فهرست مطالب

  • سال پنجم شماره 1 (1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • N. Bagheri, M. Keshavarz Turk, F. Abbasi, N. Abbasi, M. Bordbar Page 1

    Sustainable agricultural development and national food security while preserving the health and the quality of crops depend on the development of knowledge-based agriculture. To advance knowledge-based agriculture, observing national and global developments in the future and coordinating its activities with the fluctuating changes in science and technology is the keystone. Due to the special position of research institutes in the achievement of knowledge-based agriculture, it is essential for these institutes to carry out the research based on scientific and technological world evolutions. So, in this research, alternative futures of the Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI) considered as a knowledge-based research institute in the field of agricultural technology. The present study was based-on descriptive-analytical and survey methods. The statistical population of this research includes agricultural experts, researchers of AERI, agricultural managers, certified agricultural equipment producers, and beneficiaries. To collect data, a questionnaire, a library study and a panel of expert’s methods were used. Based on a literature review and panel of experts the questionnaires were designed in three steps, and their validity and reliability were measured. The GBN method was used to develop scenarios. In this research, the trend analysis was carried out. So, the driving forces affecting the future of AERI were identified. After determining the uncertainty of driving forces, the scenario matrix was determined and future scenarios of AERI designed. Three scenarios such as the common future, desired future, and hard-time future were designed based on the scenario matrix.

    Keywords: Agricultural engineering research institute, Futures studies, Keyuncertainties, Scenario planning.
  • K. Vahdati, S. Sarikhani Page 19

    The agriculture sector plays a role beyond food security and has a significant effect on the political, social and economic situation of a country. In general, 34.3% of the world’s land, 70% of water use and 37.3% of the world’s jobholders belong to the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector in Iran employs 18% of the total jobholders. Food demand requires a substantial increase of global food production of 70% by 2050 which may cause unsustainability through excessive utilization of resources, contamination of soil and water, and the excessive use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to sustainable agriculture development to maintain natural resources. Sustainable agriculture development should be ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable and socially desirable. While the Five-year Plans after the Islamic Revolution have focused on agricultural development without emphasis on sustainable development, the focus of the country's fifth and sixth development plans has largely been on sustainable agricultural development. The study of indices of sustainable agriculture development in Iran in comparison to some neighboring countries indicated that Iran has not achieved its true status and is necessary to develop agriculture sustainably by adopting the appropriate developmental models. The most important agricultural development models in the world include the frontier model, conservation model, urban-industrial impact model, diffusion model, high pay-off input model and induced innovation model. It seems that a combination of these models is necessary for sustainable agricultural development in Iran.

    Keywords: Agricultural development models, Employment, Environment, Horticulture, Sustainable economics
  • M. Abdolshahnejad, H. Khosravi, A.A. Nazari Samani, G.R. Zehtabian, A. Alambaigi Page 33

    In last decade, increasing of environmental issues such as the occurrence dust storms, have caused concern among planners. To this purpose, it is important to provide a method for control and combat with it .Therefore, Risk assessment can help planners as a key and effective way of preparing programs and adopting dust management strategies. Therefore, it is necessary to identify a standard framework for finding resilient and vulnerable groups. In order to provide an appropriate framework to the dust risk assessment, first the theoretical foundations of vulnerability, adaptability and resilience was investigated, then Resilience assessment tools were prioritized. The statistical population of this research are experts and relevant specialist and for the evaluation of tools, the TOPSIS method has been used. The results of this study show that the CoBRA framework is priority to other tools based on five criteria (access to data source, quantification and qualification potential, including five basic capitals, different spatial and temporal scales and threshold. Therefore, CoBRA is the main basis for the conceptual framework of this study. Because it involves Social, human, physical and natural capitals, Also the degree of vulnerability based on adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure and the degree of resilience based on physical, human, financial, natural and social resources are estimated. The conceptual framework and results presented in this study could be the basis for assessing dust risk in the affected areas.

    Keywords: Adaptive capacity, Dust, Resilience, Tool, Vulnerability
  • M. Omidi, S.A. Peighambari, A. Rezaei, A.R. Koocheki, D. MazaheriM. Valizadeh, B. Yazdi Samadi Page 45

    A survey was conducted to evaluate 200 scientific journals published in 2014 in the field of Agronomy and Plant Breeding by Department of Agricultural and Natural resources, Iran Academy of Sciences (IAS) during 2016-2017. Results showed that 40 journals can be categorized in the field of “Agronomy and Plant Breeding” (10 journals in crop ecology, 8 journals in genetics and biotechnology, 22 journals in agronomy and plant breeding). The quantity of 286 scientific papers (from 40 journals) were randomly selected and evaluated by 2-4 academic members using 10 structural and 5 qualitative indices. Each paper were received a separate score from each reviewer. Applying standard statistical methods on data ranked 2 journals (5%) as having high quality, 11 journals (27.5%) as good, 16 journals (40%) as intermediate, 10 journals (25%) as low quality and 1 journal (2.5%) as very low-quality journal. According to 5 qualitative indices, 3 journals were selected for applied utility index, 7 for publication necessity, 6 for update index, 8 for innovation and six for scientific value index. Finally, 3 journals namely Modern Genetics (in Farsi), Agronomy of Seed and Seedling (in Farsi), and Plant Physiology and Breeding were selected as high-quality scientific journals. Twenty-two journals were not considered as high quality in any of the evaluated indices.

