فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • W.O. Omollo * Pages 1-18
    Although a substantial body of research concurs that most urban areas have a challenge in providing adequate car parking space, there is a scarcity in the literature on how conformity to planning standards that regulates the provision of car parking spaces may be analyzed. This study, therefore, examines the extent to which the planning standards that regulate compliance with the provision of car parking spaces in the residential areas are enforced in Kenya, a case study of Kisii Town. It is anchored in the theory of regulatory compliance with a sample size of 364 residential developments proportionately drawn from the seven neighborhoods. Data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed using means, standard deviation, paired sample t-test and Pearson’s bivariate correlation. Research findings showed that although the recommended standard for car parking in Kenya is a ratio of one parking space for every two dwelling units, most developers disregarded the requirement. Hypothesis testing confirmed a significant difference between the recommended planning standards on the minimum number of parking spaces and the extent of conformity by developers, t (289) = 20.261, p=.000), thus, compliance declined by a mean of four. The study concludes that developers rarely comply with planning standard owing to insufficient development control. It is recommended that when approving building plans, it should be mandatory to make provision for adequate parking space followed by monitoring to ensure compliance. The study benefits the international readers by validating how conformity to the standards that regulate car parking space may be statistically analyzed.
    Keywords: compliance, Kenya, Kisii Town, neighborhoods, planning standards
  • A. Edrisi *, M. Askari Pages 19-26
    Most cities around the world are in danger of disasters. Among disasters, the earthquake is the most dangerous and ruining one. Iran has been located in the Alpine-Himalayas seismic belt, and because of the significant frequency of severe earthquakes happening all over the country compare to other countries and the state of the unsecured residential and non-residential buildings in most of the areas, attention to the post-disaster phase is vital. This study aims to locate shelters in some districts and allocate at-risk people of all districts to these shelters. Also, another purpose of this study is the reduction of the allocated budget by the government and reduction of traveled distance by people considering the possibility of link failure due to the earthquake. Allocated budget by the government for shelter construction includes the fixed and marginal cost. Mixed Integer Linear Programming has been used for modeling the suggested method. This method has been applied to the Tehran network, and the Genetic Algorithm has been used for solving the proposed method. The results showed that the leading share of the imposed costs arose from the shelter construction budget. Furthermore, the probability of choosing a district for constructing a shelter has a direct relationship with the at-risk population and the cost of shelter construction in that district. Seven districts have chosen to build shelters with about 400 thousand people capacity. District 16 chosen for constructing the biggest shelter that should serve to up to 123 thousand people and District 5 chosen to construct the smallest shelter that should serve to up to 16 thousand people.
    Keywords: Disaster Management, genetic algorithm, Mixed Integer Linear Programming, Shelter locating, Transportation network resiliency
  • F. Forootan Eghlidi, F. Karimi * Pages 27-34
    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the dimensions of glass ceiling and the organizational commitment of women employees at University of Isfahan, which was conducted by a correlational-type descriptive method. The study population consisted of the women employees working at University of Isfahan, whose number stood at 428 individual and 202 individuals of them were selected using a stratified random sampling fit for the size. In order to collect data, two questionnaires glass ceiling and organizational commitment were utilized. For data analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise regression, and multivariate variance analysis test were used. The findings of the research indicated that correlation coefficient between glass ceiling) r=-0.215, p<0.01) and family barrier dimension )r=-0.174, p<0.05) and social barriers )r=-0.183, p<0.05), as dimensions of glass ceiling, and organizational commitment is negative and significant. Among the dimensions of glass ceiling, social barrier was the best predictor of organizational commitment (β=21.9).
    Keywords: Family barrier, Glass ceiling, Organizational Commitment, social barrier, women employees
  • A. Talla *, F.D. Motto, G.E. Nkeng Pages 35-44
    This study is a contribution to the study of the spatial evolution of the properties of the municipal lake of Yaounde-Cameroon. The objective was the characterization of the physico-chemical, bacteriological and organoleptic parameters of water of this lake in order to provide the scientifically exploitable data. To understand the sources and the evolution of the pollution of this lake, we carried out on the surface of water, fifteen samples horizontally representative and arranged on the longitudinal axis and the transverse axis of this one. Analyzes of the parameters of these samples allowed us to establish that three classes of water coexist within the expanse of this lake, in this case water of class 5 (colour = 380.3 mgPt-Co/L, conductivity at 20 °C = 3620 μS/cm, pH = 6.2, dissolved oxygen = 0.4 mg/L) at its its eastern bank; water of class 4 (101.4 ≤ colour ≤ 172.8 mgPt-Co/L, 25.7 ≤ temperature ≤ 26.1 °C, 6.6 ≤ pH ≤ 7.0, 8.9 ≤ BOD5 ≤ 20.7 mg/L, 43.0.103 ≤ total coliforms ≤ 49.7.103 CFU/100 mL) around 300 meters from its tributary and water of class 3 (54.9 ≤ colour ≤ 93.4 mgPt-Co/L, 24.2 ≤ temperature ≤ 25.5 °C ; 7.4 ≤ pH ≤ 7.7, 6.6 ≤ BOD5 ≤ 8.7 mg/L) in the rest of the lake. These water classes, as indicated above, cause this lake to be polluted differently. The study also allowed us to identify two directions of self-purification within the lake expanse.
    Keywords: Bacteriological parameters, Domestic effluents, Physicochemical parameters, Runoff water, self-purification, Water class, Yaounde municipal lake
  • M. Yarmohammadi, F. Razavian * Pages 45-52
    Construction projects are one of the most important economic sectors in the world. At the same time, these projects are one of the hazardous industries that cause many accidents resulting from injuries and deaths, occupational diseases, delay in time, environmental problems and other direct and indirect damages. While in many industries, the issue of health, safety and environment is meticulously planned as an important and structured topic, in construction projects this is not taken seriously. Therefore, the vital role of the Health, Safety and Environment staff would be meaningless without sufficient power. The current study examined the status of Health, Safety and Environment authorities in construction projects and their impact on the performance indicators of this sector. Eight indicators were identified in relation to the main research question and the relationship between Health, Safety and Environment authority delegation and the eight performance indicators. Out of these significant relationships, authority delegation had the maximum correlation (0.690) with environmental health status and the least correlation was observed with per capita disease (-0.513). The results of the data analysis showed that the terms of discretion of the Health, Safety and Environment authorities in construction projects are inadequate. Managers of this field trust authorities with higher academic degrees and give them more authority.
    Keywords: Authority Delegation, Building Construction Projects, environment, health, Safety
  • Z. Alizadeh Afrouzy *, SH. Tavangarzadeh Pages 53-58
    Organizational citizenship behavior has always been tested in the knowledge-intensive sectors of societies. Organizational citizenship behavior is a voluntary and discretionary behavior that is supposed to build up the cultural aspect of the organization; it is not part of the personnel's contractual tasks and can contribute to the successful implementation of the organization's objectives. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the interactions among the organizational citizenship behavior components and the organizational performance for the bank systems in the Asian context; thus the province of Mazandaran in Iran was chosen. The number of studied banks were 33 and 127 structured questionnaires were distributed among the selected bank employees and based on the received data; correlation tests have been conducted. In order to analyze the gained data, two types of parametric and non-parametric tests have been applied. The results indicated correlations between 0.5 and 0.8 for these variables. It is worth noting that both parametric and non-parametric tests had almost the same results; they both showed a positive and significant correlation.
    Keywords: Bank systems, Correlation, Organizational citizenship behavior, Organizational Performance
  • A. Opayemi, R. Oguntayo *, A. Popoola, A. Alabi Pages 59-68

