- پیاپی 21 (پاییز و زمستان 1398)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/12/01
- تعداد عناوین: 12
صفحات 1-21اسطوره ها همواره جایگاه ویژه ای در ادبیات و فرهنگ ملت ها داشته اند. اشتراکات موجود در اسطوره های ملت های مختلف بیانگر علاقه و التفات ایشان به موضوعاتی خاص و مورد احترام در نزد آن ها است. در این مقاله با توجه به اهمیتی که به اعتقادات و ارزش های اخلاقی در این اسطوره ها داده شده است، به بررسی مفهوم وفاداری از خلال دو شخصیت داستانی، «پنه لوپه» و «سارای»، می پردازیم. ابتدا شخصیت زن و جایگاه ویژه ی آن در هر یک از این افسانه ها مورد تحقیق و بررسی قرار خواهد گرفت و در ادامه به مفاهیم اسطوره ای این دو شخصیت پرداخته خواهد شد؛ مفاهیمی که موجب می گردند تا این دو زن به کهن الگوی وفاداری تبدیل گردند. وفاداری به خصوص از طرف زن همواره در آثار بسیاری منعکس شده است. اما در این دو اسطوره ما شاهد باورها و آرمان های مشابهی هستیم که برخاسته از تفکرات و جهان بینی های یکسان است. در این پژوهش با تکیه بر رویکرد نقد اسطوره ای که بیانگر ناخود آگاه جمعی ملل و اقوام است، به شرح و بیان این موضوع در دو اثر می پردازیم و به این سوال پاسخ داده خواهد شد که چه عواملی منجر به این اشتراکات ذهنی می گردد و این دو زن را تا مرز اسطوره شدن پیش می راند.کلیدواژگان: ادیسه، سارای، پنه لوپه، وفاداری، افسانه، ادب عامه
یکی از مشهورترین قصه های عامیانه فارسی، «حمزه نامه» یا قصه امیرالمومنین حمزه است. ترجمه به زبان های دیگر، تهیه نسخه مصور به دستور اکبرشاه هندی و داشتن آدابی ویژه برای نقل این قصه، نشان دهنده اهمیت آن برای مردم و شاهان در برهه ای از تاریخ است. اصل این داستان عربی است و «حمزه البهلوان» نام دارد و شخصیت اصلی قصه، پهلوانی خیالی است. این قصه و شخصیت اصلی قصه، تحت تاثیر داستان هایی مانند رستم و اسفندیار که در شبه جزیره برای مردم نقل می شد، ساخته و پرداخته شده است و شخصیت «حمزه العرب»، بدیل عربی رستم است که ایرانیان برای فروکاستن و حتی از میان بردن حس نژادپرستی خود به این پهلوان خیالی، نام او را تغییر داده اند و در نتیجه، شخصیت داستانی تحریف شده است. بهتر است «حمزه نامه» را قصه ای پهلوانی بدانیم، نه یک قصه شبه تاریخی یا حماسه مشهور دینی یا حتی رمانس؛ اما قصه «حمزه البهلوان» جزو آثار «ادب الشعبی» و «السیره الشعبیه» است. در ادبیات عرب، «ادب الشعبی» در برابر ادب رسمی قرار می گیرد. در «ادب الشعبی» متن مکتوب وجود ندارد؛ بنابراین به تعداد شنوندگان، راوی پدید می آید. بخشی از «ادب الشعبی» در اصطلاح ، «السیره الشبیه» نام دارد. «السیره الشعبیه» از دل «ادب الشعبی» می جوشد و ضمن بهره مندی از امکانات افسانه های خیالی و پهلوانی از پالایه اعتقادات اسلامی می گذرد.کلیدواژگان: حمزه نامه، حمزه البهلوان، قصه عامیانه، ادب الشعبی، السیره الشعبیه
بررسی تطبیقی داستان «چاه و آونگ» اثر ادگار آلن پو و «مردی در قفس» اثر صادق چوبک از دیدگاه کهن-الگویی یونگصفحات 47-68
پژوهش حاضر به بررسی تطبیقی دو داستان کوتاه از دو نویسنده پیشگام ایرانی و آمریکایی از دیدگاه کهن الگویی یونگ می پردازد. بررسی دو داستان «مردی در قفس» از صادق چوبک که شباهت های زیادی با «چاه و آونگ» از ادگار آلن پو دارد، نشان می دهد چگونه می توان بدون ازدست دادن هویت مستقل، از آثار دیگران تاثیر گرفت و دست به آفرینش هنری جدیدی زد بی آنکه اثر رنگ و بوی تقلید محض به خود بگیرد. رویکرد کهن الگویی به کار رفته در این پژوهش نشان می دهد که یکی از دلایل رویکرد کم و بیش یکسان این دو اثر به مسایل مشابه بشری، مراجعه به ناخودآگاه جمعی است که فارغ از زمان و مکان عمل می کند. در هر دو داستان شخصیت های اصلی تحت تاثیرات مخرب کهن الگوی مادر قرار گرفته و توانایی برقراری رابطه ای سازنده با ناخودآگاه خویش ندارند و گرفتار در زندان و اتاقی زهدان گونه، رویکردی واپسگرایانه در پیش می گیرند. این پژوهش نتیجه می گیرد که بسیاری از نویسندگان مرد در زمان ها و مکان های مختلف، از جمله چوبک و پو، دیدگاه های مشابه مردسالارانه را در برخورد با مسایل ادبی برگزیده اند که بارزترین آنها، انکار نقش مثبت ناخودآگاه و شخصیت های زن یا نماد های آن است. در نهایت راهکارهایی از جمله تعامل سازنده به شیوه ای که یونگ ترسیم می کند، برای اصلاح این دیدگاه ها پیشنهاد می شود.کلیدواژگان: صادق چوبک، ادگار آلن پو، کارل یونگ، نقد کهن الگویی
بومی سازی در ترجمه های منظوم حکایت کلاغ و روباه لافونتن در حرکت از فرانظام به نظام بر اساس نظریه لوتمانصفحات 69-100
یکی از زمینه های تحول ادبیات معاصر ایران، ترجمه یا باز آفرینی آثار ادبی خارجی است. شاعران معاصر گاه با جاب جایی، افزایش و کاهش عناصر سازنده متن مبدا، آن را با مقتضیات ادبی و فرهنگی جامعه فارسی زبان، هماهنگ و به اصطلاح بوم ی سازی کرده اند. تبیین راهکارهای بومی سازی در حرکت از فرانظام (متن مبدا) به نظام (متن مقصد) و شناخت موفقیت یا عدم موفقیت شاعران در بازآفرینی آثار ادبی خارجی به شعر فارسی، بر اساس نظریه یوری لوتمان، اساس مقاله حاضر است که برای نمونه در اینجا تنها بازآفرینی های شاعرانه «حکایت کلاغ و روباه لافونتن» بررسی می شود. نسیم شمال، ایرج میرزا، نیر سعیدی و حبیب یغمایی هریک در بازگردانی شاعرانه خود، متن اصلی را با سنت های ادبی و نمادهای فرهنگ ایرانی- اسلامی همخوان کرده اند و در این فرایند بومی سازی، نشانه های زبانی، شیوه های بیان ادبی و گاه عواطف و اندیشه ها با دگرگونی هایی همراه شده است. به نظر می رسد ساخت هنری و کمال یافته شعر حبیب یغمایی را می توان نتیجه تعامل هر چه بهتر و دقیق تر شاعر در برخورد با فرانظام و حرکت به سوی نظام ادبی تازه به شمار آورد.کلیدواژگان: بومی سازی، ترجمه، حکایت کلاغ و روباه، لافونتن، لوتمان، شعر معاصر فارسی
زاویه دید یکی از مهم ترین عناصر متون روایی است. زاویه دید ، جهان بینی نویسنده و هنرمند را نسبت به جهان، انسان و جامعه نشان می دهد. «آن روزها» و «روزها» که از خواندنی ترین نمونه های خودزندگی نامه نویسی معاصر هستند، در آستانه یکی از حساس ترین ادوار تاریخی، دوران گذار از جامعه سنتی به دنیای مدرنیته، با دو زاویه دید متفاوت تحریر شده اند. خودزندگی نامه ها غالبا با زاویه دید اول شخص نوشته می شوند. محمدعلی اسلامی ندوشن در«روزها» از همان زاویه دید معمول و متداول در خود زندگی نامه نویسی بهره می گیرد، اما طه حسین با زاویه دید سوم شخص به روایت دغدغه های فکری و ذهنی خود و جامعه اش می پردازد. مولفه هایی چون ادبی زیباشناختی، ایجاد فاصله هنری، روحیه ساختارشکنی و انقلابی و همچنین پوشاندن ضعف نابینایی در«آن روزها» و واقع گرایی و گزارش عینی و زنده جامعه ایرانی و اصلاح طلبی نویسنده در «روزها» از مهم ترین عوامل این گزینش می تواند باشد. این مقاله عوامل انتخاب این دو نظرگاه و زاویه دید متفاوت و چشم اندازهایی را که کانون توجه این دو نویسنده بوده است، مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرارمی دهد.کلیدواژگان: خودزندگی نامه، زاویه دید، کانون شدگی، آن روزها، روزها
نمادپردازی ابزاری برای تعمیق معنایی اثر ادبی و بیان مفاهیمی است که در پس زبان نمادین نهان است. فرانتس کافکا و غلامحسین ساعدی، نویسندگان دورانی بحران زده اند که زبان آثار آنها، نمادین است و در آثارشان به نمادپردازی توجه داشته اند. این مقاله، داستان های «عزاداران بیل» ساعدی و «مسخ» کافکا را با رویکردی تحلیلی- توصیفی و با تکیه بر نمادشناسی تطبیقی بررسی کرده است. دستاورد پژوهش نشانمی دهد که این دو داستان، مبتنی بر زبانی نمادین نگاشته شده اند و نمادهای انسانی، غیرانسانی (مکان ها و اشیا) و حیوانی در دو اثر به کار رفته است. ساعدی و کافکا تلاش کرده اند تا مفاهیمی عمیق را در توصیف زمانه و عصر خویش، از طریق زبان نمادین به مخاطب انتقال دهند، چنانکه مسخ مشدی حسن به گاو در عزاداران بیل و مسخ گرگور در داستان کافکا به حشره ای عظیم الجثه، از نمادهای مشترک برجسته در این دو اثر است. مسخ مشدی حسن نوعی استحاله روحی، توهم و جنون و نمادی از خودبیگانگی اوست و مسخ گرگور سامسا، روایت بیگانگی از جامعه دچار بحران هویت. مسخ مشدی حسن، روحی و مسخ گرگور، جسمانی است. هر دو مسخ، تنزل از درجه انسانی به مقام و مرتبه حیوانی است و این شاید به این معنا باشد که پایان چنین بیگانگی از خود، رسیدن به مقام پست حیوان بودن است. مسخ موسرخه در عزاداران بیل نیز، مسخی جسمانی است و از این نظر شبیه به مسخ گرگور سامسا. موسرخه، نماد قحطی وگرسنگی است؛ اما مسخ گرگور نماد بیهویتی در هجوم مدرنیسم است.کلیدواژگان: نمادشناسی تطبیقی، ساعدی، عزاداران بیل، کافکا، مسخ
