowledge and information and knows how to teach. Indeed, a competent faculty member knows where and how to utilize the techniques and strategies that are required to make the classroom efficient and effective. It can be said that knowledge, experience, and method are three important factors that play a key role in constructing faculty members' competence and qualification. Also, one of the findings of the study was educational skills. Educational skills include subcategories of the scientific and professional specificity, effective transfer of materials, use of appropriate lesson plans, and the systematic evaluation of teaching materials. This theme refers to teachers' ability to apply teaching methods, principles, and strategies in the classroom in a way that they can lead to the successful classroom management. In explaining these dimensions and components, it can be said that faculty members should not only have the specialized skills but they should also be capable of transferring knowledge and managing the classroom. A faculty member should take into account important factors such as students' ability to select appropriate teaching resources and texts and should design lesson plans based on contextual needs and requirements. Implications drawn from the present study suggest that the determination of the components of teaching competence in faculty members can offer guidelines for determining teachers’ path and strategies of cultivation programs on which university administrators can take appropriate measures in order to develop teaching competencies in faculty members and improve the quality of university teaching. University professors can also be empowered to adapt the existing model to their teaching experiences to achieve effective teaching. In general, faculty members can guarantee the existence of the educational system. Therefore, improving faculty members' abilities and competencies can enhance the quality of teaching. Furthermore, the enhancement of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral competencies in faculty members will lead to the innovation in teaching as well as the promotion of students' academic achievement and success. Thus, it is necessary and highly important to equip university faculty members with the competencies and capabilities that are required to achieve the professional success.
    Keywords: Teaching competence, Faculty members, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
  • Gh.A. Soleimani Davoodli *, M. Hossein Chari, F. Khormaee, B. Jokar Pages 132-149
    Objectives

    The present study aims to provide a brain-based Reading Teaching method in the primary schools and to compare its effectiveness with the current teaching method.
    Brain based learning has had a lot of influence on educational affairs. Regarding the twelve principles of brain based learning, I have tried to present a new method for the beginning stage of teaching reading, and to examine its effectiveness as to precision, speed and degree of comprehension with the current method.

    Introduction

    Reading teaching is one of the most important topics for students to start their education program, and success in it can lead to progress in other subjects. Since reading skills are a way to achieve a wide range of information, a child's failure to learn to read in the early years of school prevents him or her from learning other things in the curriculum. This means that reading problems, more than any other learning problem in various fields, hinder inclusive academic achievement.
    In Iran's educational system, language teaching experts have always considered poor reading skill one of the gaps in the education system, and have considered incorrect teaching methods to be the cause of this problem and have emphasized on correcting reading teaching methods.
    In recent years, attention has been paid to understanding the function of the brain, which is a key factor in human learning and plays an essential role in reading practice.
    Caine and Caine (2006) based on the views and opinions of experts and specialists such as Stellern, Diamond, Jensen and by researching and combining educational and scientific research on the brain and how they are used in curriculum development, twelve general principles for brain-based learning has been introduced into the education system, and this study seeks to provide a way to teach reading and testing in the early stages of reading based on the "cognitive-metacognitive aspects" of brain-based learning whose constituent concepts are the twelve principles of Caine and Caine. It has taken a step towards improving reading methods. Because one of the most important factors influencing the learning and performance of successful reading and comprehension and overcoming learning problems is cognitive-metacognitive strategies.
    It also notes that so far no research has been done on how to use brain-based learning to begin reading, and none of the other researchers' research has been in the early stages of reading and teaching. With brain-based and its effect on learning and reading, it has been done in higher stages, which is related to other stages of reading and teaching topics and has nothing to do with the beginning stage of reading, and the authors of the present study are trying to use learning For the first time, with brain-based learning in a way to teach people to start reading in the second stage of reading teaching.
    Therefore, the present study examines the following questions:

    1. Does the brain-based reading method increase students' reading progress at the beginning of reading compared to the current word-teaching method?
    2. Does the brain-based reading method increase the students' reading accuracy in the beginning stage of reading compared to the current word-teaching method?
    3. Does the brain-based reading method increase students' reading speed at the beginning of reading compared to the current word-teaching method?
    4. Does the brain-based reading method increase the students' reading comprehension in the beginning reading phase compared to the current word-teaching method?

