فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:25 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Atefeh Abedini, Zohre Naderi*, Arda Kiani, Majid Marjani, Esmaeil Mortaz, Fariba Ghorbani Page 1
    Background

    Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis (TB) are two granulomatous inflammatory diseases with several common symptoms. The aim of the present study was to compare the serum levels of biomarkers including interleukin‑4 (IL‑4) and IL‑13, calcium (Ca), hemoglobin, sedimentation rate, and lymphocyte‑to‑neutrophil ratio between patients with pulmonary TB, patients with sarcoidosis, and control group.

    Materials and Methods

    This case–control study was performed on patients referred to the Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, from April 2017 to 2018. In this study, 24 newly diagnosed patients with active pulmonary TB, 34 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, and 30 healthy individuals as the control group were enrolled. Demographic data, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), the ratio of neutrophil‑to‑lymphocyte (NLR), serum Ca level, hemoglobin (Hb), and IL‑4 and IL‑13 were compared between the study groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, sensitivity, and specificity were also calculated using SPSS 16.0 software.

    Results

    The mean age was 47.71 ± 10.88 and 55.25 ± 21.58 years in the sarcoidosis and TB. The mean ESR in sarcoidosis patients was 21.45 ± 13.37 mm/h and 41.4 ± 17 mm/h in the TB group. The percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes in sarcoidosis and TB patients was 28.02 ± 12.20 and 21.41 ± 12.49, respectively, which was significantly higher among patients with sarcoidosis. NLR was also 2.4 ± 1.6 and 4.4 ± 2.9 in sarcoidosis and TB patients, respectively, which showed a significant difference among the groups. Regarding the evaluation of the level of IL‑4 and IL‑13 in patients, it is worth noting that IL‑4 in patients with sarcoidosis was 90 pg/ml compared to 20 pg/ml for TB patients (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the levels of IL‑13 in the TB and control groups, which varied between 20 and 80 pg/ ml (P = 0.35). However, its value was significantly higher in patients with sarcoidosis (P = 0.01) than in the healthy control group and TB (P = 0.01). The ROC curves showed that the diagnostic cutoff of ESR level, Ca, NLR, and Hb could be valuable due to the area under the curves. The cutpoint of 34 mm/h for ESR had a sensitivity of 86% as well as 80% specificity to distinguish TB from the sarcoidosis.

    Conclusion

    Serum levels of the biomarkers indicated a stronger immunological background in sarcoidosis using NLR, Ca, ESR, and Hb.

    Keywords: Biomarkers, cytokines, interleukin‑13, interleukin‑4, sarcoidosis, serum, tuberculosis
  • Moluk Hadi Alijanvand, Ashraf Aminorroaya*, Iraj Kazemi, Masoud Amini, Sima Aminorroaya Yamini, Marjan Mansourian Page 2
    Background

    Prediabetes is strongly associated with high blood pressure; however, a little is known about prediabetes and high blood pressure comorbidity in the high‑risk individuals. This is the first study in the world to assess the long‑term effects of risk factors associated with high blood pressure and prediabetes comorbidity in the first‑degree relatives (FDRs) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

    Materials and Methods

    The longitudinal data obtained from 1388 nondiabetic FDRs of T2DM patients with at least two visits between 2003 and 2011. We used univariate and bivariate mixed‑effects logistic regressions with a Bayesian approach to identify longitudinal predictors of high blood pressure and prediabetes separately and simultaneously.

    Results

    The baseline prevalence of high blood pressure, prediabetes, and the coexistence of both was 27.4%, 19.1%, and 29.8%, respectively. The risks of high blood pressure and prediabetes were increased by one‑unit raise in the age (odds ratio [OR] of high blood pressure: 1.419 (95% credible intervals [CI], 1.077–1.877), prediabetes: 1.055 (95% CI: 1.040–1.068)) and one‑unit raise in remnant‑cholesterol (OR of high blood pressure: 1.093 (95%CI, 1.067–1.121), and prediabetes: 1.086 (95% CI, 1.043–1.119)). Obese participants were more likely to have high blood pressure (OR: 2.443 [95% CI, 1.978–3.031]) and prediabetes (OR: 1.399 [95% CI, 1.129–1.730]) than other participants.