برجستگی نقش حروف در بازی های شعری، فنون ادبی و صنایع بدیعی به گونه چشمگیری در ادبیات عربی به چشم می خورد. کاربرد حروف با آرایش خاص، منجر به تولید گونه های شعری جدید گشته است؛ از طرف دیگر، ارتباط میان ادب فارسی و عربی و تاثیر پذیری شاعران فارسی زبان از فنون و صناعات شعر عربی، پدیده ای انکارناپذیر است. در پژوهش حاضر با تکیه بر روش توصیفی/ تطبیقی، پنج گونه شعری مهم ماده تاریخ سرایی، محبوک الطرفین، قصیده معجمه و مهمله، شعر هندسی و تطریز که با بهره گیری از ترفندهای خاص به کا رگیری حروف، در عهد مملوکی و عثمانی ادبیات عرب، تولید یا رونق یافته اند و نیز گستره و کیفیت وام ستانی ادیبان فارسی زبان در این زمینه، مورد واکاوی قرار گرفت. برآیند حاصل از این جستار، حاکی از آن است که بعضی از گونه های مورد بررسی با تاثیر از زبان عربی در زبان فارسی هم رواج یافته ولی برخی دیگر با تکیه بر پتانسیل های زبان عربی، به ادبیات این زبان اختصاص دارد و به ادب فارسی راه نیافته یا حروف در تولید آنها کارکرد خود را از دست داده اند.کلیدواژگان: ادبیات فارسی، ادبیات عربی، حروف، گونه شعری
درام یکی از شگردهای بیانی در شعر عربی و فارسی است. رواج این شیوه از بیان در میان شاعران عرب و ایرانی، به تاثیرپذیری آنها از ادبیات و فلسفه یونان بازمی گردد. ترجمه آثار یونانی و حضور اندیشه آنان در میان ادبای عرب و ایرانی، از اسباب گسترش این شیوه از بیان است. ابونواس و ناصرخسرو، دو شاعر ایرانی تبارند که یکی به زبان عربی و دیگری به زبان فارسی شعر می سرودند. این دو اگرچه در زمان، جغرافیا و چگونگی زیست و عقیده، با هم بسیار متفاوت اند، در سرودن اشعار ستیزوار دراماتیکی در زمره پیشروان این گونه از بیان به شمار می آیند. آنان کشمکش های عصر خود را در اشعار خویش بازمی تابانند. نوشتار حاضر با استفاده از روش تطبیقی به بررسی و نقد سروده های دراماتیکی ابونواس و ناصرخسرو می پردازد و دستاورد پژوهش نشان می دهد که در اشعار هر دو گوینده، برخی از انواع درام (افقی، عمودی و دینامیکی) مشهود است.کلیدواژگان: ابونواس، تحلیل، درام، ستیز، ناصرخسرو
یکی از درونمایه هایی که در جهان پیوسته ذهن متفکران را به خود مشغول کرده، توجیه مشیت و حکمت خداوند در آفرینش جهان است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی دیدگاه های سعدی و الکساندر پوپ، دو تن از شاعران بزرگ ایران و انگلیس، در شناخت خدا و توجیه درستی مشیت او در خلقت جهان است. در این تحقیق، نخست نگرش دو شاعر درباره آفریدگار جهان ترسیم شده و آنگاه درستی مشیت و حکمت الهی، علی رغم اشکالاتی که به نظر عامه انسان ها می رسد، با ارایه نمونه های روشنی از آثار ایشان تفسیر شده است. این پژوهش با استفاده از اصول مکتب آمریکایی ادبیات تطبیقی و با بهره گیری از رویکرد مضمون شناسی، به تحلیل و بررسی موضوع می پردازد. یافته های این مقاله با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به دست آمده و هدف از تطبیق، نشان دادن این واقعیت است که این دو شاعر بزرگ شرقی و غربی، در اندیشه های بنیادی و زیربنایی برای توجیه مشیت و حکمت خداوند در آفرینش جهان، با هم شباهت دارند اما در شیوه بیان و پاره ای ظرافت های فکری با یکدیگر متفاوت ند.کلیدواژگان: واژگان کلیدی: سعدی، الکساندر پوپ، ادبیات تطبیقی، مشیت الهی، انسان، مضمون شناسی
شعر مدرن ایران از جنبش های پیشروی اوایل قرن بیستم اروپا، از جمله سمبولیسم و سورریالیسم، تاثیرات انکارناپذیری پذیرفته است اما جریان شعر عینیت گرای آمریکا به رهبری لوییس زوکوفسکی و تاثیرش بر بوطیقای شعر نو ایران، مورد کنکاش قرار نگرفته است. این پژوهش، به بررسی تطبیقی شعر حجم یدالله رویایی و شعر عینیت گرای لوییس زوکوفسکی می پردازد. رویایی و زوکوفسکی با رویکرد زبان محورشان به شعر، جنبش های نوگرا و مدرنیستی معاصرانشان را بازخوانی کرده اند. دو محور کلیدی در این بحث «جزءگرایی» و «مسیر ادراک» یا سیاست شعر در عینیت گرایی است. نتایج این بررسی نشان می دهد که رویایی به سیاق زوکوفسکی و عینیت گراها، به اجزای زبان موشکافانه می نگرد و مادیت زبان را سوژه شعرش می کند اما برخلاف زوکوفسکی، از سیاست زدگی های حزبی و سیاسی رایج دوری می جوید. او سیاست شعر و شعر سیاسی را در اسباب بی هدف، بالقوگی ناب انسان و ایستادگی برابر ارجاعات زبانی، پیش فرض ها و به فعل درآمدن های تحمیلی از سوی فرهنگ و قدرت می یابد.کلیدواژگان: رویایی، جزءگرایی، ماده زبان، مسیر ادراک، زوکوفسکی
تاثیر ادبیات عرفانی فارسی بر ادبیات عربی بسیار درخور توجه است. محمدعلی شمس الدین از شاعران معاصر عرب است که تحت تاثیر اندیشه های عرفانی عطار نیشابوری قرار گرفته و از مضامین ارزشمند عرفانی او در اشعارش بسیار بهره برده است. این پژوهش با تکیه بر روشی تحلیلی تطبیقی می کوشد تا مضامین نوستالژی عرفانی دو شاعر را بررسی کند. دوری از وطن اصلی و دوری از معشوق حقیقی، مضمون نوستالژی دو شاعر است. نتایج این مقاله بیانگر آن است که شمس الدین، مانند عطار، غربت عرفانی برخاسته از فراق محبوب حقیقی و دوری از وطن اصلی را دریافته است. هر دو شاعر به وطن اصلی خود عشق می ورزند و آن را آرمان شهری می دانند که از آن دور مانده اند و در هجران معشوق حقیقی خود، زبان به شکوه می گشایند. در اشعار این دو شاعر، لیلی به نمادی از معشوق حقیقی تبدیل می شود و هر دو، خواهان فنا و بقا در معشوق واقعی اند. البته شمس الدین به سبب آشنایی با جریان های شعری غربی، از توجه به وطن مادی و معشوق های زمینی خود نیز غافل نیست و در اشعارش بسیار از آنها یاد می کند.کلیدواژگان: ادبیات تطبیقی، نوستالوژی، محمدعلی شمس الدین، عطار نیشابوری
Pages 1-21Loyalty, especially believed by women, is reflected in many literary stories. In this paper, we are examine the concept of loyalty through two mythical character, Penelope, Hector's spouse in Odyssey by Homer, and Sarah, personage of a myth folklore from Azerbaijan, who possess legendary properties. first, in this paper, we examine female characters in each myth and then mythical notions of the two characters, finally, the concepts which build of them archetype of loyalty. During this study_ as we see the similar beliefs and ideals_ the question is what factors led to the common mind, how two women made their special myth. Therefore, based on mythical criticism of Young that represent the Collective memory, we porpose to exploring the similar mythical symbols correlating these characters.In this paper, considering the importance of the beliefs and values of these myths is the notion of loyalty through two fictional character, "Penelope" and "Sara", the mythical properties are discussedKeywords: Odyssey, Saray, Penelope, loyality, Legend, Folk literature
Pages 23-461. Introduction
Stories have a large readership and are of high significance in folklore studies. Therefore, studies addressing them carry relevance not only to folklore studies but also to different fields of study such as anthropology, cultural studies and sociology. One of the well-known and popular folklore stories is Amir-al-Muminin Hamzeh. Although a few studies have been conducted on it, they are open to criticisms on several grounds. One such criticism is that the Arabic root or origin of story is overlooked except in an Arabic paper by Mustafa Al-bakur (1386) and in ‘Iran’s Folklore’ (…… 2009). Others (e.g., Farrokhi, 1389) have either taken the root as Iranian or have not touched upon the issue (e.g., Zargoush, 1389). Such a negligence and inconsistency has resulted in ambiguities, confusions, controversies and sweeping generalizations. The relationship between Farsi and Arabic versions of this story is something beyond a mere from-Arabic-to-Farsi translation. Consequently, it is necessary to take into consideration the cultural exchange of Iranian people with their southern and western neighbors. Additionally, it is equally essential and useful to compare Iranian and Arabic folklore (Adab-al-Shaabi). Both were taken into account in the current study.2. Methodology
This research is descriptive in nature. For the purposes of this study, Arabic (four volumes) and Farsi (two volumes) versions of Hamzat-il-Bahlavan were studied. As a library research, works and research studies addressing Arabic Folklore (Adab-al-Shaabi) were also included.3. Findings and discussion