    Method

    Brain based reading teaching method is more efficient than the general method of word teaching for preschool students at the beginning stage reading. The design of the research was the experimental design of the post-test type with the equivalent control group. The population of the study were taken from the second level of pre-school in Mashhad. The sample population consisted of 50 children who were purposeful sampling after the implementation of the Wechsler Intelligence Test, survey of the children's health profile to be sure of their hearing and visual good condition, and their date of birth. Then they were randomly divided into two homogenous experimental and control groups. The criterion for entering the research sample was having an IQ (90-115), the age of 5.5 to 6 years, lack of any training and the ability to read and the health of the hearing and vision system, and the criterion for leaving the research were hearing loss and visual impairment. In the present study, the independent variables were the brain-based reading training method and reading vocabulary and related variables, reading accuracy, reading speed and reading comprehension. Then, the brain-based teaching method was administered to the experimental group to start teaching reading by the help of a researcher-made educational package, and the current general method of word teaching was administered to the control group. Nilipour and Shirazi diagnostic reading tests were used to collect information. And for data analysis, multivariate variance analysis was used.

    Results

    The results showed that Brain-Based Reading Teaching method had a significant effect on improving the reading performance of learners (P ≤0.05, F = 74.04), on reading accuracy (P≤0/05، F=94/19), reading speed (p ≤0.05, F= 17/16) and reading comprehension (P≤ 0.05, F = 11.26).
    It is concluded that brain based teaching method can have greater influence on the improvement of the methods for teaching reading at the beginning stage of reading. So there can be a new improvement of the method for teaching reading at the first level of primary schools throughout the country, thus an improvement of the reading skills of learners.
    Based on the results of the present study, it was found that the learners of the brain-based group (students who have been trained in the brain-based learning method) compared to the learners of the word-teaching group (students who trained by commonly word method) have been trained to perform better in reading progress; therefore, according to the research results, using the brain-based reading teaching method, which is a combination method, is quite effective on the progress, accuracy, and speed of reading and comprehension of learners. Since no research has been found concerning learning brain-based teaching in the early stages of reading, the results of the use of the brain-based method on learners' learning rate with findings; Jensen (1996), Duman (2006), Hoiland (2005), Pociask and Settles (2007), Karimzadeh and mojallal (2015), Seifi, Ebrahimi Ghavam and Farrokhi (2010), Sprenger (2013), Hasani, Dastjerdi and Pakdaman (2015) who have been in various fields of learning, with the present study Is aligned. Also, the findings of Seifi et al. (2010) in a study entitled "The effect of brain-based learning on reading comprehension and reading speed of third-grade elementary students" indicated that brain-based learning training on reading comprehension and reading speed of students has significantly increased the quality of their learning. On the other hand, Karimzadeh and mojallal's research (2015) showed that the brain-based learning method and participatory learning method have affected the academic progress of fifth-grade elementary students in Bonab city. These results show that the research ahead in this field. The findings of this study are consistent. The findings show that using brain-based reading training as a new way to start reading has been effective in improving students' progress, accuracy and speed of reading and comprehension, so it's no surprise that children in the brain-based reading group have shown significant progress in reading skills compared to children in the word-teaching group.

    Keywords: Brain-Based Learning, Reading Method, Reading Teaching Method
  • N. Rafiei , M.H. Yarmohammdian *, N. Keshtiaray Pages 150-169
    Aim