    Conclusion

    We have introduced remnant‑cholesterol, along with obesity and age, as a significant predictor of prediabetes, high blood pressure, and the coexistence of both in the FDRs of diabetic patients. Obesity index and remnant‑cholesterol showed the stronger effects on high blood pressure and prediabetes comorbidity than on each condition separately

    Keywords: Comorbidity, family history, hypertension, prediabetes, prehypertension, risk factor
  • Irmak Icen Taskin, Sevgi Irtegun Kandemir*, Omer Munzuroglu Page 3
    Background

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Early‑onset breast cancer is well recognized as it clinically differs from old‑age diagnosed breast neoplasms. TP53 rs1042522 polymorphism relates to the risk of breast neoplasms, but this relationship in Turkish early‑onset breast cancer patients has not been investigated yet. We aimed to search the relationship between TP53 rs1042522 polymorphism and young Turkish breast cancer patients.

    Materials and Methods

    Ninety‑six female breast cancer patients who were ≤ 40 years of age and 96 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Participants were genotyped by the hybridization probe system.

    Results

    We identified that the genotype frequencies of rs1042522 were significantly different between controls and cases (P = 0.027). Participants carrying CG genotype had also reduced breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.4196, 95% confidence interval: 0.1941–0.9067, P = 0.027). Our results revealed that there is an association between GG and CG + CC genotype groups with progesterone receptor (PgR) status (P = 0.0219).

    Conclusion

    Our findings indicate that the CG genotype is a protective factor against breast neoplasms. No other clinicopathologic parameters except for PgR status were found to be related to rs1042522 polymorphism in young Turkish breast cancer patients.

    Keywords: Breast neoplasms, early onset, genotype, rs1042522, TP53
  • Zahra Kanannejad, Bahia Namavar Jahromi, Behrouz Gharesi Fard* Page 4
    Background

    Abnormal female immune response is one of the potential causes of unexplained infertility (UI). Seminal plasma (SP) is an important regulator of female immune responses during pregnancy. This study investigated a SP effect on the expression of CD4+ T‑cell‑related cytokines in a group of UI woman candidates for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and healthy fertile women.

    Materials and Methods

    This was a semi‑experimental study that performed on 20 UI couples (ten unsuccessful and ten successful IVF outcomes) and 10 fertile couples as the healthy group. CD4+ T‑cells were separated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of women by magnetic‑activated cell sorting technique and incubated with (stimulated condition) or without (unstimulated condition) SP of their husbands. After incubation, real‑time polymerase chain reaction method was used to investigate interleukin (IL)‑23, IL‑17, IL‑4, IL‑10, transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β, and interferon (IFN)‑γ gene expression. Mann–Whitney U‑test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Wilcoxon signed‑rank test were used for statistical analysis.

    Results

    Baseline TCD4+ mRNA levels of IL‑23 (P = 0.03) and TGF‑β (P = 0.01) were different between healthy and infertile groups. However, IL‑17, IL‑4, IFN‑γ, and IL‑10 were expressed similarly regardless of fertility status. Comparing mRNA expression before and after SP exposure, our results have shown that relative expression of IL‑23 significantly increased in successful (P = 0.04) and unsuccessful IVF groups (P = 0.01), whereas IL‑10 expression increased only in the IVF failure group (P = 0.01).

    Conclusion

    SP can make a positive effect on IVF outcome through alteration in CD4+ T‑cell‑related cytokines expression, especially IL‑10 and IL‑23.

    Keywords: CD4‑positive T‑lymphocytes, fertilization in vitro, infertility, real‑time polymerase chain reaction, seminal plasma
  • Seyed Mohammadreza Fatemi Khorasgani, Neda Ramezani*, Negar Ebrahimi Varnousfaderani Page 5
    Background

    Previous studies report an association between joint hypermobility (JH), as a hallmark of connective tissue disorder, and autonomic dysfunction, digestive problems, and irritable bowel syndrome. However, its association with functional constipation (FC) has not been evaluated. This study is run and implemented to justify this theme/topic.

    Materials and Methods

    In this case–control study among 200 subjects, 100 were of FC according to the ROME III Criteria (case group) and each child was matched for age and gender with a healthy control that did not meet criteria for FC (control group). The demographic information and JH were assessed and compared in both groups, through a physical examination according to the Beighton score.