Findings of this study indicate that the Farsi Hamzeh-Nameh is in fact an Arabic story; it is neither Indian nor Iranian. Despite its Arabic origin, there are historical documents suggesting that Arab storytellers have been affected by Iranian epics. More specifically, stories about Iranian hero, Rostam, have been transferred by Arab storytellers into Hamzat-il-Bahlavan. Interestingly enough, Hamzat-al-Arab is the Arabic hero for Iranian Rostam. It was also found that in Farsi translation, the main character (i.e. Hamzat-al-Arab) has been changed into a religious one. In other words, the main Arab character in the Arabic version has been replaced by another character—a religious one; Hamzat-al-Arab has been replaced by Amir-al-Muminin Hamzeh. The latter character is Prophet Muhammad’s uncle. The rationale for this change is racial. Since the original Arab hero (i.e. Hamzat-al-Arab) defeats Iran’s king in a battle, it would be less humiliating and offensive to depict Amir-al-Muminin Hamzeh as the winner since he is the uncle of the Holy Prophet. In other words, Amir-al-Muminin Hamzeh’s affiliation to Prophet Muhammad—the holiest man for Muslim Iranians— makes this defeat less humiliating to the Iranian reader. Arabic and Farsi resources, materials and texts revealed that it is futile to look for the creator(s) or writer(s) of this work. It is the content, according to an old eastern tradition, that matters most. Findings are used to argue that Hamzeh-Nameh or even Hamzat-al-Arab is a folklore story of a hero only. Hamzat-il-Bahlavan, in fact, is a work of Arab supremacism against Iranians.4. Conclusion
In this study, it was concluded that unlike the perception of many Iranians, Hamazeh-Nameh is Arabic in its root and origin even though it has been under the influence of Iranian epics. When getting translated from Arabic to Farsi, several important changes pertaining to characters and events have been intentionally made to it. This story is not a religious or historical epic; rather, it is a folklore of a hero.Keywords: Hamza Nama, Hamza Al-Bahlawan, folk tales, Adab Al-Sha'bi, Al-Sirat Al-Sha'bey
A Comparative Study of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Pit and the Pendulum" and Sadeq Chubak's "A Man in Cage" from a Jungian PerspectivePages 47-681. Introduction
The present paper aims to conduct a comparative study of two Iranian and American forerunners of modern fiction. The study which is the first of this kind as far as the two authors are concerned, contends that “A Man in Cage” by Sadeq Chubak reveals similarities to Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Pit and the Pendulum” although the former does not lose its artistic independence.
The approach which is adopted in this study is Jungian and it is hoped to prove that it is possible to find more or less similar reactions to similar human issues in life and literature based on an archetypal perspective.
3. Findings and discussion
The archetype of mother studied in this paper and applied on the two stories reveals a sad fact that most male authors adopt more or less similar patriarchal strategies in their writing regardless of time and place.
It is revealed how archetypes which are universal symbols can be objectified in different ways under different circumstances. In the conclusion there are some Jungian suggestions to solve this problem and modify a sexist perspective towards female-related issues.Keywords: Sadeq Chubak, Edgar Allan Poe, Carl Jung, Archetypal Criticism
Domestication in Poetry Translations of "The Crow and the Fox" Fable by La Fontaine in moving from "extra - system" to "system" based on Lotman's theoryPages 69-1001.Introduction
One of the grounds of changing contemporary literature in Iran is translation or interpretation of foreign literary works which studying that can express the necessities, the creativities and the harms of this category well. Sometimes Contemporary poets have conformed or idiomatically domesticated the component parts of original context to literary and cultural requirements of Persian speaking community by displacing, increasing and decreasing them. The present article is based on expressing domestication methods in moving from "extra - system" (original context) to "system" (target context) and understanding the poets success or unsuccess in translating foreign literary works to Persian poem according to Yuri Lotman's theory and here we just study poetic translations of an fable entitled "The Fox and the Crow" by Lafontaine as example.2.Methodology
This research has been performed by a descriptive method and content analysis & the relationship quality among the culture elements with the context and extra – context background of the original work compared to its translations has been expressed by Lotman's semiotic theory of culture. It has been tried to show the creativities and deficiencies of the new texts against the original text while referring to different methods and ways of domestication and brief comparison of contemporary poets translations from "The Crow and the Fox" story by Lafontaine.3.Discussion
Nasim Shomal, Iraj Mirza, Nayyere Saeidi and Habib Yaghmayi have versified "The Crow and Fox" story chronologically. These versifiers mainly aim to put unfamiliar culture elements in native culture forms according to the present times aesthetics culture. Iranian culture system hasn't accepted the entered content from extra – system in the same existing form and has made it similar to fixed norms of its memory and since literal type of the source text is didactic and adjustable with those norms has organized system and traditional poem form because traditional form is an element that has been located in the center of semiospher of Iran's literal culture and any disagreement with that has been considered a riot. The reality of focusing on the type of expression is the result of a one – to – one correlation between the level of expression and content and the effect of expression on content (Lotman & Ospenski, 1390: 52).
Decreasing, increasing, changing & moving that these poets have performed, show socio cultural features of that age and any way in most cases in order to guarantee the necessary consistency, are directly associated with the orientation to the past; for example, Iraj Mirza has changed a western story in to the form of classic Persian poems by choosing traditional measure and form, using ancient words and grammar and direct conclusion at the end of poetry. This approach can be considered one of the harms of domestication; because translation that is a means to introduce new ideas and methods will become a tool for maintaining traditional taste. Certainly in these versified translations, didactic &critical aspect has been dominated the satire aspect of the original work. Iraj Mirza has made the text critical by changing the symbol (salamander instead of phoenix) and Nasim Shomal has changed not only the tone & style of a foreign work, but also its direction and aim and has created a text with his own intended critical purpose by decreasing and increasing the elements, lexical reviews and speeding up the language. Nasim Shomal poem it at the service of society not ethics and it can be said that the intended meanings of the original author have been dominated by the author's ideas and beliefs and the target language words. In Nayyere Saeidi's poem Intertextuality & musical and Gnostic terms and word selection related to Iran's culture sign system have made the text strong but insisting on bringing same synonyms in the manner of some ancient Persian works has added redundancies to his poem. We can also observe encountering two different cultures in La Fontaine and Nayyere Saeidi's treatment with fox trickery and flattery. Each of them considers himself far from this forbidden phenomenon by a different method; La Fontaine does that by mock in and scorning and Iranian poet by adding adjectives that can be interpreted ethically and permit a connection with the focus of Iranian traditions.