    With the increasing resources and the essential of applying entrepreneurship education programs in universities, the need for principled and legalized entrepreneurship education in universities has become more and more important. The curriculum also promotes more employment. There are only a few examples of running business in some area of colleges, such as economics and business administration. In some fields of higher education, entry into the field of entrepreneurship, especially in the humanities, is very limited. Although entrepreneurial literature originates from the humanities such as economics, psychology, anthropology, sociology and management. Moreover, the growth and development of the humanities compared to other fields such as job opportunities, motivation to progress, creativity, innovation, independence, competitiveness, speed has not been considering significantly. In addition, in the field of most humanities sciences, the book and the content presented to the issues that students need to face in society in practice have received less attention. Therefore, despite the lack of attention to the appropriateness and relevance of the content of humanities disciplines to the realities of students' lives and careers and the incomplete and weak content of waiting for ideas and creativity will be very difficult for these students. Also, despite of all extended researches has done in the field of entrepreneurship education; the researchers are more focused on student’s attitude survey and the effects of entrepreneurship education than study the content of entrepreneurship education. Therefore, this study intends to identify the types of content of entrepreneurship education for the humanities discipline to present it in the form of a conceptual model to encourage and increase the activity of students and activists of humanities education in the field of entrepreneurship.

    Methodology

    The present study used the purpose of applied research and in the field of qualitative research, the type of thematic analysis was used inductively. To analyse the content of the interviews, the software of MAQDA18 Software was used. The open, central, and selective coding process is based on the categorization of Atrid Sterling's (2001) perspective. Inclusive, organizational and basic extracted. The field of study for selecting the interviewees consists of three groups of humanities entrepreneurs whose field of study and entrepreneurship is humanities, entrepreneurship education and university professors of humanities who were recognized as entrepreneurs and non-humanities experts whose field of study was unscientific but Its entrepreneurship has been in the field of humanities, which is currently engaged in entrepreneurship in Isfahan. Using targeted sampling method, 7 people from humanities entrepreneurs were extracted from Isfahan university, Growth and Entrepreneurship Centres of Isfahan University, Isfahan University of Technology and Commercial room of Isfahan. It was only possible to interview three of these people, then through the first three entrepreneurs, the next entrepreneurs were identified and interviewed, and from the identified entrepreneurs, other entrepreneurs in the humanities were again identified and interviewed by snowballs. And this number continued until the theoretical maximum in the interviews conducted and finally the number of samples interviewed was 24 people. To collect information from Semi-structured interview was used. The duration of the interview with people between 45 and 90 minutes was completed and collected within 7 months of the interview.

    Findings

     The findings of this study consisted of 134 basic themes, 6 organizing themes and 3 general themes and presented as a pattern(model). The conceptual pattern(model) of the content of entrepreneurship education illustrated at three levels of self-awareness, self-efficacy and self-actualization was drawn. Self-awareness was defined as the first level of entrepreneurial education content related to individual, perceptual, and communicative competencies. Self-efficacy was identified as the second level dependent on the presentation of the content of managerial and professional competencies. Self-actualization as the third level dependent on content delivery self -empowerment competencies were determined. 26 common themes include: imagination and imagery, ambition, diversity, creative thinking, self-confidence, perfectionism, independence, motivation, self-confidence, competition, endurance, aesthetic sense, dreaming, familiarity with art, risk-taking, perseverance, challenging mind, Patience, risk-taking, courage, bravery, creativity, ideation, high expressive power, personal motivation , interest and innovation became the theme of organizing individual competencies. The 28 common themes became the 4 sub-themes of Entrepreneurial Knowledge, Entrepreneurial Attitude, Entrepreneurial Skills and Academic Skills, and then these 4 sub-Organizational themes became one of the main organizational themes of perceptual competencies.11 common themes include: Social Relationships, Body Language, Speech and Eloquence, Influence in Communication, Principles of Communication, Interpersonal Communication Skills, Negotiation Skills, Communication Skills, Familiar with different languages, team working Skills. Therefore, the three themes of organizing individual competencies, perceptual competencies and communication competencies, a comprehensive theme of self-awareness was extracted as the first level of content required for entrepreneurship education. The 46 common themes became the two main organizing themes of managerial competencies and professional competencies. 14 Common themes include: Investment, Planning, Time Management, Management Ability, Organizational Behaviour, Entrepreneurship Ability, Entrepreneurship Management, Business Management, Financial Skills, Resource Management, Introduction to Management and Leadership, Financial Management, Mind Management, Quality control of activity became a theme that organizes managerial competencies.32 Common themes include: Economic and Tax Issues, Profitability of Activities, Principles of Advertising, Business Issues, Attracting customers, insurance, financial and accounting issues, familiarity with legal labour market issues, Company registration, knowledge of the labour market, ,Trading topics, revenue generation method, branding, production topics, familiarity with organizational rituals, new marketing methods, launching small activities, business creation topics, business innovation, business models, administrative correspondence, technical skills Specializes in calculating current costs, how to contract, ability to design activities, ability to produce, skills to create and acquire opportunities, Marketing skills, sales skills, Economic justification of activity, ethical principles at work became a theme of organizing professional competencies. The two themes of organizing managerial competencies and professional competencies were extracted from a comprehensive theme of self-efficacy as the second level of entrepreneurship education content.23 Common themes include: internal control, diligence, responsibility, self-management, foresight, success, critical thinking, entrepreneurial thinking, sense of social need, entrepreneurial spirit, tendency to change, problem solving, order, action, thinking big and acting small, Physical health education, self-management, thinking skills, anxiety control skills, self-employment in the community, the ability to use personal talents, awakening a sense of social responsibility, entrepreneurship management, proper use of the senses became a theme that organizes wealth competencies.