    Results

    A total of 200 children with a mean age of 6.2 ± 2.2 years constituted the statistical population. The prevalence of JH was assessed to establish the Beighton score (≥4 was considered JH). There was no significant difference in JH between children with and without FC, odds ratio (OR) 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65–1.98, P = 0.669). There was no significant difference in terms of gender and age between the two groups (P = 0.887, P = 0.396, respectively). JH was not significantly associated with gender (P = 0.445) while significantly associated with age (P = 0.041). Furthermore, there was no significant association between JH and FC (P = 0.669). Following multivariate logistic regression analysis between the presence of JH as the dependent variable and the measured variables as the independent variables, only age had significant independent predictive values in the development of JH (P = 0.041, OR =0.88 [0.77–1]). The obtained adjusted OR in this study indicated that at each year age increase the JH risk decreased by 12%.

    Conclusion

    Here, it is revealed that the relative frequency of JH in this age range, with and without FC, is not significantly different, and it is not significantly associated with gender while significantly associated with age. 

    Keywords: Beighton score, functional constipation, functional gastrointestinal disorder, joint hypermobility, relative frequency
  • Marjan Oustad, Mohamadreza Najafi*, Jafar Mehvari, Amin Rastgoo, Zahrasadat Mortazavi, Mitra Rahiminejad Page 6
    Background

    Cognitive impairment is a common complication of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of donepezil and memantine on improving the cognitive function of patients with TLE.

    Materials and Methods

    In a clinical trial study, 70 patients with TLE were divided into two groups of 35 each: 10 mg doses of donepezil (first group) and memantine (second group) were applied for 16 weeks. The level of cognitive function of patients in both groups before and after treatment was determined using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test.

    Results

    The mean score of MoCA before and after intervention was 23.55 ± 3.67 and 26.09 ± 2.5, respectively, in the group treated with memantine, and the mean score of intervention was significantly improved (P < 0.001). In the group treated with donepezil, the score before and after the operation was 23.87 ± 3.18 and 24.35 ± 2.17, respectively, and no significant difference was observed in this group (P = 0.38).

    Conclusion

    Hence, memantine was better than donepezil in the improvement of cognitive impairment in patients with TLE.

    Keywords: Cognitive impairment, donepezil, memantine, temporal lobe epilepsy
  • Fereshteh Salimi, Amirreza Sajjadieh Khajouei, Saeed Keighobadi*, Amir Keshavarzian Page 7
    Background

    Long‑term central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in dialysis patients is an accepted method of hemodialysis. The appropriate CVC tip placement may reduce both early and late complications related to catheter and increase patency rate. This study aimed to evaluate a new, simple, and feasible method based on surface anatomy for the proper placement of tunneled CVC in the left internal jugular vein for hemodialysis or chemotherapy.

    Materials and Methods

    The study was carried out as a quasi‑experimental model at Saint Al‑Zahra Education Hospital in 2016. A total of forty patients with an indication of left‑sided (upper) long‑term CVC insertion were enrolled. The length of catheter to be inserted in the left internal jugular vein was considered as the sum of distance from the insertion point of the needle up to sternal notch plus the total distance between the left and right sternoclavicular joint and half‑length of the sternum. The right atrium (RA) or superior vena cava‑RA junction was the correct region for inserting the catheter tip. The collected data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test and t‑test using SPSS (version 22).

    Results

    The patients were 63.75 ± 17.96 years of age, weighed 67.33 ± 13.20 kg, and height of 166.92 ± 8.99 cm. Catheters were inserted successfully in 95% of patients (n = 38). No significant relationship was found between the success of new method and age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and sternum half‑length plus the distance between the right and left sternoclavicular joint.

    Conclusion

    “The mid – sternal length plus sternoclavicular joints spacing” as a new formula (based on anatomical landmarks) was found practical and safe and could easily be used among adult patients who undergo tunneled CVC in the left internal jugular vein.

    Keywords: Anatomical landmark, central venous catheters, hemodialysis
  • Azar Danesh Shahraki*, Marzeih Sadeghi Hasanabadi, Amirreza Farhadeian Dehkordi Page 8
    Background

    Risk factors for maternal Vitamin D deficiency and preterm birth are convergence, but the distribution of 25‑hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) Vitamin D) levels among preterm infants is not known. We aimed to assess the association of 25(OH) Vitamin D levels in mothers with term and preterm delivery with their neonates.

    Materials and Methods

    This case–control study was conducted on 62 mothers with spontaneous preterm delivery and their neonates as the case group and 124 mothers with term delivery and their neonates as the control group. From mothers and neonate’s umbilical cord at birth, 10 cc blood was taken and immediately sent to the laboratory for measuring Vitamin D levels . Pearson correlation, independent samples t‑test, and kappa concordance coefficient were used for data analysis.