Habib Yaghmayi has selected fluent words in his translation and cared about the intimacy of poem language and word flexibility phonetically. Although Yaghmayi tries to define every innovation in terms of traditional Persian literature, language naturalness along with the application of old word makes his poem like a city in which old buildings are next to new buildings These applications are an effort for transferring language from "diachronic" limitation to "synchronic" range; also the existence of movement and cinematic pictures have shown his work newer and more modern. In Yaghmayi's method, the present traditional relationship between expression and content that can be seen in other translations of the story, is not known as the only possible relationship; although this works expression affects content more than other translations. The expression type is not naturalized except in some rare examples and utilizes dramatic art. This method of extra – system has been absorbed and the poet invalidates the last translations of this story by a new movement with creativity so that Habib Yaghmayi's poem is replaced by Iraj Mirza work in textbooks. Reticence and word choice or selectivity in words has also been from old & bright favorite traditions of Iranian and is located in the center of semiospher & the texts which have had this feature like Yaghmayi translation, have had the most life & longevity in Iranian culture. This work is the only translation which has become strong in dispute with other systems and domestication in interaction with creative methods of imagery has resulted in its richness; since besides employing the elements of culture which are located in the center of semiospher, hasn’t paid any attention to the marginal elements of the culture which are being forgotten. His way of expression is a combination of modernity & tradition. Yaghmayi has used Nezami's poem that itself is very organized and its mixture with the original text has created a more valuable text. To compare the ways of addressing "The Crow and the Fox" story by the translators shows gradual development of domestication & poets interaction in moving from extra – system to system.4.Conclusion
The results of the study show that the poets have conformed the texts with literal traditions and Islamic – Iranian culture symbols in this process and this domestication has been performed in three systems including lingual, literal and mental in images, thoughts, expression methods and language processes. Decreasing, increasing, changing and moving that these poets have performed, express social and cultural features of its own age. Adding measure& rhyme has been performed for preserving the spirit of Persian classical poetry and its traditional form and didactic and critical aspect has been dominated the satire aspect of the original work. In versified translation of Habib Yaghmayi, the movement and Cinematic pictures and language simplicity and intimacy have shown the work newer and more modern. This work is the only translation that has become strong in dispute with other systems and domestication in interaction with creative methods of imagery has resulted in its richness Yaghmayi poetry has more validity & stability in the memory of the culture of Iranian society; since besides employing the elements of culture which are located in the center of semiospher, has paid no attention to marginal elements of culture which are being forgotten. His expression style is a combination of modernity & tradition. His imajic &dramatic expression has been observed from extra – system & has combined traditional values located in the center of culture system with that. Also analyzing domestication techniques & aesthetics elements in this research show that the poetries have become more complete in order of composition time & Habib Yaghmayi translation is the result of the perfection of poetry language towards more brevity. It seems that at the rest of this research direction, we can also address analyzing domestication in the story works obtained from translation.Keywords: Domestication, Translation, The Crow, the Fox, La Fontaine, Lotman, Contemporary Persian poetry
Point of View and Focalization in Works of Taha Hossein and Mohammad-Ali Eslami Nadooshan: "Al-ayyam" & "Days"Pages 101-1261.Introduction
One of the most important elements of narrative texts is point of view. Point of view demonstrates ideology and attitude of writer & artist to world, human and society.”Al-ayyam” And “Days” which are one of the most precious and interesting examples of contemporary autobiographical; in the beginning of one of the most essential historical ages - passing from traditional society to modern society – are written in two aspects and point of view. Autobiographies are frequently written in first person point of view. Mohammad-ali Eslami Nadooshan at his book “Days” uses usual point of view in autobiography i.e. first person point of view, but Taha Hossein in his book “Al-ayyam” narrates internal and external world and his mental and society disturbance in third person point of view.
This paper analyses the factors of selecting these two different perspectives as the spotlights of the two writers. Factors like literary-aesthetical, creating the artistic distance, deconstruction and revolutionary mentality and also concealing his blindness in “Al-ayyam”, realism and lively report of Iranian society and author's reform are the most important factors of choosing these two different points of view. In the third-person point of view, the author has more opportunity to characterize and describe the scenes and more easily can represent the characters' thoughts, feelings, and remembrances than other narrative points of view.
Taha Hussein selects the third-person point of view while concealing his blindness and responding to the reader's uncertainty that how it is possible that a blind person could so accurately narrate and describe events and scenes and report the feelings and concerns of the main character from outside and by keeping away from hero and events. In fact, this choice has made it possible for the author while he is creating the artistic distance and critical reading; to conceal his blindness and in practice, narrate easily the feelings, desires, and concerns of a desperate and isolated blind genius. In addition, he has been able to easily talk about his positive characteristics and creativities, possibly his weaknesses and shortcomings. Innovation and creativity can be another factor in this choice. The world of art and literature is a world of seeing and thinking differently. The artist breaks the templates and ordinary forms, and creates a new world. Taha Hussein as a literary thinker is not unaware of this effective role of literature and art. In fact, how to create a work like the whatness of work is a crucial matter for Taha Hussein. Although choosing the third-person point of view has reduced the autobiographic aspect of the work but, has increased the literary-aesthetical aspect of it, and it gives his work the artistic structure of romance that could reflect easily both the ideals of himself and society. Taha Hussein has given his work an artistic, literary and aesthetic distinction by using the novel- writing techniques, deletions and selections, characterization, and artistic descriptions, including the choice of third-person point of view rather than the conventional first-person point of view in writing autobiographies. In addition, he is implicitly asking for a new life, order, and changes of the laws and structures that have dominated traditional Egyptian society for years and centuries; by breaking the conventional and arbitrary form of writing the autobiography and utilizing the third-person narrator instead of the first-person. In fact, the author has a revolutionary message for the reader by changing the form, writing and art form.
But if we put imagination and reality on the two ends of a continuum, "days" are closer to reality than “Al-ayyam”. Eslami Nadooshan respects the aesthetic and literary of words, His works on literature and literary criticism, society and culture and travelogue are considered one of the most beautiful, interesting and successful contemporary prose. In "days", he’s not unaware of these important factors but his realism overcomes the idealism of Taha Hussein. By using the first-person point of view as a reporter who is directly and personally present in the context of the event and society, he has tried like realists as much as possible, to report the realities of the society without interfering the feelings and speak to the readers. This kind of narration contributes to the credibility, in addition to identification, and the reader feels confident that the first-person narrator describes events directly. His realism and objectivism cause that a pure autobiography -"days"- to turn into the Iranian social, political, and cultural history. In other words, this work contains the social, political, cultural history of the most critical and crucial period of Iranian society's life; The Transition of Iranian Society from the world of tradition to the world of modernity, the Transition from the semi-Feudal petty landowner to the World of Individualism. In other words, the main intention of the writer in “Al-ayyam” is first to express his intellectual and mental struggles and secondly to present the outside world, but Eslami Nadooshan unlike Taha Hussein and confessional style of autobiographies, he has been less concerned with his inner world and his sensual and emotional struggles, but as a realist reporter, proceeds to the political, social and cultural life of Iranian society. He seeks to know the essence of his true self in society and in the outside world and he has a readers-focused approach to reporting on his life and his community, and shares with the readers the developments of the society in which he is present and the events that he has observed directly and analyzes them. On this basis, it can be said that the “narrator’s ego” in "days", is not the personal and the individual ego, but the social and the typical. Choosing the usual point of view and using conventional writing style in "Days" also reflects Eslami Nadooshan’ reformist spirit. As we have said, by studying "Al-ayyam", we will find Taha Hussein a revolutionary and idealistic character who doesn’t agree with the current situation of traditional Egyptian society. Changing the point of view from first-person to third-person and creating the artistic distance are signs that he is asking for fundamental changes in the cultural, political and social structure of society. But in "Days" we find Eslami Nadooshan as a reformist thinker and a realistic intellectual. Eslami Nadooshan has a nostalgic attachment to the roots of Iranian culture and identity. This attachment causes that not only in "Days" but also in his other articles and books like “Iran and His Loneliness", "Safir Simorgh" and "Iran and Greece in Ancient Context" he calls for preserving genuine values and beliefs and using their neglected capacities to reform society.