    Conclusion

    According to the conceptual pattern (model)of this study, the content of entrepreneurship education obtained for humanities in higher education in three levels of self-awareness (through acquiring individual, perceptual and communication competencies), self-efficacy (through managerial and professional competencies) and self-actualization (through self-empowerment). The realization of the competencies in different levels through the extracted basic themes can play a significant role in providing a purposeful and comprehensive education appropriate to the dimensions of human existence are achieved.

  • Amirhesam Babae, Jalil Fathabadi * Pages 170-191
    Language is the foundation of all education, and language skills include the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing (Saffarpour, 2000). Written language is one of the essential forms of language learned after other forms of language. Among necessary skills, writing is the most tangible, because writing itself leaves a written document (Nader Tabare, 2001). Today, writing failure is the most common disability in communication skills. One of the most important reasons for this is that the written form of the language is the most excellent and complex form of communication and is the last skill that is learned (Gorji, 1995).   Writing includes a set of related writing skills such as spelling, written expression, and handwriting. Spelling means memorizing words, and written expression means the ability to create ideas and express them in an acceptable grammatical structure in a way that conforms to the principles of literary stylistics (Andalibi, 2007). Teaching reading and writing skills should begin after learning to speak and hear because reading and writing are more sophisticated techniques that are primarily based on the ability of human language. Unfortunately, learning to write often stops at the point of spelling. While writing should be taught to store and transfer information (Zarghamian, 1999).   Until a few decades ago, some people thought that literacy was easy to learn and that children did not need special education in this field. However, the results of research (Pressley, 2006; Davis, 2010; Gilles, 2006) have shown the undeniable effect of correct methods on children educational achievements. Based on real and experimental research, and considering theories of learning and teaching methods, numerous and sometimes contradictory theories about the correct way of literacy have been presented. While most proponents of the methods claim that their methods are the key to proper education, there is no conclusive evidence that any of the methods have been proven, or that they have been successful in real effectiveness or that they have failed (Brooks & Brooks, 2005). The multiplicity of educational theories and disagreements about the optimal method of teaching is to the extent that some have described it as the term "Great Debate" for it (Chall, Jajobs & Baldwin, 1990). The problem is that some of these methods apply completely contradictory training strategies to each other (Maddox & Feng, 2013).   In terms of learning theories, there are two predominant methods in literacy: Phonics and Whole-language. The phonics method is attributed to the behaviorist perspective, and the whole-language method is attributed to the constructivist perspective (Tracey & Morrow, 2012, P.201). The whole-language teaching method emphasizes learning through the meaningful components of language and the growth of literacy. First, general language units, i.e., text and sentences, are taught, and later, smaller units are taught (McKenna, Stratton, Grindler, & Jenkins, 1995). Experts believe that teaching in a whole-language style encourages reading and writing and leads students to authentic literature (Schmitt, 2009). In the whole-language method, learners first encounter with words that have a tangible meaning when they learn to read, and this makes the training sessions not dull, but the students feel that they are learning to read since the first session and this strengthens their motivation (Zafari Nejad, Javadi, & Dortaj, 2004).   The phonics has been used for a long time, and it has also been called the skill-based method (Whitehurst & Lonigan, 2001) or the bottom-up mental processing method (Evans, Bozonnet, Wang, Fredouille, & Troncy, 2012). The phonics method can be considered as explicit, step-by-step training that each phoneme or sound is learned by placing, combining, decoding, or playing exercises and manipulating words and changing them (Maddox & Feng, 2013). Proponents of phonics believe that direct, step-by-step instruction can help students master reading and writing skills in a planned way (Cromwell, 1997). The phonological teaching method emphasizes the skill of word analysis (Pressley, 2001). The goal of this skill-based training model is to help students change their focus during reading and writing experiences by breaking codes and deciphering words to grow in word and text comprehension (Hall-Kenyon & Bingham, 2011). This study has been implemented to compare the written literacy of two groups of Iranian first-grade primary schoolboys. Each group learned to read and write with a different instructional method at two different schools; one was trained with traditional phonics procedure, and the other was trained with the whole-language approach. Commencing the writing instruction at the first group was concurrent with starting the reading instruction, but the writing instruction in the whole-language group began two months after the beginning of reading instruction. The research method was quasi-experimental, and the statistical community was all the students of the two schools. The whole-language school had 65 students, and traditional phonics school had 45 students. The non-random convenient sampling method was used in this study, so 30 students from each school, and totally, 60 students were chosen as a sample. The research tool was the first-grade Academic writing achievement Test (Ragheb, 1384) that was administrated in each group at pre-test and post-test jointly. For the statistical analysis, the Covariance method was used. The results indicated that whole-language students were better than traditional phonics students in the spelling (P<0/005). However, no significant difference was obtained between the two groups in the Composition. The results of this research are useable for a broad range of educators, teachers, and decision-makers of first-grade education and enable them to reconsider their instruction method.
    Keywords: Literacy, Writing Instruction, Whole-Language, First-grade