    This study investigated psychosocial factors as determinants of littering prevention behavior among residents of Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria.  The independent variables are; personality traits, gender, Residential characteristics, Educational level, Age and Organizational factors while dependent variable is littering prevention behavior. Descriptive survey was utilized for research design and accidental sampling technique to collect data from a total of 601 participants. The sample comprised of 263(43.8%) males and 338(56.2%) female respondents. Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) was used to measure personality traits while Littering Prevention Behavior Scale (LPBS) was used to assess littering prevention behavior of respondents. The results revealed that there is significant positive relationship between littering prevention behavior and personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness) [R= (.260; P<.01), (R=.200; P<.01), R=(.144; P<.01), (R=.248; P<0.1), (R=168 P<.01). Also, female participants scored significantly higher on littering prevention behavior than males [t (599) =-3.429; p<.01). It further shows that personality factors predicted about % significant joint influence on littering prevention behavior {R= .327; R2=.107; F (5,595) =820.56; P<.05}. It was recommended that government should attract recycling companies to explore the country utilizing the rampant litters in our environs by monetizing the submission of litters to those companies to encourage the conformists; there should be public enlightenment on how to manage one’s personality to prevent littering behavior also, government should engage law enforcement agents to implement specific policies guiding and restricting littering behaviors.

    Keywords: Gender, littering prevention behavior, personality traits
  • M. Sattarzad Fathi *, N. Jahed Pages 69-84

    “Not in My Back Yard”; people shout this when they feel something deleterious and nonlocal will be sprung into existence in their territory by top-down powers. Some believe that NIMBY syndrome provokes parochialism, but parochialism itself can bring many beneficial consequences. Danesh Pedestrian and Bicycle Path- a recent project established on the south rim of Bagh-e-Sib (a vast historic apple orchard) in the Mehrshahr neighborhood- is one of the cases that has been crystallized through NIMBY syndrome. The municipal authorities’ decision on devastating this aged green area and turning it into a mega-scale market place or, who knows, into a highway, faced with radical protests of locals and eventuated the construction of the path. One can call it a win-win situation or maybe a social failure, but regardless of pessimistic and extremist views, it is well known that pedestrian and bicycle accessibilities are two indubitable realities of contemporary urbanism. Therefore, the evaluation of abovementioned path turned to a necessity to realize whether NIMBY is worked in this case, and generally in Iran, or not. This article delves into the subject in two phases, including 1) environmental qualities, 2) public acceptability; and originally follows several questions: has the voice of locals been heard or it was a compulsive decision just for protecting the garden? Is it a social setting or a fraudulent totalitarian exercise of municipal power? Does it meet the needs? Do people like it? How can it be over-promoted? What type of strategies are needed for further development of it?

    Keywords: NIMBY (Not in My Back Yard), Local power, Nontotalitarian projects, Environmental Qualities, Public Satisfaction