In "Al-ayyam" and "Days", both authors reveal fatalism, pure determinism, superstition and deceit. Taha Hossein gets furious with the plagues, has taken a revolutionary stance, and sharply criticizes it in newspapers. But Eslami Nadooshan prefers gradual and cultural reform over revolutionary movements and extremism that have no result but destruction. He believes that in a society that cultural infrastructure does not provided for democracy, people cannot be expected to become aware of their rights overnight, and participate in their destiny. He implicitly believes that a society that fate, determinism, and submission have penetrated to it, will not reform except by slow and gradual developments. Because the intellectual, cultural and economic poverty doesn’t create instantly than can abolish by a revolutionary movement at once.Keywords: Autobiography, point of view, Focalization, Al-ayyam, Days
A Comparative Semiology of Gholām-Hossein Sā'edi’s "Azā'dārān-e Bayal" and Franz Kafka’s "The Metamorphosis"Pages 127-1531. Introduction
Comparative literature is the study of literary works of different nations in order to better understand these works. Such studies will enrich national literature because "scholars and researchers of comparative literature all agree that the primary purpose of comparative literature is to use foreign literature to enrich and enrich national literature." (Neda, 2004, 25). Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi (1936-1985) is one of the leading Iranian writers who has made remarkable works. Sa'edi narrates the fate of the inevitable contemporary man. This human lives in a backward society that is still far from reaching progress. The man who he describes is still embroiled in the superstitions and nonsense of such a backward society. The Mourners of Bayal, in fact is one of the most prominent and, as some critics say, the best forearm, depicts of such a society in its various dimensions. In a society which Sae’di describes, still prayer and cursing are the top tools for dealing with problems. Poverty has spread its ominous shadow over all aspects of this society, and robbery and looting is a clear sign of such a society that makes it more like primitive societies. Franz Kafka (1883–1924), also is one of the world's greatest writers, owns valuable works that have been the subject of comparative reviews. Kafka deals with contemporary man in his stories. A man who brought civilization and progress to his loneliness and despair, along with this loneliness, in the world of Kafka's fictional characters.2. Methodology
This study uses comparative method by using library research. This research tries to answer the following questons: Have Saedi and Kafka used similar symbols in the two works? What kind of symbols have Saedi and Kafka used in these two works? What are the similarities and differences between the symbols of these two stories?3. Discussion
Sa’edi uses symbols to instill a secondary concept in the story of The Mourners of Bayal. Kafka also has used symbols in the story of "Metamorphosis" to achieve this end. Studying these two stories reveals the similarities and differences in the way they are applied and the broad meanings that each writer intended. We have divided the symbols of these two stories into human, non-human (places and objects) and animal symbols. Human symbols in the story of "The Mourners of Bayal " include arbāb (the master), maşdī eslām (Islām), müsorxe (red hair man), maşdī Hassan. In the stories of The Mourners of Bayal, the master is a symbol of "the establishment of a master system in the village" (cf: Shiri, 2014: 64). Sae’di does not create this fictional character, but the master is present in all stories, and the villagers perceive his heavy shadow in the context of the events. One of the minor characters in The Mourners of Bayal ing Stories is maşdī eslām, who becomes the main character in some stories, including the eighth story. maşdī eslām is, in fact, intellectually different from the people of the village. He therefore, represents the class strata of society that have little difference in attitudes and beliefs with the lower classes of society. Just like the story of Kafka, this story begins with a shocking incident. maşdī Hassan has gone to work in the village of Sayyed Abad. His cow is dead last night and the villagers do not want to give this bad news to maşdī Hassan. So they throw the carcass into the well and decide to tell maşdī Hassan that the cow has fled and sent one of the locals to find it. The metamophisis of maşdī Hassan in this story is a symbol of the fading, transformation and alienation of human beings in backward societies. It should also be noted that maşdī Hassan 's metamophisis is a spiritual rather than a physical transformation (in contrast to the metamophisis in Kafka's story). Müsorxe (red hair man) is another human symbol of this story. In the seventh story, the red hair man is the main character of the story. He suffers from severe hunger and insatiability. Everything even swallows junk. His metamophisis of as a rat is a physical metamophisis. A transformation that is lurking in every village. In fact, "the overeating insanity is a sign of hunger and excessive hunger for people who simply do not get it" (Taslimi, 2009: 121). Human symbols have also been used in the Kafka’s Metamorphosis. Father, mother and sister-in-law are human symbols of this story. Father of Gregor is a minor character in the story. He is a violent, bully, tyrant, and plays a leading role in one of the story's events - throwing apples at Gregor. Gregor's mother is a mild-tempered human being in this story, always trying to mediate and calm things down. Grigor's mother's personality is undoubtedly inspired by the true character of Kafka’s mother. "Kafka’s mother was a gentle and gentle woman and played a role of reconciliator at home" (Meghdadi, 2017: 15). Gregor's sister (Grete) first treats Gregor with embarrassment. She picks up food for him, and later, when Gregor turns to eating leftovers, she takes the leftovers him. She plays the violin, and Gregor provides the necessary equipment for her music classes when he is not ousted. The night that Grete plays the violin, Gregor is affected by the sound of her violin, and as he exits his room he goes to his sister, angering her. The incident causes a change in her sister's characteristics. Afterwards, Grete becomes Gregor's main enemy, trying to persuade her parents to get rid of Gregor - or this ugly creature. Human symbols of The Mourners of Bayal Stories include Bayal village, Poros, Khatunabad, the city, as well as things like generator and maşdī eslām and the bell. Bayal is a village with naive and superstitious people. Sa’edi describes the village with a dark, sad atmosphere where death always flows. The village of Bayal represents a community in which Saad lived. The inhabitants of Poros live near Bayal. They are known for theft and looting. The terror they create in their theft, looting and assaults is always evident in the village of Bayal. In fact, if Bayal is an icon of Iran, "Poros can also be a representation of ... England ... and America ..." given the background of Iran's historical and political developments from the Qajar period until the book was written. (cf: 2014: 66). Khatun Abad is a village near Bayal. The inhabitants of this village, although not as vicious as inhabitants of Poros, are sometimes vicious, but sometimes commit minor evils against the villagers. Bayal is a symbol of Iran, but Khatun Abad is undoubtedly a symbol of the Russian government. In The Mourners of Bayal, the city is described as an ideal place. Rural people often seek refuge in the city in order to free themselves from village problems. Generator is one of the non-humane symbols (objects) in Bayal's mourners. In the sixth story, several villagers return to the city in a strange way, a generator falling from the truck of American soldiers in the middle of the road. This object is not familiar to the villagers and because they hear a sound like crying inside it or imagine that it is the sound of crying, they take it to the village and make it a shrine. In fact, this object in the story symbolizes the ignorance and ignorance of the villagers. Other non-human symbols (objects) in the story are maşdī eslām’s instrument, which he sometimes makes people happy. His instrument must be interpreted as a symbol of something in which he has to bind himself to the ordinary people. Sa'adi uses the bell symbol in " The Mourners of Bayal". The sound of the bell rings everywhere. Especially when the presence of death is more felt. As noted above, non-human symbols (places and objects) are also used in the story of " The Metamorphosis". Non-human symbols in Kafka's "Metamorphosis" story include Gregor's room, a beautiful wall-mounted picture board, room furniture, apples, and a violin instrument. Gregor is forced to take refuge in his own room after his demise. The room actually becomes Gregor's world, and in a sense, symbolizes his isolation. It is a place where Gregor has to be imprisoned for being excluded from society. The photo frame is, in fact, a symbol of Gregor's affinity for sexuality, and the only attachment and interest he is unwilling to lose. In one scene of the story, Gregor comes out of his room and the father sees it as an evil sign from him and attacks Gregor with apples from the fruit bowl. In "The Metamorphosis", Kafka also symbolizes Gregor's sister's violin as a secondary concept. The music here is a symbol of everything that links Gregor to his time as a human being and stimulates his human emotions. In both stories, animal symbols are used. In the story of Bayal's mourners, Sae’di only uses the symbol of Abbas's dog to induce what he intends to do. In fact, the dog in this story symbolizes the sacrifice made by those around him, and his fate is nothing but death and destruction. The animal symbols of Kafka's "The Metamorphosis" story are only limited to the creature that Gregor has become. In fact, the most powerful symbol of this story is the symbol of being depicted as an insect, and most of the meaning of the story is borne by it. Gregor's metamorphsis in this story is physical, not spiritual.4. Concluson
This research concluded that these writers both used human, non- human (places and things) and animal symbols in these stories. Kafka and also Sā'edi wanted to transmit the deep concepts of the description of their era by these symbols. The character of Franz Kafka’s “The Metamorphosis” and Maşdi Hassan in Sā'edi’s story are the most prominent symbols of these stories. We have explored the symbols of these two stories comparatively. Sa’edi and Kafka both are writers who have considered symbols in their works. Both depict the status of human in their societies, but there is a difference. The human who Sa’edi depicts that is rural human who has problems such as ignorance, superstition and poverty; but Kafka depicts human who has nothing solitude and lack of identity in the tumult of progress and modernization. Sa’edi in the stories of “The Mourners of Bayal” has used human, non-human and animal symbols. The human symbols of these stories are: arbāb (the master), maşdī eslām (Islām), müsorxe (red hair man), maşdī Hassan. Kafka also, has made Gregor Samsa’s father, mother and sister as the human symbols. The non-human symbols of Sa’edi’s stories are Porus and Khatun Abad villages, power alternator, maşdī eslām’s musical instrument and bells. Also, in Kafka’s story, we can find non-human symbols such as panel, clock, home furniture, apples and violin. In 5th story of “The Mourners of Bayal” there is an animal symbol which is a dog belongs to Abbas. In the Kafka’s “The Metamorphosis”, also, "monstrous vermin" is the only animal symbol.Keywords: Comparative Semiology, Symbolic Language, Gholām-Hossein Sā'edi, “Azā'dārān-e Bayal” (The Mourners of Bayal), Franz Kafka, “The Metamorphosis”
Arabic literature in the Mamluk-Ottoman era saw new varieties of poetry whose letters (as the smallest linguistic unit) played an important role in their production. Some of these new forms and forms include: chronogram, verse riddles and puzzles, geometric poetry, poetry whit dotted or un dotted letters, Circumlocution (mahbuk-altarafen), tatriz poetic prose, tashjir (tree form poetry) takhmis , tashtir, autimetabde and.... On the other hand, despite the Holy Quran, the interaction between the two Arabic and Persian litterateurs and the influence of Arabic literature on the rhetorical techniques of the Persian language are undeniable fact. Therefore, the present study have focused on five important: chronogram, tatriz, geometric poetry, poetry whit dotted or un dotted letters, and Knitted agreed poems to study the mentioned species in Arabic literature and also it is looking for the mentioned species in Persian literature to find their differences and similarities in the two literatures, if they are common.