  • Leila Akrami *, Ahmad Abedi, Maryam Salehzadeh Pages 192-213
    Purpose
    The education of teachers is important with the aim of increase quality of teaching and raising the level of education and the learning process of students. Theory of successful intelligence is one of the most comprehensive and effective theories in the field of intelligence, for understand the nature of intelligence. This theory consists of three sections.  Many students, despite to have suitable intelligence, they have low academic achievement in schools. If there is no problem in the family environment, this can be due to teachers' teaching methods, assessments and attitudes. According to the theory of successful intelligence, teachers' attitudes and teaching methods can be improved. In teaching based on theory of successful intelligence, the teacher pursues a number of basic goals. Education is based on individual patterns and students' strengths and compensating for their weaknesses. Therefore, considering the importance of teachers 'views on students' cognitive abilities and its relationship with educational strategies, the aim of this study was to investigate, the effect of educational program based on the theory of successful intelligence on structure of teaching, increasing the sense of efficiency and implicit intelligence theories in teachers of boys and girls in primary school.  
    Method
    The method used in this study was a quasi-experimental method in which a pre-test-post-test design with a control group. The statistical population consisted of teachers of public girls 'and boys' primary schools in Yazd city in the academic year 2016-2017.Using three-stage random cluster sampling method, 60 teachers of girls' school and 60 boys' school in Yazd were selected as the sample. The questionnaire was used “Nature Intelligence Items (NII)” that includes 22 questions that examine 11 questions of entity theories intelligence theories and 11 questions of incremental intelligence theories. “Teaching Sternberg Intelligence Questionnaire (TSI-Q)” that consists of 20 questions and " Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES)" that the scale consists of 23 items. After initial evaluation, 40 teachers of girls' school and 44 teachers of boys' school with entity intelligence theory were randomly assigned to the experimental and control group. In this way, the training program was presented in the experimental group and the control group received no training. In connection with the intervention program, for 3 months in 26 sessions in the experimental group, the theory of successful intelligence was taught and the educational booklet prepared by the researchers in this field was given to the teachers. In the training sessions, an attempt was made to fully explain the components of successful intelligence and the training program based on it in the form of PowerPoint presentation. In connection with the educational content, the text of the program was translated based on the theory of successful intelligence for classroom, which was developed by Sternberg, and Grigorenko, 2003, and then Lawshe's method was used to examine the validity of its content. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and multivariate covariance analysis.  
    Findings
    In this study, 120 samples were examined, the mean age of female participants was 48.10 ± 5/76 and the average age of male participants was 49.72 ± 5/39. A multivariate analysis of covariance was used to investigate the research question. One of these assumptions was Leven's Test for Equality of Variances. The findings show that variance is assumed to be equal. To study the similarity of variance-covariance matrices, Box's Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices was used. The results showed that in the experimental group, the mean scores of male and female teachers in the variables studied in the post-test stage were different from the pre-test scores and the average scores increased and this difference remained in the follow-up stage. Multivariate test results were used to evaluate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variables. The results of this study showed that the educational program has been effective in structure of teaching with an impact factor of 0/78, increasing the sense of efficiency of teachers with an impact factor of 0/67, and changing implicit intelligence theories with an impact factor of 0/71 in girls' school teachers and in structure of teaching with an impact factor of 0/72, increasing the sense of efficiency of teachers with an impact factor of 0/78, and changing entity of intelligence theories with an impact factor of 0/65 in boys' school teachers.  
    Discussion
    Teaching successful intelligence theory has been effective in changing teachers' entity theories intelligence beliefs. It may be rooted in the reasons of successful intelligence theory in relation to students' cognitive abilities, which has led to an increase in teachers' tendency toward incremental theories. One of the positive consequences of successful intelligence theory in teachers is their increased perseverance and effort in the teaching process. The components of successful intelligence theory and teaching styles based on it increase teachers' motivation to use a variety of teaching methods and student-centered methods that which can increase teachers' sense of efficiency. Teacher efficiency depends on recognizing the psychological characteristics of learners and developing students' talents using appropriate teaching methods. Therefore, teaching successful intelligence theory provides an opportunity for the teacher to examine the strengths and weaknesses of his teaching method and to get acquainted with the methods of analytical, creative and practical teaching and their benefits. Given that the teachers' view of cognitive abilities students and sense of efficiency plays an important role in their teaching methods, it seems that an educational program based on successful intelligence theory can play an important role in changing their perspective on intelligence of students, structure of teaching and increasing their sense of efficiency. One of the most important limitations of the present study, is teachers were part of the curriculum, they may have answered the questions by bias. It seems that it is useful and necessary to study the effect of theory of successful intelligence to parents.
    Keywords: Structure of Teaching, implicit intelligence theories, Sense of Efficiency, Successful Intelligence Theory, Education
  • Reza Mohammadi *, Mohammad Reza Sarmadi, Esa Ebrahimzadeh, Marjan Masomifard Pages 214-237
    Objective