    Results

    In the term group, 102 cases (82.3%) had Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and 22 cases (17.7%) had normal Vitamin D level while in the preterm group, 56 cases (90.3%) had Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, and 6 cases (9.7%) had normal Vitamin D level (P > 0.05). The correlation between maternal and neonatal 25(OH) Vitamin D levels in the term and preterm group was statistically significant (term group: r = 0.874, P < 0.001 and preterm group: r = 0.733, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Our study did not show a significant difference between two groups in terms of Vitamin D status both in mothers and neonates while the significant association was found between Vitamin D levels of mothers and neonates in both groups. These findings confirmed the previous studies’ findings that Vitamin D levels in neonates could be predicted from their mothers. As a result, successful Vitamin D and calcium supplementation for improving 25(OH) Vitamin D levels in the maternal and neonatal populations for protecting the harmful effects of Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency are recommended.

    Keywords: 25‑hydroxy Vitamin D, neonates, spontaneous preterm delivery, term delivery
  • Tannaz Valadbeigi, Ali ArabAhmadi, Naghi Dara, Saleheh Tajalli, Amirhossein Hosseini, Koorosh Etemad, Fatemeh Zolfizadeh, Negar Piri, Mohammad Afkar, Niloufar Taherpour, Aliakbar Sayyari, Farid Imanzadeh, Mahmoud Hajipour* Page 9
    Background

    Prevention of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) during pregnancy is recommended due to severe complications for mothers and infants. Considering that NCDs have a significant impact on infant mortality, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mothers’ underlying diseases and gestational diabetes and infant mortality in Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    Mothers who referred to the health centers in nine provinces of Iran were included. This case–control study used data collected from pregnant women. There were 1162 cases and 1624 controls. The required data were collected from mothers’ health records and through interviews.

    Results

    The chances of neonatal mortality in women with a body mass index (BMI) of 30–35, 1.7 times (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–2.44, P = 0.003) was higher compared with women with a normal BMI. The chance of neonatal mortality among mothers with high blood pressure was three times higher compared with healthy mothers (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.98–4.65, P < 0.001). The chance of neonatal mortality in women with kidney disease was also 1.64 times higher than mothers without kidney problems (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.1–2.45, P = 0.015). In the study of gestational diabetes, the chance of neonatal mortality among the mothers who had at risk was 1.63 times higher than mothers without gestational diabetes (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 0.84–3.16, P = 0.014). Furthermore, the chance of neonatal mortality among the mothers who had heart disease was 1.10 times higher than mothers without heart disease (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 0.88–4.99, P = 0.014).

    Conclusion

    This study showed that undiagnosed underlying diseases were related to neonatal mortality, which highlights the importance of caring for and counseling about the underlying diseases, screening, and controlling blood sugar levels before and during pregnancy to prevent infant mortality by all means possible.

    Keywords: Gestational diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), kidney disease, neonatal mortality
  • Yoshitaka Furuto*, Mariko Kawamura, Akio Namikawa, Hiroko Takahashi, Yuko Shibuya Page 10

    The number of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased and so has their demand for travel. However, the health risk posed by travel in these patients is unclear. Few reports document the travel risk in CKD and dialysis patients. The aim of this study is to summarize the existing evidence of the influence of travel on risks in CKD patients. We aim to describe the association between the impact of travel risks and patients with CKD. A detailed review of recent literature was performed by reviewing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Ichushi Web from the Japan Medical Abstracts Society. Screened involved the following keywords: “traveler’s thrombosis,” “venous thromboembolism,” “deep vein thrombosis,” “altitude sickness,” “traveler’s diarrhea,” “jet lag syndrome,” “melatonin,” with “chronic kidney disease” only, or/and “dialysis.” We present a narrative review summary of the literature from these screenings. The increased prevalence of thrombosis among travelers with CKD is related to a decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate and an increase in urine protein levels. CKD patients who remain at high altitudes are at an increased risk for progression of CKD, altitude sickness, and pulmonary edema. Traveler’s diarrhea can become increasingly serious in patients with CKD because of decreased immunity. Microbial substitution colitis is also common in CKD patients. Moreover, time differences and disturbances in the circadian rhythm increase cardiovascular disease events for CKD patients. The existing literature shows that travel‑related conditions pose an increased risk for patients with CKD.

    Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, dialysis, travel‑related illness
  • Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee, Shiva Hadadianpour* Page 11