This study was carried out using library method and based on descriptive and comparative method. Therefore, the research subjects were studied separately in both literatures and after finding similar samples in Persian language, with The Arabic samples was adapted to inference their differences and similarities. And after finding similar examples in Farsi, they were matched with Arabic ones to deduce their differences and similarities.
One of the types of poetry whose letters play a key role in the production is chronogram. In this way, letters are used as numbers, each letter has special number and the poet tells the story of the occurrence by letters through the poetic verse. It uses a proper word or phrase that sums the numbers of the letters making up the date. Although a chronogram was common in Arabic literature Before the Mamluk period . but in this period it was seriously considered. This type of poetry is also popular in Persian literature, influenced by Arabic literature and has a similar function , and the date of this technique in Persian back to the fifth century but it reaches peak from the middle of the first half of the eighth century.
Geometric poetry is another type in which letters have the ability to play in a certain geometric form, such as a circle, triangle, square, rectangle, and rhombus. By considering in poems that are written in geometric shapes like circles and squares in Persian verses, it can determine that the basis of such poems is on the word, not on the letter.
Poetry whit dotted or un dotted letters is made with the help of punctuated and non-punctuated letter. Thus, if all of its words are punctuated, the poem is dotted poetry(Mojam) and if its words are non-punctuated, the poem is un dotted poetry(Mohmal), and if the letter is punctuated and other one is non-punctuated, a poem raqta is formed. As well as in Arabic, the Artistic practices had also been common in persian Poetry industry is the epitome of poetry.
The word "tatriz" means to decorate and to paint dress by colored thread in the poetic term is a kind of poem that poet arranged the early letters of the verses to form a definite name. The technique that the Persian poet uses to create a poem such as the poetic Arabic poetry is called the technique of soliloquy. In such a way that the author or poet in his writing or reading poem, inserts such a letters or words an independent word or term (whether prose or poem) is created by separating them from writing or poem.
Circumlocution (mahbuk-altarafen) is a term in which all verses or a piece of poem start and finish with same letter, or each verse starts with one of the mojam letters. But studies of Persian rhetorical books indicate that this kind of poetry is not applicable in this literature. Perhaps the most important reason is its limitation in domain of vocabulary, as seen –according in the Arabic example- this type of poetry requires a huge number of vocabularies to be selected desired words by the poet as he wants. As Mohammed bin Omar al-Raduviani by studying on lipogram have pointed out this problem and he said " it is accepted in 'Arabic' more than in Persian, because in Persian letters are scant , and also words and terms ." (Al Radaviani, 1362: 108).
Letters as the smallest linguistic unit, are effective in producing poetic species, including the use of chronogram, geometrical poetry, tashtir and…. Some of them which have been effected by Arabic are also popular in Persian such as the geometrical poetry, and geometric poetry.However, there are differences in geometric poetry in the two literatures. That means, the basis of such a poem in arabic literature are letter and is very diverse but in Persian it is the word that forms the basis of such a poem. And it has just appearance on round and square form. Some of poetic species have found differently usage in this language as we saw in the acrostic. And Some of them are used only in Arabic due to derivative characteristics and the ability to construct multiple words from a single root, (such as Shakib, 2005: 162-149).Keywords: letters, Poetry, Persian literature, Arabic literature
Drama as a means of expression has always been used in Arabic and Persian poetry. The prevalence of drama in the poetry of Arab and Iranian poets traces back to them being influenced by Greek philosophy and literature. Translation of Greek works into Arabic and Persian paved the way for the literati to get familiar with the ideas of their Greek counterparts. Abū Nuwās and Nasser Khosrow are two Iranian-born poets who composed poems in Arabic and Persian respectively. Despite living in a different time, place, milieu, and having diverse beliefs, they are both among forerunners of composing dramatic poetry with lots of conflicts. They reflect the struggles of their times in their poems. The present article is a comparative study to examine and analyze the dramatic poetry of the two. As the research has revealed, both of the poets have applied different types of dramatization (horizontal, vertical, dynamic) in their poetry. Religious and tribal prejudice prevailing at that time of Abū Nuwās and Nasser Khosrow have resulted in horizontal drama in their poetry. However, while Abū Nuwās’s temperament and taste has brought about vertical drama, one cannot find any such drama in Nasser Khosrow’s poetry. On the contrary, dynamic drama is abundantly found in Nasser Khosrow’s poems and rarely in Abū Nuwās’s.Objective
What is the status quo of drama as a means of expression in poetry? And how many types of drama are there? What are the dramatic motifs in Abū Nuwās’s poetry? How drama is illustrated in Nasser Khosrow’s poetry? To what extent the poetry of the two poets can be literary compared and contrasted?Methodology
The present article is a comparative study to examine and analyze the dramatic poetry of Abū Nuwās and Nasser Khosrow to reveal the actuality of both vertical and horizontal drama in their works.Results
Translation of Greek works into Arabic and Persian paved the way for the literati to get familiar with the ideas of their Greek counterparts. Abū Nuwās and Nasser Khosrow are two Iranian-born poets who composed poems in Arabic and Persian respectively. Despite living in a different time, place, milieu, and having diverse beliefs, they are both among forerunners of composing dramatic poetry with lots of conflicts. They reflect the struggles of their times in their poemsConclusion
The personal condition and social milieu differences between the two dramatists has brought one of them to national opposition and the other to religious, while the language and choice of words of the two throughout their struggle and clash is befouled with humiliation and burlesque. In the works of Abū Nuwās and Nasser Khosrow, horizontal drama is more salient, for both of them are challenging and protagonist characters in the field of culture. Their challenge is more frequented in the cultural and religious fields – i.e. vertical drama – and less in the other fields such as social.Keywords: Abū Nuwās, analysis, Drama, Conflict, Nasser Khosrow
A Comparative Study of the Theme of "the Justification of God’s Providence" in the Outlooks of Sa’di and Alexander PopePages 199-2261.Introduction
There are three distinct concepts discussed in world poetry which are the trinity of creation: God, Man, and the Universe. The mystics, including great poets, as well as classical philosophers and theosophists, have integrated the three concepts into One who is the final unique essence and the source of all Truth, the First Cause and the Last Return. The descriptions presented by Sa’di and Pope to introduce God, clearly reveal their implicated belief in the theory of ‘the unity of being’, presented first by Parmenides, the Pre-socratic philosopher. This theory is a common heritage of human theosophy and there is no difference here between the east and the west, the Antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Age of Reason. Sa’di and Pope, well-nourished in the tradition of divine truth and divine unity, regard man and all the universe as created by the unique and Necessary Being who is God, and view the universe as the emanation of that Supreme Being and see all the creatures as singing devotional hymns in a ‘cosmic prayer’. This philosophical consciousness of God has extended to cover the theme of ‘divine providence and wisdom’ which has been discussed all through history amongst philosophers, theologists, and poets. One can refer to Plato and Aristotle, Aquinas and Augustine, Dante and Milton as exemplars discussing the question in detail. The present paper treats the controversial theme in the works of Sa’di and Alexander Pope, and endeavors to demonstrate the essential affinities and similarities in the ideas of the two poets and to expose their differences.
This study is a descriptive and library-based research. It is carried out in the light of the American school of comparative literature and the dominant approach is taken from the field of comparative literature itself, namely thematic. S. S. Prawer (1925-2012), the eminent author of Comparative Literary Studies: An Introduction (1973) has identified five different overlapping areas for the exploration of themes: a) the representation of natural phenomena man’s reaction to them; or of eternal facts of human existence; or of perennial human problems and patterns of behavior b) recurring motifs, c) recurrent situations, d) the literary representation of types, e) the literary representation of named personages (99-100). The present research falls under the second category and attempts to analyze the poems of the two bards to reveal the similarities as well as the differences between the two thinkers in their justification of God’s providence.
In the realm of literature, many spiritual poets of the world have been preoccupied with the concept of God and His penetration into the universe. Such poets have not questioned the existence of God and have not accordingly offered any demonstration to prove His existence; they have rather offered hymns in his praise. Sa’di’s Bustan opens with an extensive list of God’s transcendent and immanent attributes followed by lofty laudations of Him. Similarly, Pope’s transcendental poem, “The Universal Prayer”, is perhaps the best example of his devotional expressions on God. It is a sublime encomium of the Almighty as the sole source, first and final cause of creation who is beyond all comprehension.
