فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:24 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Maryam Malek*, Farnaz Mohammadtaheri, Parvaneh Nikpour, Azar Baradaran Pages 1-9
    Introduction

    The role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been intensively studied in the development of several human diseases. Myocardial infarction-associated transcript (Miat) is among the most abundant and highly conserved lncRNAs that exhibits deregulation in some critical diseases. However, it remains unclear whether Miat may also play a role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) and neurological consequences.

    Methods

    In the present study, the expression of lncRNA Miat was measured in the rat kidney and hippocampus tissues to assess if there is an association between the expression of it and AKI. AKI was induced by clamping the bilateral renal artery for 45min and was confirmed 24 hours after reperfusion by biochemical markers and histopathological assessments in rat kidneys.

    Results

    We observed an increasing trend of Miat expression (256-fold) in the kidney as well as the hippocampus (2-fold) following AKI.

    Conclusion

    It appears that there is a relationship between the deregulation of the Miat expression and AKI and the hippocampal involvement, although more studies are needed to confirm the functional effect of this lncRNA in AKI.

    Keywords: Long non‐coding RNA, Miat, Acute kidney injury, Hippocampus
  • Roksana Soukhaklari, Majid Reza Farokhi, Maryam Moosavi* Pages 10-18
    Introduction

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the damage of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra. Despite considerable research, therapeutic approaches aimed at the prevention and long-term treatment of PD have not been quite successful. Therefore, there is a tendency for the identification of novel medical intervention derived from natural substances. Nobiletin, an important citrus flavonoid commonly present in sweet and bitter orange peel, has been suggested to act as a neuroprotective agent in animal models of PD. This study was aimed to assess the potentials of nobiletin in preventing neuronal death and caspase-3 in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Methods

    SH-SY5Y cells were grown in DMEM/F12 media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) with or without nobiletin was added to cells. After 24h, the cells were examined for morphological changes under a light microscope and viability by MTT assay. The protective doses of nobiletin was chosen through a pilot study and accordingly the doses 50 and 250μM were selected for further assessments. Western blot assays were done to examine the effect of 6-OHDA with/without nobiletin on cleaved (active) caspase-3.

    Results

    Our results showed that nobiletin is effective in attenuating the effect of 6-OHDA on cell viability by the MTT assay. Nobiletin also reduced the cleavage of caspase-3 induced by 6-OHDA.

    Conclusion

    These results suggest that nobiletin has protective effects against dopaminergic neural toxicity and its anti-apoptotic effect is involved, at least in part, in such protection.

    Keywords: Nobiletin, SH-SY5Y, Caspase-3, Cell viability, 6-OHDA
  • Naser Khalaji, Adel Mohammadzadeh, Masoomeh Naseri Goosheh Derag, Roya Naderi*, Elham Asgari Hassanlouei Pages 19-27
    Introduction

    Consumption of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), a derivative of amphetamine, can results in various undesirable side effects including hematological and serological parameters. This study is intended to examine the effects of curcumin along with MDMA in the early and late phase of consumption on hematological parameters and serum immunoglobins (IgM, IgG and IgA) levels.

    Methods

    We used 56 male rats that are divided into 7 groups: group1 (control), group2 (MDMA+vehicle1), group3 (curcumin), group4 (MDMA+early curcumin), group5 (MDMA+vehicle2), group6 (MDMA+late curcumin) and group7 (MDMA+early&late curcumin). The groups were received MDMA (20mg/kg) orally and curcumin (20μM/kg) intra-peritoneally for 2 and 4 weeks (n=8). After 24h of final dose, rats were anesthetized and blood samples were collected and used for determination of hematological parameters and IgM, IgG and IgA levels using a Coulter Automated Cell Counter and ELISA kit.

    Results

    Our data indicated that either MDMA alone or in combination with curcumin in both early and late phases decreased lymphocytes, platelet, total leukocyte count and RBC, MCHC, RDW, immunoglobin levels, as well as hemoglobin content in comparison with the control group. In contrast, the amount of neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, mean cell volume and HCT increased. Furthermore, we observed blood parasites of red blood cells in the MDMA groups with curcumin.

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, MDMA alone and in combination of curcumin altered the hematological parameters. Furthermore, their combination therapy induces toxic effects on hematological parameters and serum immunoglobin levels. This is a serious consequence for recreational drug users.