    Lack of providing optimal and timely use of new technologies in the field of literacy has changed into a belief in the countrywide illiteracy eradication programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran.This reality reflects the significant impact of new technologies on learning and requires strategic changes in the planning system (such as changes in the EdTechtools from unimedium to multimedia) and changes in the teaching methods in general (from traditional approaches to new approaches, which are usually technology-based ones). Literacy education is offered in the ages rangingfrom 10to 49 years in Iran in the form of three courses : literacy, maintenance and transferwhich havetheir own goals and contents. The transition period is considered as a period providing the opportunity for those who have completed the literacy coursesand also for those who do not qualify for further education in the formal education system. A two-hundred-hour teaching program has to be designed and implemented through virtual education or self-teachingprogramsduring the transition time based on the article 10 of the Educational Structure of the Literacy Movement, approved in the 833rd session of the Higher Education Council. This is considered as an opportunity for the planners and educators to take advantage of e-learning and virtual education to help them achieve the goals of the transition period. Although various virtual education models have been used to explain and plan educational activities to achieve success in virtual education programs in recent years, there has been no observed patterns of education and learning for low-educated adults. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to present and validate the virtual education model of adult learners in the transition period. To achieve these goals, three questions were raised: 1. What are the components of the adult virtual education? 2. What are the components of the initialdesigned model? 3.What are the experts’ points of view regarding the validity of the designed model?