Besides such majestic praises, the main item of the theological agenda of Sa’di and Pope is, in the words of John Milton, ‘to justify the ways of God to man’ and to demonstrate how everything is right with the world. The clearest account of God’s providence and predestination of all that occurs to man has been given in the Quran in Chapter Hadid 57, verses22-23. The first verse confirms the basic idea that God has written down all that is going to happen and the second verse is a consolation for people that they should not grieve on whatever they have failed to achieve, nor should they take vain pride in the bounties bestowed on them. Sa’di, believing in the first idea, uses the second as the basic moral wisdom of why people should submit themselves to the will of God. In Persian culture, the word hekmat is used to refer to some hidden reason which exists behind all events but it is not to be seen by everyone. This is a belief that all occurrences which does not win our favor is somehow a blessing in disguise and has a justification. Sa’di has tried to convince his readers of the divine wisdom in all aspects of life, although they cannot comprehend it. He holds that: ‘It is an instance of wisdom if the Creator / Causes a servant to make the general welfare his special duty’. Many adversities, hardships, and deprivations that befall man are truly privileges unknown to him. Sa’di has tried to justify God’s providence as opposed to man’s desires and show the incongruity between God’s omniscient design and man’s parochial self-love. This idea has been repeatedly confirmed by Sa’di in a number of insightful tales.
In one qasidah which concentrates directly on preaching, Sa’di criticizes those people who find unfair faults with the design of creation and ‘deem the painter unskilled’ and clarifies that the unskillfulness comes from their own crooked observation. Accordingly, all the plans of God are rationalized in the light of divine wisdom, all seeming evil is caused by some good reason, and the contrast between good and evil is the result of man’s ill judgement and failure to understand the insight in the providence of God.
In his well-known philosophical poem An Essay on Man, Pope argues that man must accept that in the scale of creation there is a special ‘rank’ and place assigned for him. He demonstrates that whatever man regards as imperfection and misplacement is truly in the right place when considered in relation to the position of other creatures. This great fact is sufficient to justify all man considers to be inharmonious, for as Pope clarifies: “Tis a part we see, and not a whole” (line 60). Pope deems that God has ‘hidden the book of fate’ from all creatures except for the allowed pages which belong to the present time. And as God has concealed the knowledge of man from beasts, similarly, he has covered the eyes of men from the knowledge bestowed to spirits and angels. Otherwise, none could bear the plight he has to suffer on earth. The word ‘suffer’ is the key to God’s rule of hiding future events. Pope explains that if the lamb that is being taken to the slaughterhouse would know of its preeminent fate, it would be so frightened that it would flee and it would not engage itself in playing and skipping (lines 80-82). But out of God’s grace, the lamb remains unaware of its destiny and can enjoy its life to the last moment. Accordingly, Pope advises man to be wiser and not to weigh his raw opinions against God’s comprehensive design for creation, and avoid calling God’s works imperfect. For Pope, the source of all wrong judgments of man is pride and vanity. This pride ascends even to heaven and interferes with celestial dwellers, and commands that man should ascend to the level of angels and angels should achieve the status of gods. Pope enlightens man that “The first Almighty Cause / Acts not by partial, but by gen’ral laws” (line 146). Thus, if man submits himself to such a wise and omniscient providence, he will have no objection to whatever bestowed on him or whatever reserved from him and will see the truth that “Whatever is, is right” (line 294).
The affinities of thoughts and ideas between Sa’di and Alexander Pope originate from the similar religious faith and theological outlooks they have inherited. They have submitted themselves to the main principles and frameworks of their respective Islamic and Christian creeds which recommend the essential belief in Spirituality and the general theological ideals shared by all religions throughout history. That is why the five centuries that divide the two poets and their various social lives have not affected their basic intellectual views. The differences and incongruities, however, are generally derived from their vehicles of expression rather than the tenets and thoughts. Additionally, Sa’di is more like a preacher and story-teller, while Pope is a more like an academic teacher dedicated to logical arguments for convincing his audience. Whereas Sa’di’s ideas are scattered throughout his works, Pope has presented his outlooks in a consistent and systematic way.Keywords: Sa’di, Alexander Pope, Comparative literature, God’s Providence, Man, Thematology
Pages 227-2511. Introduction
Modern poetry of Iran has been influenced by the avant-garde movements of the early twentieth century such as Symbolism and Surrealism. However, Louis Zukofsky’s impact on modern Persian poetry has not yet been scrutinized. This research conducts a comparative analysis between Yadollah Royaee’s “espacementale” poetry and Zukofsky’s “Objectivist” poetry. “Espacementalisme” was a poetic movement pioneered by Royaee in the 1960s, evolving within the revolutionary “New Poetry” of Iran. Espacementalisme both acknowledged and challenged the New Poetry as its aficionados such as Parviz Eslampour, Behran Ardebili, Mahmoud Shojaee, Houshang Chalangi, Bijan Elahi, and Fereidoun Rahnama, published, for the first time in Iran and a là European avant-garde movements, a manifesto. They wanted to experience a pristine poetic ambience, different from their predecessors’ like Forough Farrokhzad, Mehdi Akhavan Sales, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Youshij, and Sohrab Sepehri. Espacementalisme, as the “most abstract movement in contemporary Persian poetry” (Fatemi, 1389: 30), is not representational; it immaterializes reality via language. Royaee himself asserts: “My job is to discover the new potentiality of/in words” (1379: 50). By hinging his poetry on language of perception and perception of language, he forays at one the most experimental poetic forms in Iran. The point is Royaee’s venture into language experimentation bears a striking resemblance to the Objectivist poetry of America in the 1930s, mastered by Zukofsky. It was Zukofsky who cast doubt on the “imagistic” tradition in poetry practiced by William Carlos William. In this regard, Royaee’s infatuation with the artistic movements of the early twentieth century Europe, particularly Surrealism, has already been the target of scrutiny. However, his bond with objectivism is an arena yet to be explored. Accordingly, the present research conducts a comparative analysis of Royaee’s and Zukofsky’s poetry as both can be nominated as radically language-oriented poetic fads in the 1960s of Iran and 1930s of America.2. Methodology
This research is carried out by using an analytical-descriptive method and library resources. The selected poems by Royaee and Zukofsky are compared on the basis of Objectivist tenets including “particularism”, “matter of language”, and “direction of perception”. These concepts pave the way for reaching a new definition of politics in the poets’ oeuvre.3. Discussion
Particularism, in the Objectivist agenda of Zukofsky, pertains to the poet’s “eye for the particles” (Dembo, 1972: 82) as he disavows cultural generalizations. For Zukofsky, such a view should also be implemented in the field of language; language should be dissected into its component parts as a loophole from the bondage of meaning, grand narratives, and macro signified(s). The poet should thus take refuge in the “matter of language”, in sounds, syllables, and letters. Such an approach is remarkably put in motion in his poetry collection, A, which is composed of twenty-four pieces. The title itself bears witness to his panache for microscopying the basic units of language. In a similar vein, Royaee’s poetry hovers around the particles of language rather than sense-making sentences. However, the difference lies in the fact that he seeks the matter of language in the repetition of familiarized, used-up words. In each act of repetition, he changes the grammatical function of the words and directs the reader’s attention to the sheer physical presence of the words on the page. The next Objectivist tentacle in Royaee and Zukofsky is direction of perception, or role of politics in poetry. In Zukofsky’s objectivism, each and every language particle has the potential to direct the mind to a marginalized, uncovered socio-political horizon. This means that he inaugurates a direction for the particles to arrive at a particular political perception, or better to say, awareness. Among the most enduring directions of perception in Zukofsky’s poetry, parochial historiography stands out; through disembodied voices, blurry images, and broken words, he depicts the working class condition in America as a historical moment that has always been pushed to the sidelines. The matter of language, thence, insinuates the materiality of American culture. If modernists like T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound covet for the grand narratives of mythology and history, Zukofsky narrates the micro-histories and personal anecdotes of his hometown in Kentucky. His poems, thus, verge on a hazy autobiography as they radically personalize American-ness in a sharp contrast to the impersonal, modernist gesture of Eliot in The Wasteland and Pound in Cantos. Regarding Royaee’s direction of perception, critics have speculated that his poetry gravitates toward “the white margin” of mysticism, or his poems are inherently “uncommitted” (Shiri, 1388: 87). Apparently, Royaee’s poetry is devoid of the political aura of his predecessors, particularly, Youshij. However, he mobilizes the idea of politics through the event or matter of language. In his view, politics is not pinioned to cliché concepts such as freedom, equality, democracy, and justice; being-in-language and experiencing language as “a means without end”, in Giorgio Agamben’s words, can be a new political praxis. In this respect, Royaee comingles politics with ontology and language, while Zukofsky remains loyal to the dominant political terminology of the west. Unlike Zukofsky’s parochialism, Royaee’s poems remain subjectless, without signaling any token of spatio-temporality. This unravels Royaee’s idiosyncratic politics of poetry and poetry of politics founded on the bedrock of anti-dialecticism and anti-utilitarianism.4. Conclusion
This research was a comparative analysis of Royaee’s espacementalisme and Zukofsky’s Objectivism from the angle of particularism and direction of perception. The matter of language is a hallmark in their poetry as they both attempt to reveal the constructiveness of reality via materiality of words by autopsying the units and particles of language like syllables and letters. The major difference between Royaee and Zukofsky surfaces in their views toward politics and perceptional direction; Zukofsky is at pains to revive the personal and the intimate in his poems by protesting against the dominant and impersonal political discourse of America, whereas Royaee does away with common political debates and dogmas. His politics lies in without-end-ness, potentiality, and resistance against references and presuppositions imposed by power and culture.Keywords: Royaee, Particularism, Matter of Language, Direction, Zukofsky
A Comparative Study of Mystical Nostalgia Themes in the Poetry of Mohammed Ali Shams Al-Din and Attar of NishapurPages 253-2751.Introduction
Investigating the links between Arabic and Persian languages and literature is one of the topics of comparative literature. The influence of Persian mystical literature on Arabic literature is very significant. Mohammed Ali Shams Al-Din is one of the contemporary Arab poets who has been influenced by the mystical thoughts of Attar of Nishapur. Therefore, the present study makes attempts to compare the poetry of these two poets with a reliance on the themes of mystical nostalgia; moreover, Attar's influence on this contemporary Arab poet and the extent of his innovation in borrowing are explained. The authors also try to prove that Shams al-Din is acquainted with Iranian-Islamic mysticism and its influence on Attar and its mystical themes, and because of its alienation from its true homeland and eternal lover, such as Attar uses symbolic language to express this kind of nostalgia. Of course, because of his familiarity with the flow of nostalgia in the Western manifesto, he also whispers to friends and mistresses of the earth and away from home. Therefore, the study attempts to examine the similar and different aspects of these two poets in expressing such nostalgia.