    Keywords: Ecstasy, Blood cells, Immunoglobulins, Curcumin
  • Khairunnisa Khairunnisa*, Embun Suci Nasution Pages 28-33
    Introduction

    This study aimed to determine the patterns of antibiotic use from prescriptions of physicians received by pharmacies in Medan from January to March 2017.

    Methods

    This study was conducted in a cross-sectional method using direct observation of prescriptions received by 100 pharmacies in Medan city. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively and grouped based on the antibiotic names, antibiotic classes, type of drugs, dosage forms and prescriptions.

    Results

    A total of 12,388 prescription sheets were obtained from 100 pharmacies in Medan during the study period in which 3,823 of the prescription sheets (30.96%) contained antibiotics. According to the data, 4,029 antibiotics were prescribed by physicians in which amoxicillin (20.63%) and cephalosporin groups (25.94%) as the most widely prescribed antibiotic and antibiotic class, respectively. A total of 1,923 antibiotics (47.73%) were prescribed with generic names and more than half of the antibiotics were prescribed in the dosage form of tablets (65.65%). This study also found that Ear Nose Throat (ENT) specialists are medical doctors who prescribe antibiotics the most.

    Conclusion

    Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions is still quite high in which amoxicillin as the most commonly prescribed antibiotic. In addition, ENT specialists as the most frequent prescribers of antibiotics.

    Keywords: Antibiotics, Drug use patterns, Pharmacy, Prescription
  • Meysam Ghorbani, Parviz Shahabi*, Pouran Karimi, Mohammad Javan, Soheila Bani, Saba Hoseini, Hamid Soltani Zangbar, Behnaz Sadeghzadeh Oskouei Pages 34-45
    Introduction

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition which can lead to permanent loss of neurons, glial and precursor cells. According to the positive influences of electrical stimulation in the neurogenesis, we hypothesized that sub-threshold electrical stimulation in the presence of exogenous astrocyte may trigger the differential regulation of wingless-type3 (Wnt-3) and eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α) mediators in spinal cord injured rats.

    Methods

    Forty male Wistar rats (weighing 250-280g) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, SCI, SCI+astrocyte and SCI+astrocyte which followed by electrical stimulation. We evaluated the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), doublecortin, Wnt-3 and eIF2α proteins by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting techniques.

    Results

    The results show that expression of Wnt-3 and eIF2α proteins significantly enhanced after 14 days in the electrical stimulation+ SCI+astrocyte group in comparison with SCI and SCI+astrocyte groups. Also, the expression of GFAP cells was significantly increased after 14 days by electrical stimulation compared with other groups. Electrical stimulation had no effect on expression of doublecortin after 14 days.

    Conclusion

    This survey demonstrates that sub-threshold electrical stimulation up-regulates Wnt-3 and eIF2α mediators. Also, GFAP marker expression has been increased in animals subjected to electrical stimulation. But there are no evidences based on doublecortin expression as a neurogenesis biomarker.

    Keywords: Spinal cord injury, Electrical stimulation, GFAP, Doublecortin, Wingless-type3
  • Siamak Beheshti*, Sahar Tohidloo, Abolghasem Esmaeili Pages 46-53
    Introduction

    Frankincense expands memory performance in different experimental models of learning. Nevertheless, the causal molecular mechanisms have not been well investigated. The expression levels of some of the synaptic proteins might probably change following the consumption of frankincense. The present study investigated the effect of maternal injection of frankincense during gestation and lactation periods on memory performance and the mRNA expression levels of syntaxin1A and synaptophysin in the hippocampus of the offspring rats.

    Methods

    Adult female Wistar rats weighing 180-220g received two doses (50 or 100mg/kg) of the aqueous extract of frankincense by gavage during gestation and lactation periods for 45 consecutive days, except three days after labor. The control group received water. Spatial memory was assessed in the male offspring rats using the Morris water maze. Quantitative PCR was used to measure mRNAs expression levels of syntaxin1A and synaptophysin.

    Results

    Frankincense improved spatial memory retrieval in the offspring rats. Data analysis by one-way ANOVA demonstrated that frankincense did not change the expression levels of the hippocampal syntaxin1A mRNA in the offspring rats. However, it significantly decreased the expression levels of the hippocampal synaptophysin mRNA.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that consumption of frankincense during both gestation and lactation periods has a beneficial impact on spatial memory performance, which is accompanied by the down-regulation of the hippocampal synaptophysin mRNA. Nevertheless, this down-regulation did not change the improving effect of frankincense in memory.