    Methodology

    The present surveyhas been conductedthrough anexplanatory sequentialwhich is basically considered as a kind of mixed-method. Sample size and sampling procedurecriterion, data collection and analysiswere different in different levels and stages of the survey because of the use of the theoretical sampling method. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and interpret the qualitative data. The collected data were analyzed, categorized, organized, and classified using this analytical method. Major categories were extracted and presented in a conceptual model. At first 12 components and 34 sub-components were extracted from the qualitative data based on the documentary and library studies, then the virtual teaching model was developed and presented to the experts for the validation process. In the quantitative part of the survey, the experts validated the model using an electronic questionnaire.

    Results

    The findings of the analysis of the first question results led to the extraction of the components of the virtual education for the transition students. These components include the virtual literacy teaching, adult literacy features, learning position and teaching elements, learning principles, learning culture, learning environment, learning experiences, objectives, content, teaching methods and assessment. The findings of the second question led to the formulation of a conceptual framework from the initial model of the survey. The initial model consisted of three main components :literacy characteristics, learning status and teaching elements. Regarding the importance of the role of the individuals involved in the teaching and learning process as well as his major role as the most influential factor in his own learning, a component called adult learnerhas beenconsidered at the top of the model. On the other hand, in a new definition, the ability to make change is the criterion of literacy. Accordingly, although learning is often considered as a cognitive activity that happens in mind, it also has cultural origins which is the basis for the formation of interaction between learners, the interaction between the learner and the teacher, and also the changes in the learner's view of the content of learning. These factors represent the formation of a learning culture. The findings of the third question were plotted in a conceptual model. The adult learner in this literacy model is placed in the center of the model and the other factors are considered as the subsidiary ones located around this important and crucial factor. Compared to the existing models, this model has advantages such as consideringthe adult learner at the center of the model, paying more attention to the time andspace of learning, considering planning principles, as well as focusing on the psychology and philosophy of adult education. In the present model, due to the nature of the virtual education and distance education and the central role of the learner, with his literacy at the center of the model, special attention has been paid to his self-direction which actually leads him to an effective teaching-learning environment. Considering the occupational and family limitations, the adult learner has no limitation on learning time in virtual education and can learn at any time during his leisure or free time. Based on the pedagogical approach and in the age of concepts, the leaning space has removed the limitations of the classroom, school, and any physical dimensions of teaching space. In addition, in virtual education, space is a concept rather than being a place. There is more freedom and more domination in the learning environment. As the concept of learning space evolves, new types of interactions, such as the interaction of content with content, also emerge which enhances the learner's interaction with the content and motivates the learner resulting in removing the traditional teaching and learning gaps. The learning space also allows teachers to play a facilitating role in the learning process for learners and to push education towards new ways of learning. The validity of the present model was evaluated by experts. Expert responses with an average of 4.40 of the responses indicate that the model is appropriate. The t-test results were also significant at 95% confidence level for all the questions. Based on the findings of this study, the designed model is valid enough to be used for adult learners in the transition period of the virtual education. In future surveys, the validity and effectiveness of this model can be evaluated from the perspectives of literacy students as the most important learning factor and also from the points of view of literacy teachers.This model is the first model developed for adult virtual education; therefore, more surveys have to be conducted to address its potential drawbacks.