However, the social conditions of Attar and Shams al-Din are both troubled, and this has a profound effect on the expression of nostalgia in the poems of both poets.
This study attempts to compare mystical nostalgia in Attar's poetry (as the distinguished representative of mystical nostalgia in Persian literature) via a descriptive-analytical method and according to comparative literature.
Although nostalgia is a new terminology and often has a material and mundane sense, in mystical texts one can find some kind of nostalgia and sorrow that has a different meaning, that is, away from the true home of man, and in fact away from the origin of creation and the world beyond. That man will eventually return to that land. The mystical nostalgia or sadness away from the original homeland and heavenly lover is found in Attar's poetry. In fact, Persian poetry in those years was a legacy of despair due to the political and social turmoil of that time. In addition to his personal and psychological backgrounds, Attar's troubled times have also made him a nostalgic poet in Persian literature. This period had plagued the people of Khorasan since the beginning of the second half of the sixth century AH, which may have coincided with Attar's adolescence or youth. At that time Iran was going through one of its worst and saddest political, social and economic conditions. In the middle of the sixth century, the situation in Iraq and Khorasan became very disturbed. During the reign of Sultan Sanjar Seljuk Khorasan was at ease for some time, but with his capture by the Turks of Gaza in the year 550 AH he was in great disarray. The Ghaz Turks attacked Nishabur this year and slain Muhammad ibn Yahya, a Shafi'I Jurisprudent, along with thirty thousand people of Nishabur. Perhaps the most important issue that concerned Attar was the brutal attack of Ghazan and their brutal murder and looting that followed a strange famine in Khorasan, including Nishabur. Like Attar, Muhammad Ali Shams al-Din witnessed a period of crisis and turmoil in his land. The contemporary Lebanese poet is dissatisfied with the current situation in Lebanon because of the Zionist regime's struggle with the Lebanese resistance forces and occupying a part of his country, and in his poems speaks of his longing for his homeland, his mother, friends, and past memories. In a symbolic statement, he speaks of the difficult conditions of his country as a prey to sedition. Shams al-Din is a contemporary poet who, in addition to paying attention to mundane matters, has not forgotten his true origin and true beloved, composing poetry for his farness from his country. Thus, due to similar nostalgic contexts, such as the turbulent political, economic, and social conditions, Mohammed Ali Shams al-Din and Attar of Nishabur have portrayed mystical nostalgia with many similarities in their poems.
Shams al-Din is influenced by Islamic-Iranian mysticism, especially Attar's thoughts; therefore, mystical tendencies in his thoughts and poetry have become apparent, as he always speaks of mystical foreignness in his poetry, imagining his soul a flying bird.
Shams al-Din was familiar with Western poetic currents, and therefore, in keeping with the traditional nostalgia in the Western manifesto, he fell in love with his homeland and regarded it as a utopia that was left out of him and grieved over its departure and foreignness. It is worth noting that the concept of homeland in Attar's belief is quite mystical. He considers the earthly world a prison in which his soul is trapped and eager to fly to his original home. Unlike Shams al-Din, he did not love his hometown, and because he was not distant from Nishabur (his birthplace), sadness and sorrow are not seen in his poetry. Like Attar, Rumi and Suhrawardi, Shams al-Din speaks of his pure love to the true beloved. He uses the natural elements to express this thought and, like Attar, admires this fiery love. He also speaks of the pleasing pain of love. In addition, Shams al-Din's love sometimes becomes mundane, so that in love with his mother and friends, many poems are composed. Furthermore, both poets have also used the allegory of Layla and Majnun story of virtual love; and the two poets have given the allegory a mystical color, speaking of the union of the lover and the beloved as an allegory of true love. The concepts of mortality, survival, and alliance with the beloved are widely used in Islamic mysticism, including in Attar's works. Shams al-Din's poetry also show signs of this mystical thought. Like a mystic he seeks to survive near the Truth (God)Keywords: Comparative literature, nostalgia, Muhammad Ali Shamsuddin, Attar of Nishapur
A Comparative look to the Recall method of Personality of Halaj in the poem Shafi'ee kadkani and Salah Abdul SabourPages 277-3031- Introduction
The tendency to call them myths and invoke them in modern art has many reasons: the return to spirituality, the liberation of material time and the attempt to overthrow it, the creation of pluralism by modernity, the ambiguity and multiplicity of work are among the reasons for this tendency. Contemporary artist expresses his thoughts and emotions in the veil of myths in order to relieve the suffering he suffers, “because myths are inherently better off than the sacred and the eternal, because of their two distinctive and intrinsic elements of aesthetics and emphasis on the sacred. Fill these gaps for contemporary man. (Qasimzadeh, Ghobadi, 1391: 40) And since "mythical mind is the mind of the creator" (Biden, 1386: 167) Mythical poets, with creative expression, create a new world and dynamism for literature, they provide with Symbolic, ambiguous, fluid and polyphonic expressions that are specific to the myth attempt to establish the "ideal order of the myth" (Kupp, 1384: 41) in the turbulent world of their age. Contemporary poets have come to the realization that the decline of sacred affairs is one of the most destructive of modern times, and have invoked national and human myths, calling for the disguise of dissident figures such as, inadvertently, and in fact, embodied in reality. It is the age of modernity. "The concepts that the poet seeks to instill and understand through the use of myth are human cultural and intellectual meanings or political concepts that the poet does not want or cannot express directly and explicitly.2- Methodology
In this article, we have tried to first define and analyze the method of invoking the masquerade style in contemporary poetry, and then, in a comparative way, to investigate the application of the masquerade style in the poetry of two contemporary Iranian and Egyptian poets, namely Shafi'i Kadkani and Salah Abdul Nassib The key point is to find out what the artistic and cultural implications of the call for traditional masks in contemporary poetry are and how there is a difference in the style of reading these masks between contemporary Persian and Arabic literature.3-Discussion
The link between Arabic and Persian culture and language is so strong and long-lasting that it is impossible to separate the two. "The necessity of examining the links between these two languages in literary, historical discourses on the one hand, and crossing cultural boundaries on the other, has doubled the need to address the common issues between the two languages. (Dadkhah, 125: 1386) Invoking the mythical, historical, literary, Sufi, folk, masquerading characters is one of the common boundaries of contemporary Arabic and Persian poetry. Invoking traditional personalities in the guise of sophisticated techniques in Arabic and Persian literature is therefore one of the necessities of comparative research. The issue raised in the present study is a comparative study of the appeal of the personality of Halaj in the poetry of two contemporary Arab and Iranian poets, Salah Abdul Sabour and Shafi'i Kadkani. After discussing the general issues of research, the main purpose of the study, namely, to explain and apply the method of summoning personality in modern poetry of these two contemporary poets. Recognizing the multidimensional characteristics of the solution personality, as well as the social, political and cultural needs of their community, these two poets have invoked this personality in a masquerading way to satisfy their own mental needs and, on the other, to Respond to the cultural needs of their community.4-Conclusion
In contrast to the invocation of masquerade in Persian poetry and Arabic poetic dramas, what makes the difference is the first; that poetic plays have a more personalized character than contemporary Persian poetry and can incorporate several masks into Persian poetry. Because of the short structure of the poems, the opportunity for personalization is less important. Second, in disguising theatrical plays, language is a tool for another end and is changing with the characters of the play, but in contemporary Persian poetry, language literature is more valid. Thirdly, it is intended in the playful spirits of the playwright's spirits and avoids poetic artifacts, but in the non-visual poetry in which the mask is used, ambiguity and cryptography is a literary value. The ambiguity, "is the essence of pure and enduring literature, and for the literary context, value and virtue." (Fotouhi, 2008: 30: 30)Keywords: Recall method, Mask, Halaj, Shafi'i Kadkani, Abdul Sabour