    Keywords: Frankincense, Hippocampus, Spatial memory, Synaptophysin, Syntaxin1A
  • Ehsan Saboory*, Soheila Rabiepoor, Maryam Abedi Pages 54-62
    Introduction

    Stressful events during pregnancy may affect cognitive and somatic development in infants and increase the risk of developmental disorders in future. This study aimed at assessing the correlation between prenatal stress with salivary cortisol and leptin levels with a focus on infant development.

    Methods

    In this prospective correlative study, 80 infants whose mothers were admitted to clinics during pregnancy were evaluated. The pregnant women were included during 24-28 weeks of pregnancy and assessed using the perceived stress scale until delivery. Following delivery, growth and development of infants were evaluated using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at birth as well as 2, 4 and 6 months after birth. For assessing leptin and cortisol levels, cord blood and salivary samples were collected at birth and 6 months after birth, respectively.

    Results

    The mean perceived stress score (PSS) during pregnancy was associated with infant development and weight at 2 and 6 months of age, respectively. Moreover, there was a negative association between leptin level at 6 months of age and infant height at 2, 4 and 6 months after birth. Finally, a negative correlation was observed between cortisol level at 6 months of age and infant height at 2 months following birth.

    Conclusion

    The results indicated that the PSS of the mothers negatively correlated with the infants’ growth, development and cortisol and leptin levels. Thus, prenatal stress probably affects growth and development in infancy through effects on the neuroendocrine system. Leptin might be an appropriate biomarker for determination of growth and development in infancy.

    Keywords: Prenatal stress, Development, Leptin, Cortisol, Saliva
  • Farzaneh Zadehdarvish, Mahnaz Kesmati*, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Mozhgan Torabi Pages 63-73
    Introduction

    Plasma magnesium level is reduced after postpartum depression in female and this reduction can cause memory impairment. As regards the magnesium has antidepressant activity and it's deficiency leads to depression, the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of magnesium in form of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) on memory retrieval in a postpartum depression model.

    Methods

    Adult female mice (27±3g) were divided into groups of control, depressed and depressed recipient of MgO NPs (1, 2.5, 5 or 10mg/kg) as an acute and chronic administrations. For induction of postpartum depression, chronic administration (5 days) of progesterone was used and three days after stopping administration, the depressive behavior was evaluated by tail suspension test. Passive avoidance memory and locomotor activity have done 24 hours after training using the step-down and open field devices, respectively.

    Results

    Induction of postpartum depression model by the withdrawal of progesterone significantly decreased the memory retrieval. Acute administration of MgO NP significantly improved depression and memory impairment in a dose-dependent manner, while chronic administration showed less improvement in depression and memory. There was no difference between locomotor activities in all groups.

    Conclusion

    It seems that acute administration of MgO NPs could be more suitable supplement than its chronic ones for improving depression and prevent memory impairment induced by postpartum depression. Probably the duration of nanoparticles administration can be a determining factor in their efficacy.

    Keywords: Magnesium oxide, Memory, Nanoparticle, Postpartum depression
  • Saeed Pazhoohan*, Abbas Alimoradian, Mohammad Amini, Misagh Shafiee, Mehdi Sadegh Pages 74-81
    Introduction

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing along with its associated respiratory disorders, sleep disturbance and mental health problems. Despite the adverse effects of benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) on the respiratory system function, they remain the most commonly used medications for the management of anxiety and sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic hyperglycemia increases the adverse respiratory effects of BZRAs.

    Methods

    The experiments were carried out in male Wistar rats that were randomly allocated into six experimental groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 35mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). We recorded breathing of conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography at the onset of the experiment and three weeks after diabetes induction. Animals were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of midazolam (0.75mg/kg) and diazepam (1mg/kg) 15min prior to the second respiratory recording.

    Results

    Analysis of respiratory dynamics revealed an alteration in breathing pattern in intact animals following the anxiolytic dose of benzodiazepines, which was associated with an increase in respiration rate and variability and decrease in the irregularity of the respiratory rhythm. Meanwhile, these effects were significantly decreased in hyperglycemic animals.

    Conclusion

    Our results demonstrate that STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats exhibited decreased adverse respiratory effects of BZRAs. It seems that hyperglycemia induced an impairment in benzodiazepine receptors response to the BZRAs.

    Keywords: Hyperglycemia, Diabetes, Benzodiazepine, Respiration, Breathing pattern