    Keywords: Qualitative index, Scientific journals, Structural-formal evaluation
  • G.M. Haghnia, A. Abtahi, H. Siadat, F. Khormali, M.R. Mosaddeghi Page 57

    An investigation was carried out for the journals in 13 branches of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources at the Department of Agricultural Sciences, IR Academy of Sciences. A total of 200 Iranian scientific journals were qualitatively evaluated. As part of that project, the results of 10 journals in the fields of soil science published in 2014 are reported. Ten indices for evaluating the format of the journals and five indices for the quality of the articles published in the journals were designed and used. The data were statistically analyzed to rank the journals. Results showed that none of the journals received the highest ranking (very good). Twenty percent were good, fifty percent were medium, twenty percent were weak and ten percent were placed in the very weak category. The journals were also compared by the following criteria in relation to published articles: innovativeness, applicability and up-to-datedness of articles and practical usefulness and necessity of publication of the journal. In this regard, Biology Journal scored highest. Journals of Soil and Water Conservation Researches, and Soil Management and Sustainable Production scored highest for the necessity of publication. None of the assessed journals showed any preference in view of practical usefulness.

    Keywords: Journal evaluation, Qualitative index, Soil Science Journal
  • M. Zibaie, E. Heshmati Rafsanjani, A. Sheikhzeinoddin Page 65

    Although Iran is aleading pistachio producing and exporting country, it faces various challenges such as reluctance or inability of producers to use advanced technologies and modern methods in producing, packaging and exporting. Developing and even keeping sharers in the world’s market requires the adoption of appropriate strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate production and export strategies of pistachio in Kerman province in order to improve Iranian pistachio competitiveness in global market. In the first stage of this study the evaluation matrices of external and internal factorswere set up. In the second stage, alternative strategies were identified by aligning key external and internal factors and using Strength- WeaknessOpportunity- Threat matrix, Strategic Position and Action Evaluation matrix and the internalexternal matrix. In the he third section, evaluates the strategies identified in section two were evaluated using a quantitative strategic planning matrix and prioritizing the alternative strategies according to criteria via TOPSIS and ELECTRE-III technique. Results indicated that pistachio industry in Kerman is internally and externally weak and current strategies are neither capitalizing on opportunities nor avoiding the external threats. Consistent with the final prioritization, the strategies known to be superior to the other strategic alternatives include developing marketing activities and enhancing the capability to build the Iranian pistachio brand through market and consumer research, using modern irrigation systems, promoting cultivation of pistachios and related activities in other provinces of the country with the direct participation of Kerman pistachio farmer and using mulch and plastic cover.

    Keywords: ELECTRE-III, Export, Production Strategies, FAHP, Pistachio, TOPSIS
  • R. Mostowfizadeh, Ghalamfarsa, F. Salmaninezh Page 81

    Understanding the way of introduction and establishment of plant pathogens is essential to prevent new invasions. Most studies carried out in the last decade indicate that biological invasions are the result of the bridge-head effect. In other words, pathogens use a new environment or a new host plant as a primary base from which they can invade and cause epidemics in a proper time. Bridge-head effect has been observed with plant pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes in urban trees. Urban landscapes are usually the first point of contact of exotic novel pathogens with endemic plants, which is often due to the concentration of human activities and the introduction of exotic plants in these areas. Urban trees are a suitable location for the establishment of invasive pathogens which have been accidentally arrived at the area. Bridge-head effect probably plays a significant role in causing long-term damages and cause costly attempts for the management of plant pathogens. In contrast, for early detection of novel or invasive pathogens, one may use urban trees as sentinel plantings and the damages caused by these pathogens could be managed by prediction of the disease occurrence. There are some evidences for the existence of the bridge-head effect for oomycetes in urban trees and ornamental plants in Iran. Moreover, there are some reports indicating the existence of novel pathogens in these areas. The aim of this article is to review the aspects of the bridge-head effect in plant fungal and oomycete pathogens as well as planning to manage the potential threat to Iran’s natural ecosystems caused by their bridge-head effects.

    Keywords: Biological invasion, Bridge-head effect, Novel pathogens, Oomycota, Sentinel plants
  • A. Mahdavi Damghani Page 97

    It is now globally recognized that sustainable food security is not achievable by productionoriented paradigms which result in resource and agroecosystem damage, but it is attainable by applying agroecological approach which aims at sustainability and productivity as well as resource conservation and environmental health. Many researchers and policy-makers strongly believe that agroecology is a win-win solution relying on minimization of off-farm input consumption and maximization of on-farm input and practice reliance. Food safety improves agroecosystem resilience, especially in harsh environments, like arid and semi-arid regions where climate change aggravates environmental stresses including drought, salinity and heat. Iran has to follow knowledge-based, environmental-friendly, economic-viable and carrying capacity-based agroecology to attain sustainable food security.

    Keywords: Food security, Food sovereignty, Sustainable agriculture