    Keywords: Virtual Education Model, Literacy, Transition course, Accreditation
  • Esmaeil Soleimani, *, Mehdi Sarkhosh, Roghieh Nooripour, Behnaz Dehgahn, Simin Hoseinian Pages 238-254
    Foreign language class anxiety is one of the most important emotional elements in language learning. Experiencing the emotions that occur frequently throughout the classroom shapes the process of learning a foreign language. Foreign language anxiety affects the level of English language learning success, so high levels of anxiety can play a deterrent role for learners in the language acquisition device. Foreign language anxiety is influenced by factors such as learners, instructors, and teaching practice, and occurs when students have several negative experiences in foreign language contexts. Six potential reasons for foreign language anxiety are involved in language learners' learning, including individual and interpersonal factors, learner's beliefs about language learning, teacher's beliefs about language teaching, the interaction between learner and teacher, classroom methods, and language tests. Learning a foreign language is influenced by a variety of factors. The tool by which a foreign language is learned, and limitations such as the lack of a social environment, the skill limitation of a foreign language, the classroom atmosphere, and the anxiety of learners, put it in front of the first language, which is usually effortless and spontaneous. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of social avoidance and distress, academic motivation and academic self-efficacy as variables predicting anxiety in foreign language classroom anxiety. The present study is based on the goals of descriptive research and in terms of data analysis method of correlation studies. The statistical population of the study included all students studying at Urmia University, which includes 16,750 students. Sampling was performed by multi-stage clustering. At first, among the faculties of Urmia University, according to the extensive volume of the research community and observing the principle of saving, the multi-stage sampling method should be used. Accordingly, in the first stage, three faculties of Economics and Management, Literature and Humanities, Technical and Engineering were randomly selected from different faculties, and then two faculties of Mechanics and Mining, Persian Literature and History and Economics and Business Management were randomly selected from each faculty. Were selected. At this stage, after each session, randomly and independently from the male and female students, a class was randomly selected and the subjects were examined. The criteria for entering the study in each group included at least two semesters of study so that in the current semester they have chosen the English language unit and are taking an English language course. The first language of these students was Persian, Turkish and Kurdish. Finally, 223 undergraduate students were selected, and after ensuring that the English language course was chosen in the current semester, the research questionnaires were provided to the students. The following tools were used to collect information. The following measures were used to collect data. They were then analyzed using SPSS version 22 using statistical methods of Pearson correlation and stepwise regression. The measures in this research include the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) Questionnaire, Watson and Friend's Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD), Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). The study involved 223 people, three of whom were excluded from the analysis, so the data of 148 women and 72 men were analyzed. The age range of students was 18 to 32 years, with a mean of 19.84 years and a standard deviation of 2.19. To determine the share of distress and social avoidance variables with a mean of 6.69 and standard deviation of 4.62, academic motivation including internal motivation with a mean of 56.22 and standard deviation of 12.84, external motivation with a mean of 62.15 and standard deviation of 14.60 And motivation with a mean of 9.12 and standard deviation of 5.17, as well as academic self-efficacy with a mean of 29.51 and standard deviation of 6.72, in predicting foreign language class anxiety with a mean of 1.06 and standard deviation of 23.70 of correlation statistical methods. Pearson and step-by-step regression analysis were used with SPSS statistical software version 22, the results of which are presented below. The results indicated that the correlations between social avoidance and distress and academic self-efficacy with foreign language anxiety were 0.36 and 0.32, respectively. Among the variables, social avoidance and distress and academic self-efficacy can predict the variance of English language class anxiety. Also, the share of predictor variables of distress and social avoidance and also self-efficacy in explanation of English language classroom anxiety were 0.134 and 0.108 respectively. In this research, the academic motivation variable did not get any explicit contribution. The research findings suggest a relationship model with self-efficacy, social avoidance, and distress that affects the anxiety of the foreign language class. When self-efficacy is low, there is a risk of negative self-assessment, often accompanied by concerns about the consequences of performance on the exam or concerns about exam anxiety, which can cause physiological-emotional arousal during class or exam, and vice versa when students Assess the ability to perform a variety of educational tasks and advance the goals they have set for themselves. They are successful in controlling anxiety states in the face of test anxiety and communication comprehension and fear of negative evaluation by others. Self-efficacy helps organize the mental space and can predict changes in language class anxiety. Research has shown that more encouragement and training opportunities by the instructor can help the student's self-efficacy and reduce language class anxiety levels, thus creating a negative relationship between self-efficacy and anxiety, which is consistent with the study's findings. Foreign language classroom anxiety is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, and its study requires consideration of various environmental and internal dimensions. Given that distress and social avoidance, as well as self-efficacy, were able to explain changes in language class anxiety, it is suggested that the manifestation of foreign language classroom anxiety, students' performance and their scores on foreign language exams must be evaluated.
    Keywords: foreign language anxiety, social avoidance, distress, Academic self-efficacy, academic motive